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0787190100-REP-R0001-00 Report to: TREVALI MINING CORP. Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine, Northern Manitoba, Canada Document No. 0787190100-REP-R0001-00

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  • 0787190100-REP-R0001-00

    Report to:

    TREVALI MINING CORP.

    Technical Report on theFormer Ruttan Mine,Northern Manitoba, Canada

    Document No. 0787190100-REP-R0001-00

  • 0787190100-REP-R0001-00

    Report to:

    TREVALI MINING CORP.

    TECHNICAL REPORT ON THEFORMER RUTTAN MINE,NORTHERN MANITOBA, CANADA

    EFFECTIVE DATE: FEBRUARY 18, 2009FILING DATE: AUGUST 19, 2011

    Prepared by Tim Maunula, P.Geo.Christopher Moreton, Ph.D., P.Geo.

    MM/vc

    Suite 900, 330 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2S8Phone: 416-368-9080 Fax: 416-368-1963

  • 0787190100-REP-R0001-00

    Report to:

    TREVALI MINING CORP.

    TECHNICAL REPORT ON THEFORMER RUTTAN MINE,NORTHERN MANITOBA, CANADA

    EFFECTIVE DATE: FEBRUARY 18, 2009FILING DATE: AUGUST 19, 2011

    Prepared by “Original document signed byTim Maunula, P.Geo.”

    Date August 19, 2011

    Tim Maunula, P.Geo.

    Reviewed by “Original document signed byMike McLaughlin, P.Geo.”

    Date August 19, 2011

    Mike McLaughlin, P.Eng.

    Authorized by “Original document signed byTim Maunula, P.Geo.”

    Date August 19, 2011

    MM/vc

    Tim Maunula, P.Geo.

    330 Bay Street, Suite 900, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2S8Phone: 416-368-9080 Fax: 416-368-1963

  • 0787190100-REP-L0001-04

    R E V I S I O N H I S T O R Y

    REV.NO

    ISSUE DATE PREPARED BYAND DATE

    REVIEWED BYAND DATE

    APPROVED BYAND DATE

    DESCRIPTION OF REVISION

    00 2011/08/19 Tim Maunula Mike McLaughlin Tim MaunulaOriginal technical report readdressed to TrevaliMining Corp.

  • i 0787190100-REP-R0001-00

    T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

    1.0 SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 RESOURCE STATEMENT ........................................................................................................3

    2.0 INTRODUCTION AND TERMS OF REFERENCE.............................................................. 4

    2.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE .........................................................................................................6

    3.0 RELIANCE ON OTHER EXPERTS..................................................................................... 8

    4.0 PROPERTY DESCRIPTION AND LOCATION ................................................................... 9

    5.0 ACCESSIBILITY, CLIMATE, LOCAL RESOURCES, INFRASTRUCTURE ANDPHYSIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................. 14

    6.0 HISTORY........................................................................................................................... 16

    6.1 COPPER CLAIMS .................................................................................................................16

    7.0 GEOLOGICAL SETTING.................................................................................................. 20

    7.1 REGIONAL GEOLOGY...........................................................................................................20

    7.2 PROPERTY GEOLOGY..........................................................................................................207.2.1 RUTTAN MINE (COPPER CLAIMS)........................................................................20

    8.0 DEPOSIT TYPE................................................................................................................. 26

    9.0 MINERALIZATION............................................................................................................ 27

    10.0 EXPLORATION................................................................................................................. 28

    10.1 DRILLING 2007 ...................................................................................................................28

    10.2 DRILLING, 2007-2008 .........................................................................................................30

    10.3 DRILLING, 2008 ..................................................................................................................32

    10.4 GEOPHYSICS, 2008 ............................................................................................................33

    10.5 EXPLORATION EXPENDITURES, 2007-2008..........................................................................33

    11.0 DRILLING.......................................................................................................................... 35

    12.0 SAMPLING METHOD AND APPROACH ......................................................................... 36

    13.0 SAMPLE PREPARATION, ANALYSES, AND SECURITY............................................... 38

    14.0 DATA VERIFICATION ...................................................................................................... 40

    15.0 ADJACENT PROPERTIES ............................................................................................... 42

    16.0 MINERAL PROCESSING AND METALLURGICAL TESTING......................................... 43

  • ii 0787190100-REP-R0001-00

    17.0 MINERAL RESOURCE AND MINERAL RESERVE ESTIMATES.................................... 44

    17.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................4417.1.1 DATABASE .........................................................................................................4417.1.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY .............................................................................................45

    17.2 EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS ...........................................................................................4517.2.1 RAW ASSAYS.....................................................................................................4617.2.2 CAPPING ...........................................................................................................4617.2.3 COMPOSITES .....................................................................................................49

    17.3 GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION ............................................................................................53

    17.4 SPATIAL ANALYSIS ..............................................................................................................54

    17.5 BLOCK MODEL ....................................................................................................................5417.5.1 BLOCK MODEL SIZE ...........................................................................................5417.5.2 INTERPOLATION PLAN ........................................................................................5717.5.3 METAL EQUIVALENCY FORMULAE .......................................................................5817.5.4 MINERAL RESOURCE CLASSIFICATION ................................................................5917.5.5 MINERAL RESOURCE TABULATION ......................................................................6017.5.6 VALIDATION .......................................................................................................62

    18.0 OTHER RELEVANT DATA AND INFORMATION ............................................................ 64

    19.0 INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................... 65

    20.0 RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................................... 66

    21.0 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................. 67

    22.0 CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFIED PERSONS ...................................................................... 69

