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  • The American Civil War – Beginnings

  • Presidential election of 1860

     In 1860, Stephan Douglas and Abraham Lincoln ran against each other again, this time for president.

     Lincoln had become well known from their debates about slavery.

     This time, Lincoln won, becoming the 16th president.

  • Southern States secede  As soon as Lincoln won the election, the South

    started to secede. This means the South split from the Union. They no longer wanted to be part of the United States.

     Supporters of secession based their arguments on the idea of states’ rights. They said they had voluntarily joined the union, so they could leave when they wanted.

  • Confederate States of America  On December 20, 1860, South

    Carolina became the first state to secede.

     A total of eleven states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America.

     They named Jefferson Davis as president.

     They wrote a new Constitution which made slavery legal.

  • Civil War

     A civil war is a war between people of the same country.

     The American Civil War was fought to keep the South from leaving the Union.

     Slavery was the major issue that separated the North from the South.

  • The Civil War began at Fort Sumter.

  •  Fort Sumter was in the South, and the Union had a hard time defending the fort.

     There were 23 states in the Union (North) at the beginning of the war.

     There were 11 states in the Confederacy (South) at the beginning of the war.

  • North’s Advantages

     Many more people  More factories, which could be used to

    make weapons  Many more miles of railroad tracks

  • South’s Advantages

     They were fighting at home.  This would mean that they would be closer

    to their supplies.  They also would fight harder because they

    were protecting their homes.  The Confederacy also had superior

    generals and better trained soldiers.

  • Battle of Bull Run

     One of the first battles of the war was the Battle of Bull Run.

     The North realized after this battle that the war would not be easy and would not be over soon.

  • New Weapons  Many new weapons were used during the

    Civil War.  Ironclad ship - ship with iron plates on it to

    protect it from cannon fire.

  • Other new weapons

     Deadlier cannons and bullets

     More accurate rifles

  • Battle of Antietam  First time the Confederacy invaded

    Northern territory  Bloodiest battle day in United States

    history. 23,000 men lost their lives that day.

     The Union army stopped the Confederate army. This “victory” by the Union gave President Lincoln the chance to announce the abolition of slavery in the South.

  •  Declared that all slaves should be set free in the Confederacy.

     It also allowed blacks to serve in the Union army and navy.

     South ignored the Emancipation Proclamation, but it did change to focus of the war to the issue of slavery.

    Emancipation Proclamation

  • Women in the Civil War

     Women on both sides worked during the war. Many became nurses. The most famous nurse from the Union was Clara Barton.

     She also helped organize the American Red Cross.

  •  The Confederate army invaded the North once again in the Battle of Gettysburg.

     One of the bloodiest battles of the war.

     90,000 Union soldiers fought 75,000 Confederate soldiers.

     More than 50,000 men were killed or wounded in the battle.

    Battle of Gettysburg

  •  The Union won the Battle of Gettysburg.  The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point of

    the war. The Confederacy would never invade Union territory again.

  • Gettysburg Address  After the Battle of Gettysburg, President

    Lincoln went to the battlefield to dedicate a cemetery in honor of all those who had died.

     Lincoln spoke for two minutes, but his speech became very famous.

     It is called the Gettysburg Address.