The Renaissance, Reformation & Scientific Revolution 1350-1700

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  • The Renaissance, Reformation & Scientific Revolution1350-1700

  • I. The Italian RenaissanceA. Characteristics:1. Humanism: a. Emphasize secular rather than religious. b. Emphasis on individuals & human achievement2. Period of stability & creativity3. Increased study of Greek & Roman Culture

  • B. Economic Foundations 1. Increased Tradea. B/c of the Crusades, Europe became familiar with & wanted goods from Muslim lands

  • 2. Bankinga. Increased trade = need for banks = banking system grow (Medici family)

    b. Medici, wealthy banking family that funded great artists. Lorenzo di Medici Il Magnifico

    c. Letters of credit (loans) expand the $ supply and increase trade

    d. Rise of capitalism = need laborers = serfs leave the feudal system & it eventually disappears.

  • C. Italian Renaissance (began there) Florence, Venice & Genoa:LOCATION: Had access to seas connecting Europe & Middle East = flourishing tradeBecame trading centers for northern EuropeWere initially independent city-states governed as republics.

  • D. Literature & the Arts 1. Machiavellis The Princea. Main Ideas:i. Treatise about govt which advocated absolute power of the ruler.ii. Idea that the end justifies the meansiii. One should do good if possible, but do evil when necessary 2. Michelangelo: Sculptor, Engineer, Painter, Architect & Poeta. Creation of Adam on the Sistine Chapel ceilingb. The Statue of David: Statue recalls the harmony & grace of Ancient Greek tradition

  • The Last Supper

  • Statue of David

  • 3. Leonardo DaVinci a. Dissected bodies to see how bones & muscles workb. Sketched planes & boats before they were inventedc. Famous artwork: i. Mona Lisa: woman with a mysterious smileii. The Last Supper 4. d. new art form: perspective, like 3-D.

  • Vitruvian Man

  • COMPARE: CONTINUTIY & CHANGEMedieval art & literate focused on the Church & Salvation; Renaissance art & literature focused on individuals & worldly matters, along with Christianity

  • II. The Northern Renaissance v. Italian RenaissanceA. Northern Renaissance Characteristics1. There was more wealth in the north to support the Renaissance ideas $$$$2. Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity3. The movable printing press made by Johann Gutenberg & the production of books helped spread ideasEXAMPLE: The Gutenberg Bible

  • B. Writers1.Petrarch: wrote sonnets; was a leading humanist2. William Shakespeare: Wrote Romeo & Juliet and Hamlet3. Erasmus wrote The Praise of Folly (1511)4. Sir Thomas More wrote Utopia (1516)

  • C. Northern Renaissance artists portrayed religious & secular objects.

    Albrecht Durer: The German Leonardo a. Studied the techniques of Italian masterb. Painted, engraved, printed, and wrote essaysPieter Brueghela. Used vibrant colors to portray peasant lifeb. Influenced other artists to paint scenes of daily life rather than religious or classical themes.

  • ..\..\..\..\..\Brueghel\Breugel2.ppt

  • The changes in art during the Renaissance correlate closely with the changes in ideas about life. People became curious about science & mathematics after centuries of blindly accepting the views of the Church. People began to focus more on life on earth rather than the afterlife. The Renaissance was one of the few eras in history that was named by the people who were alive during the time. People called it The Renaissance even while it was happening! Art played a big part of this rebirth of classical times.

  • III. The Reformation (early 1500s)For centuries, the Roman Catholic Church had little competition in religious thought & action. The resistance of the church to change led to the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in the birth of new political & economic institutions.

  • A. Protestant Beginnings: Lutherans & Calvinists1. Reasons:a. Church wealth & corruptioni. selling indulgencesii. wealthy lifestyle of the clergyb. Desire for princes (especially German) to increase power by breaking with Rome

  • 2. Peoplea. Martin Luther:i. German monk who wrote 95 theses in which he identified church problems & solutions = birth of Protestant Churchii. views:- faith alone saves- Bible is the ONLY source of authority, not Pope- All humans are = before god.

  • b. John Calvini. predestinationii. model community of discipline & hard work in Geneva, Switzerland (theocracy)The Reformation had its roots in theology, but it led to important economic & political changes. Religious differences & hatreds caused wars & destruction.

  • 3. Support for Reformationa. German princes & other rulers welcomed the break from the Roman Catholic Church (decrease popes political power)b. Peasant revolt: hoped to promoted social/economic change

  • 4. Conflicta. Conflict between Protestants & Catholics resulted in devastating wars (e.g. Thirty Years War)i. End with the Peace at Augsburg in which German Princes are allowed to determine if their state will be Catholic or Protestantii. Catholic monarchy in France granted Protestant Huegnots freedom of worship in the Edict of Nantes, but later revoked it.

  • B. The English Reformation = The Anglican Church or Church of England1. People & Events a. Henry VIIIi. broke from the Catholic Church when the Pope refused to grant him annulmentii. Formed Anglican Church with himself as the leader. Supremacy Act iii. seized church land for the throne (HUGE)

  • b. Mary Tudor (daughter of Henry VIII)i. attempt to make Catholicism officialc. Elizabeth I (daughter of Henry VIIIi. firmly established England as a Protestant nation, but retained some Catholic traditions

  • IV. Catholic Reformationreaction to the Protestant Reformation and loss of land, power, money, and followers.Mounted a series of reforms and reasserted its authoritySociety of Jesus (Jesuits) was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world.