theories of nursing
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- 1. Theories of Nursing Professor Aimee Tiotuico Tuesday 3-6pm Room301
2. 3. The Reporters are:
- Ma. Carmina M. Guda
- Lee-ann P. Punla
4. Ma. Carmina Guda and Lee-ann Punla Bachelor science of nursing 1 styear 2009-2010 5. CONCEPTS RELATED TO MAN 6. Concepts related to Man Man has been viewed as a unique individual, however, never ending questions as to his existence is still over the years.Why is he unique over the living organisms? Why is he considered thehighest form of animal? How does his system works? These are the some questionscommonly ASKED Since man is our client it is therefore useful to understand his NATURE for us to be able to interact with him effectively. 7. Like for instance Byrne and Thompson view man as an organism composed of diffent organ system and each system is composed of organs each organ is made up of tissue cell, which is the base unit and has its own structure as claimed by the Anatomist, as well as specific function as claimed by the Physiologist, Immunologist. 8. Because of this structure, man now functions as a unified whole they termed this as theATOMISTIC APPROACH On the other hand they also studied man in all aspect of his behavior and his relationship with others in his environment and they term this theHOLLISTIC APPROACH(holistic view traces the patterns of mans relationship with other beings within the society it views him as a whole biologic organism with interrelated and independent parts functioning to produce a particular behavior that is unacceptable or acceptable to him or to society.) External stimuli present in the environment pushes man to respond consciously or unconsciously as he interacts with it. In spite of the hardship present around his environment due to several external forces, man was able to surpass all of the out ofMOTIVATION 9. Which made him understand how events came into existence . Man claims that it comes naturally to him to suffer for those whom he loves and wishes to protect from pain and suffering to a higher place in non-material reward and he has to have the Intellect to assist him in achieving higher type of motivation. MAN IS ALSO CONSIDERED TO BE A PASSIVE ORGANISMgoverned by the stimuli supplied by the external environment meaningHE DEPENDS SO MUCH from HISENVIRONMENT end he executes minimal efforts to mobilize his resources or he does not participate in any activity to make him more functional. 10. MAN CAN ALSO BE CONSIDERED TO BE THE SOURCE of all ACTS and that he has the FREEDOM to choose. With the different point of views of MAN, it does not mean to say that we have to choose and decide the best but rather we have to understand that the nature of man is very COMPLEX and as future health care providers we might encounter the above characteristics, we have to be guided by these concepts as we perform our task and of course we have to establish good working relationships for us to understand the nature of our client***MAN*** 11. Man as a Biological, Sociological and Cultural well-being 12. Man as a biological being states that man responds to environmental stimuli as a particular unit be it a solitary cell a component organism or a member of a conglomerate of individuals. 13. Man is a living organism who from birth is destined to die until he does and he has to face forces in his environment continuously. 14. Because the cell organs and organ system are found within the individual they comprise the subordinate system of man.. 15. The cell is the basic building block of structure of all form of plant and animal life. Each of these cell carries out exactly the precise and highly specialized functions. 16. The family ,community , and society are called his superordinate system because these provides man withthe necessary framework of relationship which helps him cope with elements in his environment, his behavior is greatly influence by his relationships. 17. His mind and body operates as a whole. To appreciate this fully try to observe the body changes that occur within when you are frightened ,(noticed that your heart beats so fast, your blood pressure rises, your breathing becomes heavier, you seem become more alert,the temperature of your body also changes,and skin feels cold to touch in the face of danger.this simply shows that the effect of external stimuli to a particular system affects the others. 18. MAN AS A PSYCHO-SOCIAL BEING Man is a unique irreplaceable individual one-time being in this world To be irreplaceable means that an entry cannot be exchanged for another. Even with the advances in technology where man can replace parts of the body through transplants or prothesis, making these transplants survive in their new location is still the unresolved problem of surgeons,the Human brain for instance can not be transplanted and there are no sufficient evidences at present to say that all organ transplant are successful wherein the dilemma is solved thenman will become replaceable. Because man is a one time being in this world, when he dies,he ceases to exist.there is not a second chance for living what may be left of him to indicateHis temporal presence will be a few momentous with some thoughtful person will remember to collect his memory. 19. Man the PSYCHOLOGICAL being is a capable of rational, logical thinking most of the time but can become irrational and illogical when provoked. His RATIONAL side makes him merciful, kind, and compassionate, while his IRRATIONAL naturemay make him commit criminal acts against another man. One may never admit that he has some degree of immaturity well within an outer shell of maturity. In some person this core may be very small so that their immaturity is hard to detect but in others***TRAVELbee*** the core is big and the degree of immaturity is easy to detect in the persons manner, SPEECH THOUGHT. 20.
- Man needs to communicate with others because he derives comfort from this and can share his troubles with another human being. He is also capable of relating with others and that from birth, he is endowed with the capacity to know,to like, to love, and to respond to appreciate the uniqueness of others even how he perceives things and it is for this reason why individuals have no common perception to a particular situation.
21. Depending on his inherent qualities, the environment he grew up with, the experience he has had,he will manage to rise above limitations of his human conditions. He needs to surpass whatever stress that comes along his way and he needs to strengthen his relationships with other fellow human for him not to become restless, lonely and embittered individual. He needs people or friends for survival. 22. MAN AS A SPIRITUAL BEING The Christian view of the worth of the human person is based on the biblical teaching that each human being is created by God in his own image and likeness, differing from the animals in the possession spiritual intelligence and free will. Although God produces the human body through the corporation of human parents, the creation of the human soul is a direct act of God, which calls each person into the existence in relation to God himself. In spite of biological origin and social associations, man as a complex organism has special abilities to go beyond the limits of his animal nature.ability to overcome the physical and social needs by going beyond what is expected of him is descriptive of mans social nature. 23. The will and intellect assist him in moving beyond his limitations. The intellect allows man to look for the truth, it gives him the ability to perceive his surroundings or the forces within the outside him or to understand the meaning of events as they relate to him and to his loved ones Through a firm resolution of mind , man accomplishes what he likes or fails to accomplish what he dislikes. 24. Man as a spiritual being needs the essential freedom of the human spirit.To achieve this freedom he continuously struggles for it and the struggles is made doubly difficult when his coping skills is not effective or when something is wrong with his system. the intellect helps him understand that failure to cope up is a natural phenomenon that befalls anyone when his body resistance is low or when his body organs decline in function due to old age or to some disorder. It is the intellect that helps him find the truth of his illness and probably accept the fact that it is Gods punishment for his sins. 25. Basic Rights Basic Rights 26. Protecting the Rights of Human Subjects Because nursing research usually focuses on humans, a major nursing responsibility is to be aware of and to advocate on behalf of clients rights. All clients must be informed and understand the consequences of consenting to serve as research subjects. The client needs to be able to assess whether an appropriate balance exists between the risks of participating in a study and the potential benefits, either to the client or to the development of knowledge. 27. Right Not to Be Harmed The Department of Health and Human Services defines risk of harm to a research subject as exposure to the possibility of injury going beyond everyday situations. The risk can be physical, emotional, legal, financial, or social. For instance, with holding standard care from a client in labor for the purpose of studying the course of natural childbirth clearly poses a potential physical danger. Risks can be less overt and involve psycho logic factors, such as exposure to stress or anxiety, or social factors, such as loss of confidentiality or loss of privacy. 28. Right to Full Disclosure Even thought it may be possible to collect data about a client as part of everyday care without the clients particular knowledge or consent, to do so is considered unethical. Full disclosure is a basic right. It means that deception