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  • 1.Frank R. SpellmanHandbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment PlantOperations LEWIS PUBLISHERSA CRC Press CompanyBoca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. 2003 by CRC Press LLC

2. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataSpellman, Frank R. Handbook of water & wastewater treatment plant operations / by Frank R. Spellman. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-56670-627-0 (alk. paper)1. Watertreatment plantsHandbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Sewage disposal plantsHandbooks, manuals, etc. 3. WaterPuricationHandbooks, manuals, etc. 4. SewagePuricationHandbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title: Handbook of water and wastewater treatment plant operations. II. Title.TD434.S64 2003628.162dc212003040119This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources areindicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and thepublisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,microlming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specicpermission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying.Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431.Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identication and explanation,without intent to infringe.Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com 2003 by CRC Press LLC Lewis Publishers is an imprint of CRC Press LLCNo claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 1-56670-627-0Library of Congress Card Number 2003040119Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper 2003 by CRC Press LLC 3. Preface Water does not divide; it connects. With simplicity it links privatization and the benchmarking process in this text. all aspects of our existence.On the other hand, how many of us thought security wasa big deal prior to September 11? Some of us did, whileDavid Rothenberg and Marta Ulvaenus some of us did not give it any thought at all. Today, thingsare different; we must adjust or fall behind. In the presentIn Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant climate, falling behind on the security of our potable waterOperations, the intent of the author is twofold. The rst supplies is not an option. We must aggressively protectintent is to consolidate the information and experience inour precious water sources and those ancillaries that arewaterworks and wastewater treatment plant operationscritical to maintaining and protecting water quality. Wethat have evolved as a result of technological advances incover plant security concerns in this text.the eld, and as a result of the concepts and policies There are other current issues. For example, arsenicpromulgated by the environmental laws and the subse-in drinking water received a lot of coverage in the pressquent guidelines. The second intent is to discuss step-by-recently. We all know that arsenic is a deadly poison,step procedures for the correct and efcient operation of depending on dose, of course. Headlines stating thatwater and wastewater treatment systems. Tertiary to thisarsenic has been found in certain municipal drinking watertwofold intent is the proper preparation of operators tosupplies are a red ag issue to many people. But is it reallyqualify for state licensure and certication examinations.an issue? We cover arsenic in drinking water in this text. With the impetus given to water quality improvement Another red ag issue that has received some pressthrough the Municipal Construction Grants Program, theand the attention of regulators is the presence of patho-United States has undertaken an unprecedented buildinggenic protozoans, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium,program for new and improved water and wastewater treat-in drinking water supplies. We cover both of these proto-ment systems. To date, much emphasis has been placed onzoans in this text.training engineers to plan, design, and construct treatmentfacilities. At present, many programs in various engineer- In wastewater treatment (as well as water treatment),ing disciplines at many universities offer courses in water a lot of attention has been focused on disinfection by-and wastewater treatment plant design and operation.products in water efuents outfalled into receiving water This text is not about the planning, designing, or con-bodies. We cover disinfection by-products in this text.struction of water and wastewater treatment facilities.Water and wastewater treatment is about mitigatingWhile these tasks are paramount to conception and con-the problems mentioned above. However, treatment oper-struction of needed facilities and needed infrastructure, ations are about much more. To handle todays problems,many excellent texts are available that cover these impor-water and wastewater treatment system operators must betant areas. This text is not about engineering at all. Instead, generalists. Herein lies the problem. Many of the textsit is about operations and is designed for the operator. We presently available for water and wastewater operator useoften forget the old axiom: someone must build it, butare limited in scope and narrowly focused in content. Mostonce built, someone must operate it. It is the operation of of these texts take a bare bones approach to presentation.it that concerns us here. That is, the basics of each unit process are usually ade- Several excellent texts have been written on water and quately covered, but this is the extent of the coverage.wastewater treatment plant operations. Thus, the logical At present, available texts either ignore, avoid, or payquestion is, why a new text covering a well-trodden road? cursory attention to such important areas as the multiple- The compound answer is a text that is comprehensivebarrier concept, maintaining infrastructure, benchmarking,in scope, current, and deals with real world problems plant security, operator roles, water hydraulics, microbi-involved with plant operations is needed. The simpleology, water ecology, basic electrical principles, pumping,answer is that after September 11, things have changed. conveyance, ow measurement, basic water chemistry, Many of these changes were apparent before Septem- water quality issues, biomonitoring, sampling and testing,ber 11; at the same time, many of our present needs werewater sources, and watershed protection. All of thesenot so apparent. Consider, for example, the need for plants important topics are thoroughly discussed in Handbook ofto become more efcient in operation and more economicalWater and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations.in practice. This is not new, but it now takes on addedThough directed at water and wastewater operators,importance because of the threat of privatization. We cover this book will serve the needs of students; teachers; con- 2003 by CRC Press LLC 4. sulting engineers; and technical personnel in city, state, the pertinent information for any problems you missed. Ifand federal organizations who must review operations and you miss many items, review the whole chapter.operating procedures. In order to maximize the usefulnessThe indented notes displayed in various locationsof the material contained in the test, it has been presented throughout this text indicate or emphasize importantin plain English in a simplied and concise format. Many points to study carefully.tables have been developed, using a variety of sources.This text is accessible to those who have no experience with water and wastewater operations. If you work To assure correlation to modern practice and design, through the text systematically, you can acquire an under-illustrative problems are presented in terms of commonly standing of and skill in water and wastewater operations.used operational parameters. This will add a critical component to your professional Each chapter ends with a chapter review test to helpknowledge.evaluate mastery of the concepts presented. Before goingon to the next chapter, take the review test, compare yourFrank R. Spellmananswers to the key provided in Appendix A, and reviewNorfolk, VA 2003 by CRC Press LLC 5. ContentsPART I Water and Wastewater Operations: An OverviewChapter 1Problems Facing Water and Wastewater Treatment Operations1.1Introduction1.2The Paradigm Shift 1.2.1 A Change in the Way Things are Understood and Done1.3Multiple-Barrier Concept 1.3.1 Multiple-Barrier Approach: Wastewater Operations1.4Management Problems Facing Water and Wastewater Operations 1.4.1 Compliance with New, Changing, and Existing Regulations 1.4.2 Maintaining Infrastructure 1.4.3 Privatizing and/or Reengineering 1.4.4 Benchmarking 1.4.4.1 Benchmarking: The Process 1.4.5 The Bottom Line on Privatization1.5Upgrading Security 1.5.1 The Bottom Line on Security1.6Technical Management vs. Professional Management1.7Chapter Review Questions and ProblemsReferencesChapter 2Water and Wastewater Operators and Their Roles2.1Water and Wastewater Operators2.2Setting the Record Straight 2.2.1 The Computer-Literate Jack 2.2.2 Plant Operators as Emergency Responders 2.2.3 Operator Duties, Numbers, and Working Conditions2.3Operator Certication/Licensure2.4Chapter Review Questions and ProblemsReferencesChapter 3Water and Wastewater References, Models, and Terminology3.1Setting the Stage3.2Treatment Process Models3.3Key Terms Used in Waterworks and Wastewater Oper