The stall stigma coalition

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  • 1. The Healing Circle

2. Presented by the Supha Phonchiangkwang Substance Tracey Neal Triggers Amardeep Saini Intolerance Lara Blanks Generational Lois Hyatt Metis Aboriginals COALITION Group Project - PSYN 205-3 Substance Use/Misuse Psychiatric Nursing Practice - Theory. 3. The Healing Circle highlights substance abuse issues and culturally sensitive holistic treatment for North American Aboriginals. Substance abuse in some aboriginal communities is a complex problem requiring culturally appropriate, multidimensional approaches. The use of alcohol, illicit drugs and solvents is a serious problem among First Nations, Inuit and Mtis. This project explores the distinct aspects of Aboriginal generational issues, women and youth, impact & resources for families as well as contemporary and traditional healing methods to facilitate patient, family and community substance abuse education. Psychiatric Nursing values all aspects of health. The profession recognizes the complex relationships between emotional, developmental, physical, and mental health; the influence of social factors on physical and mental health and on illness; and the role of culture and spirituality in health promotion, illness prevention, and recovery. Psychiatric Nursing values equality and believes that persons with mental health and developmental challenges deserve access to high quality health services (Registered Psychiatric Nurses of Canada, 2010). 4. Background Knowledge of the European imposition of colonization is imperative to fully comprehend the resultant social dysfunction and destructive behaviours that plague many Indigenous communities in Canada. Along with European contact came the introduction of alcohol. It is notable that alcohol was one of the most important commodities in the fur trade and was also utilized as a negotiation tool which contributed to the downfall of the Native nation. Through the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, Section 91(24) of the British North America Act established that the federal government of Canada was responsible for Indians and Lands reserved for Indians (Government of Canada, 2013). The Indian Act of 1876 introduced policy decisions across the board such as determining who was an Indian, managing Indian lands, resources and moneys, controlling the access to intoxicants and promoting "civilization." Amendments to the Indian Act became increasingly restrictive and imposed ever greater controls upon the lives of First Nations peoples including taking full responsibility for educating their children. 5. and disconnection roles among the residential school survivors i.e. lack of skills, knowledge, or emotional strength to parent their children Subsequent generation raised in families with chaos, substance abuse, and violence in children (they turn to alcohol, drugs or acting out as this is how they see their parent cope) 6. with higher levels of hopelessness and more prone to depressive symptoms which in turn predispose them to drinking to cope and ultimately makes them to excessive drinking (First Nations Alcohol Policies, 2012, p. 11) 7. This emotional vulnerability is termed as It is essentially different from drinking for a social motive such as conformity and enhancement. It reveals a pattern of drinking with stress, anger, frustration and depression; implying that alcohol abuse is used as an escape from reality (Mushquash, Stewart, Comeau, & McGrath, 2008, p. 46) 8. When one is emotionally competent, one is demonstrating ones self-efficacy in emotionally- eliciting transactions, which are invariably social in nature. And emotional literacy is in turn related with moral competency. 9. This program derives from traditional Aboriginal values The male population within our communities is asking for change and tools to make the change. It is the warrior that is standing up and declaring that he wants to contribute towards the solution 10. Prior to contact with European culture, First Nations people had tribal customary practices for providing mentor-like guidance for children and youth. The whole community contributed to raising children; everyone had a role to play in teaching the young. Children were regarded as a gift from the Creator and members of the community shared responsibility for their upbringing (Klinck, Cardinal, Edwards, Gibson, Bisanz & da Costa, n.d.). 11. Far too many Aboriginal youth experience a sense of hopelessness for the future because of the barriers and discrimination they face including cultural and social alienation, often existing in a world characterized by violence and racism. The rate of morbidity resulting from the use of illicit drugs is three times higher for Aboriginals than for the general population. For many the belief is that using drugs will alleviate the pain they experience in areas of their life that seem unbearable, which may ultimately make them more vulnerable to becoming high risk for suicide. Suicide rates are five to seven times higher for First Nations youth than for non-Aboriginal youth. Suicide rates among Inuit youth are among the highest in the world, at 11 times the national average (Health Canada, 2013). Suicide prevention generally involves finding ways to reduce risk factors, such as eliminating substance abuse, in promoting protective and preventive factors against suicide. 