Unit 3 – Pre Civil War

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Unit 3 Pre Civil War

Unit 3 Pre Civil WarA house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I don not expect the Union to be dissolved-I do not expect the house to fall-but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.Abraham Lincoln 1858

I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away; but with Blood.John Brown1

Causes of the Civil WarCompromise of 1850CA admitted as a free statePopular sovereignty for NM and UtahNo slave sales in DCFugitive Slave ActUncle Toms Cabin - 1852Harriet Beecher Stowes novel about the realities of slaveryKansas-Nebraska Act 1854Kansas and Nebraska territories would decide slavery issue themselves canceled out the Missouri CompromiseRepublican and No Nothing Parties 1854Republicans were anti-slavery former Whig membersNo Nothings were Nativists against immigrationBleeding Kansas 1856Raids and killing between anti-slavery and pro-slavery groups that immigrated into Kansas

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More Causes of the Civil WarViolence in the Senate 1856Rep. Brooks beat Senator Sumner with his cane after Sen. Sumner insulted his relative, Sen. ButlerElection 1856James Buchanan wins favors slavery in the South wants the Supreme Court to decide the slavery issue.Dred Scott Decision 1857The Supreme Court rules that slaves are property, not citizens, and living in a free state does not make a former slave freeLecompton Constitution 1857Pro-slavery groups write a state constitution for Kansas for statehood, but it fails to win supportLincoln-Douglass Debates 1858Abraham Lincoln runs against Stephen Douglas for Senator of Illinois, and they hold a series of 7 debates on the slavery issueJohn Browns Raid 1859John Brown raids an arsenal at Harpers Ferry VA to get weapons to give to slaves to start a revolt. He is captured by Robert E. Lee and sentenced to death

Dred Scott

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QuestionWhich was the greatest cause for the eventual Civil War?4

Election of 1860Candidates:Southern Democrats John C BreckinridgeNorthern Democrats Stephen DouglasConstitutional Union Party John BellRepublicans Abraham LincolnNeither side wanted to accept a person on the other side of the slavery issue

What advantages did Lincoln have?

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Election of 1860 - continuedResults Lincoln won the electoral vote with 180 votes, but only won 39% of the popular vote and carried no southern states

What is the significance of Lincolns win?

6Electoral Votes - 1850

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Southern SecessionLower 7 states secede by January 1861Lincolns not in office yet President Buchanan does not use force to stop itThey meet and form the Confederate States of AmericaFort Sumter is taken by Confederate forces Lincoln made sure the Union would not be the aggressorsPresident Lincoln calls for volunteers for the Union ArmyVA, NC,Tenn, and AR all join the CSA

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The Confederacy

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Why was is so important for Abraham Lincoln to not let the southern states secede?10

Battle of Bull RunIll prepared Union army marched to ManassasMany spectators followed the army to watch the battle and picnicConfederate army used railroads to reinforce its ranksConfederate army forced the Union army to retreat with the civilians - carnage

Significance of BattleShowed the war was not going to be quick or easy for the NorthUnion raised 1 million 3 year volunteersMany in the south felt the north would not want to fight a bloody warFew casualties compared to future battles11

AdvantagesUnionTwice as many railroad tracks Twice as many factoriesMore moneyMore populationOrganized armyStrong navyFunctioning governmentConfederatesMajority of trained officers were from the southDefending their homelandFighting for their way of life12

StrategiesUnionSlow VictoryNaval blockade of southern portsControl the Miss. RiverUse its huge resource advantageQuick VictoryTake the Confederate capital of RichmondConfederateWar of attritionBe on the defensiveForce England and France to help by withholding cotton from them13

What was flawed with the Southern strategy of war of attrition?14

Changing WarfareTacticsAssaulting a position with massive amounts of menNeeded more men than could be killed during the chargeWeapons were not accurate and slow to reloadWays wars were fought for generationsTechnologyRifleBullet shaped ammoSpiral shaped groves in rifle barrels (rifling)Powder packs allowed for quicker reloadingArtilleryExploding shellsCanisters shells filled with shot (bullets) that exploded and shot bullets everywhere

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Naval TechnologyGunboats flat bottomed steam ships that could travel up river and were well armed and fortifiedIronclads:Merrimack the CSA created a ship with iron plates bolted to its sidesSank Union ships trying to blockade the CSAMonitor the Unions answer to the Merrimack, but it had a flat top with a cylinder sticking out where cannons were placedOnly fought once, eventually the Merrimack retreatedWood sided ships were not a thing of the past

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Civil War Battles (west)Fort Henry and Donelson February 1862Gen. Grant used gunboats to bombard both forts into surrenderingLeft the western part of the CSA exposedShiloh April 18622 days of battle left 11,000 CSA dead and 13,000 Union deadBloodiest battle in the western hemisphereMississippi battles April to June 1862Captured New Orleans and most major ports on the Mississippi River except twoCut the CSA in half and control of the Miss RiverUnion Naval technology helped in the west

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Civil War Battles18

Civil War Battles (east)Battle of Seven Pines May 1862McClellan is General of the Army of the PotomacWell organized, but cautiousLincoln has to push McClellan into actionLooses the battleCSA Gen. Joseph Johnston dies and Robert E. Lee is put in chargeSeven Days Battle June 1862Lee splits his army, fakes an attack on DC, and attacks McClellanCSA looses 20,000 men to the Unions 16,000 in the battlesMcClellan decided to retreat2nd Battle of Bull Run August 1862Gen Pope takes McClellans post as commanderIs crushed by Lee in his march to RichmondMcClellan is put back into charge of the Army of the PotomacBattle of Antietam September 1862Lees plans to invade the North are discovered by McClellanMcClellan hesitates even though he has 2x as many soldiersBloodiest battle of the Civil WarLee retreats, but McClellan doesnt follow to crush his army

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EvaluationsGeneral McClellanGeneral LeeGeneral GrantAbraham LincolnSouthern MilitaryNorthern Military20