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  • The National Guard in the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection, 1898-1899

    A Monograph

    by Major Michael S. Warren

    Arizona Army National Guard

    School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College

    Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

    AY 2012

  • REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved

    OMB No. 074-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)

    2. REPORT DATE 11 Apr 12

    3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Report JUL 2011 MAY 2012

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Guard in the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection, 1898-1899

    5. FUNDING NUMBERS

    6. AUTHORS Warren, Michael S., Major, Arizona Army National Guard

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

    9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING

    AGENCY REPORT NUMBER School of Advanced Military Studies, Command and General Staff College ATTN: ATZL-SWD-GD Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 66027-2301

    11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Master of Military Art and Science (MMAS) Monograph prepared at the School of Advanced Military Studies in partial fulfillment of the Masters Program requirements, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 66027 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Cleared for public release: distribution unlimited.

    12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE

    13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) The National Guards origins trace back to the militia of the first settlements in America. Since its inception in 1636, the National

    Guard has played vital role in the nations defense from the Revolutionary War to the most recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The utility of the National Guard has been questioned since the late nineteenth century, but political pressure from the states has always been sufficient to maintain a National Guard. This monograph examines the National Guards performance as the primary source for state volunteers in the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection 1898-1899.

    While the Regular Army generally viewed the National Guard as less professional and incapable of defending the nation, the results from the National Guards preparation for the Philippines supported the Regular Armys disdain for them and seemed to indicate a likelihood of failure in combat. However, actual results from the Philippines lead to a different conclusion about the National Guard. This conclusion supports the National Guard as an operational force instead of the strategic reserve as they had been used since World War II. This change in the National Guards employment is even more critical because of the economic and security challenges the nation faces.

    14. SUBJECT TERMS

    15. NUMBER OF PAGES 99

    16. PRICE CODE

    17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

    (U)

    18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

    (U)

    19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT

    (U)

    20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    UU NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)

    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102

  • ii

    SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES

    MONOGRAPH APPROVAL

    Major Michael S. Warren

    Title of Monograph: The National Guard in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, 1898-1899

    Approved by:

    __________________________________ Monograph Director Thomas A. Bruscino, Ph.D.

    __________________________________ Second Reader Patrick M. Roberson, COL, SF

    ___________________________________ Director, Thomas C. Graves, COL, IN School of Advanced Military Studies

    ___________________________________ Director, Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D. Graduate Degree Programs

    Disclaimer: Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations expressed or implied within are solely those of the author, and do not represent the views of the US Army School of Advanced Military Studies, the US Army Command and General Staff College, the United States Army, the Department of Defense, or any other US government agency. Cleared for public release: distribution unlimited.

  • iii

    Abstract THE NATIONAL GUARD IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR AND THE PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION, 1898-1899 by MAJOR Michael S. Warren, ARIZONA ARMY NATIONAL GUARD, 94.

    The National Guards origins trace back to the militia of the first settlements in America. Since its inception in 1636, the National Guard has played vital role in the nations defense from the Revolutionary War to the most recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The utility of the National Guard has been questioned since the late nineteenth century, but political pressure from the states has always been sufficient to maintain a National Guard. This monograph examines the National Guards performance as the primary source for state volunteers in the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection 1898-1899. While the Regular Army generally viewed the National Guard as less professional and incapable of defending the nation, the results from the National Guards preparation for the Philippines supported the Regular Armys disdain for them and seemed to indicate a likelihood of failure in combat. However, actual results from the Philippines lead to a different conclusion about the National Guard. This conclusion supports the National Guard as an operational force instead of the strategic reserve as they had been used since World War II. This change in the National Guards employment is even more critical because of the economic and security challenges the nation faces.

  • iv

    Acknowledgements

    I owe many people a debt of gratitude for completion of this monograph. The first is my

    monograph director, Dr. Thomas Bruscino, Ph.D., who inspired me to research the depths of this

    topic during our many conversations about the fighting in the Philippines at the turn of the

    twentieth century. I also wish to thank my seminar leader, Colonel Patrick Roberson, who made

    the course of study at the School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS) relevant to my seminar

    as military professionals. Brigadier General Alberto C. Gonzalez, Assistant Adjutant General,

    Army, for the Arizona Army National Guard, was invaluable in this for his leadership,

    mentorship, and willingness to allow me to attend the Advanced Military Studies Program at

    SAMS, despite losing me to the full-time force in Arizona for a year. Major James Davis, Army

    of Australia, was also very helpful by reading this several times and providing me with several

    suggestions on how to improve it.

    Most importantly, I wish to thank my family. Without their steadfast support, completion

    of this monograph would have been impossible for they encouraged a strong work ethic and

    provided me with the inspiration and time to complete this project. First, my mother Barbara

    Warren, who passed away in 2009, gave me the foundation to be successful academically by

    developing my love of reading. My children provided me with the impetus to set an example for

    them to pursue advanced education. However, I owe the greatest appreciation to my wife, Sheila.

    She really deserves all the credit for anything I accomplish because she truly is the better part of

    who I am.

    While many people were instrumental in its completion, any errors in content or research

    in this monograph are in spite of those previously acknowledged and are solely my responsibility.

  • v

    Table of Contents

    Abstract .............................................................................................................................. iii Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................ iv Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1 Preparation Woes ................................................................................................................ 7 Policy and Funding ............................................................................................................. 8 Guard Politics and Parochialism ....................................................................................... 13 Regular Army Criticism and Discrimination .................................................................... 27 Success and Lamentations ................................................................................................ 36 First Washington Volunteer Infantry ................................................................................ 37 Second Oregon Volunteer Infantry ................................................................................... 41 Utah Volunteer Light Artillery ......................................................................................... 47 T