12. High levels of substance abuse in Aboriginal communities are most often generational. As a direct result children of parents who have a drug and alcohol addiction are almost three times more likely to be physically or sexually assaulted, and more than four times more likely to be neglected than children of parents who are not substance abusers. Children of substance-abusing parents suffer low self-esteem, depression, self-mutilation, suicide, panic attacks, truancy, and sexual promiscuity, and will replicate later in life the drug and alcohol abuse problems they witnessed in their parents (National Centre on Addiction and Substance Abuse, 1999). 13. Aboriginal youth are at a significant risk of becoming involved in substance abuse. Studies have shown that youth of First Nations, Mtis and Inuit descent are of the highest abusers of illicit drug use in Canada. This population is also over represented in courts concerning charges relating to drug possession and drug trafficking. In Canada there were approximately 7,500 Aboriginal youth admitted to either custody or probation in 2005/2006 (Tangient LLC., 2014). High crime rates in youth are frequently linked to substance abuse and a marginalized position in society. Other factors that may play a role in affecting a youths choice to abuse drugs are low levels of education, poor school attendance, family breakdown, lack of parental involvement and support in their daily lives. 14. The most important thing to me is to teach the children, so that our culture never dies Blackhawk SanCarlos, Mohawk and Apache Having identified some of the major issues affecting youth, the question is how to foster a more constructive dynamic for Aboriginal youth? Preventing substance abuse is a constant battle and without strong efforts from local communities and organizations that focus on substance abuse prevention nothing will change. As a community, everyone must work together to make changes by providing strong cultural and family supports. The main goal is to reconnect youth with cultural identity and regain a sense of belonging. In this environment the issue of substance abuse prevention can be more readily addressed. 15. As a substance abuse preventative measure, graphic recording is a holistic method that increases youth engagement and may be implemented by trained mentors, possibly with the inclusion of participants if so desired. During an event drawings are produced that parallel the discussion so as to allow visualization of the factors that make up a health promotion framework. It keeps participants focused, gives them a chance to reflect on whats happened, and helps them to remember and care about the ideas discussed. Delivered by mentors as a youth teaching strategy it is productive as well as an effective therapy disguised as fun. 16. During an event participants; See connections Highlight keynote speakers Focus participants Engage visual learners Gain a deeper understanding of the issues Give young people a space to congregate, engage with the visuals and each other (Bradd, 2014). 17. *According to Canadian Womens Health Network (2005), injection drug use is the main path of HIV transmission for Aboriginal women and that 65% reported AIDS cases caused by exposure to injection drug use (Prentice, 2005). * The rate of new HIV infection among Aboriginal women in Canada has been increased over the last two decades. * Aboriginal women account for 50% of all new HIV positive when compare with their non-Aboriginal people which is only 16%. The HIV infection occurs in Aboriginal women between age 15-29 years old (Prentice, 2005). 18. Aboriginal women are vulnerable gender and are twice as likely to be poorer than non-aboriginal women. They live to an environment where substance use and domestic violence are widespread. They are most likely to be using substances which place them at the highest risk for contracting HIV/ AIDS and hepatitis C (Prentice, 2005). Due to poor living environment and their vulnerability, Aboriginal women are more like to migrate from rural area to urban area, become homelessness, work in sex trade, and abuse alcohol and substances (Prentice, 2005). Aboriginal women who have been sexually and physically abused have low-self-esteem, have little access to education, are poor due to lack employment and they often abuse alcohol and illicit drugs as coping strategies and pain after the traumatic incidence(Prentice, 2005). 19. . 20. Substance abuse in some aboriginal communities is a complex problem requiring cultura