    22.1 CERTIFICATE FOR PAUL DAIGLE, P.GEO. ............................ ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

    22.2 CERTIFICATE FOR CHRISTOPHER MORETON, PH.D., P.GEO. ................................................70

    22.3 CERTIFICATE FOR TIMOTHY MAUNULA, P.GEO. ....................................................................69

    L I S T O F T A B L E S

    Table 1.1 Inferred Resources for the Ruttan Project at 1% CuEQ Cut-off Base Case ........ 3Table 4.1 List of Claims....................................................................................................... 12Table 5.1 Location and Access (from Harron, 2007) .......................................................... 15Table 6.1 History of the Copper Claims .............................................................................. 16Table 10.1 Kria 2007 Drill Hole Coordinates (Local Grid)..................................................... 29Table 10.2 Significant Values from the 2007 West Anomaly Drilling.................................... 29Table 10.3 Significant Values from the 2007 Hanging Wall Zinc Zone Drilling .................... 29Table 10.4 Drill Hole Coordinates form the 2007-2008 Winter Drilling Program.................. 31Table 10.5 Significant Results of the 2007/08 Winter Drill Program..................................... 32Table 10.6 Kria 2008 Summer Drill Hole Coordinates.......................................................... 32Table 10.7 Kria 2007 and 2008 Exploration Expenditures ................................................... 33

  • iii 0787190100-REP-R0001-00

    Table 14.1 Check Sample Results from the 2007 Drilling Program ..................................... 41Table 17.1 Block Centroid Coordinates for the Ruttan Project............................................. 44Table 17.2 Summary of the Drilling Data Records................................................................ 45Table 17.3 HBM&S Specific Gravity Formula ....................................................................... 45Table 17.4 Raw Assay Statistics for the Complete Dataset (Excluding Regional Holes) .... 46Table 17.5 Capping Levels for the Complete Dataset (Excluding Regional Holes) ............. 46Table 17.6 Raw Assay Sample Length Statistics (Excluding Regional Holes) .................... 49Table 17.7 Composite Capped Samples .............................................................................. 50Table 17.8 Statistical Summary of all Composites (Values>0)............................................. 50Table 17.9 Solids Names and Explanation ........................................................................... 53Table 17.10 GEMS Block Model Limits (Edge to Edge) ......................................................... 54Table 17.11 Block Sizes.......................................................................................................... 54Table 17.12 Interpolation Parameters for Passes 1 and 2 ..................................................... 58Table 17.13 Distance to Nearest Composite Statistics........................................................... 60Table 17.14 Inferred Mineral Resources at Ruttan (Estimate by Wardrop, 2008) ................. 61Table 17.15 Global Grade Comparisons................................................................................. 62

    L I S T O F F I G U R E S

    Figure 4.1 General Location Map (From Harron, 2007)....................................................... 10Figure 4.2 Property Map (from Harron, 2007)...................................................................... 11Figure 6.1 General Location of the Mineralization (form Harron, 2007) .............................. 17Figure 6.2 Simplified Longitudinal Section (from Harron, 2007) .......................................... 18Figure 7.1 Regional Geology – Rusty Lake Belt (from Harron, 2007) ................................. 21Figure 7.2 Geology – Ruttan Mine Area (from Harron, 2007).............................................. 22Figure 10.1 Drill Hole Location Map, Kria Drill Programs 2007-2008 .................................... 34Figure 17.1 Copper Assays (%) for the Complete Dataset (Excluding Regional Holes)....... 47Figure 17.2 Zinc Assays (%) for the Complete Dataset (Excluding Regional Holes)............ 48Figure 17.3 Decile-Percentile Data for Zinc within the Complete Dataset (Excluding Regional

    Holes) .................................................................................................................. 49Figure 17.4 Histogram and Cumulative Probability Plot for Copper ...................................... 51Figure 17.5 Histogram and Cumulative Probability Plot for Zinc ........................................... 52Figure 17.6 Three-Dimensional View of the Solids Used for the Resource Model................ 55Figure 17.7 Search Ellipse Parameters.................................................................................. 56Figure 17.8 Block Model Set-Up in GEMS............................................................................. 57Figure 17.9 Solid Extrusion Issues (Blocks Shown by Red Lines) ........................................ 60Figure 17.10 Composites-Block Model Grade Comparisons (1) ............................................. 62Figure 17.11 Composites-Block Model Grade Comparisons (2) ............................................. 63

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 1 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 . 0 S U M M A R Y

    Beartooth Platinum Corporation (Beartooth) is a Canadian registered mining

    company and publicly listed on the TSX – Venture Exchange.

    Kria Resources Limited (Kria) is a private Canadian registered base metal

    exploration and development company focused on high quality base metal assets

    including lead, zinc, copper and nickel in Manitoba and New Brunswick, Canada.

    On October 23, 2008, Beartooth and Kria signed an agreement whereby Beartooth

    will acquire all of the outstanding common shares of Kria in exchange for common

    shares of Beartooth and effect a merger of the two companies under the name of

    Kria Resources Incorporated.

    The following report is a revision of the “Technical Report on the Former Ruttan

    Mine, Northern Manitoba, Canada” authored by Christopher Moreton, Ph.D., P.Geo.,

    former Senior Geologist with Wardrop Engineering Inc. (Wardrop) on August 1, 2008.

    The revision includes an update of exploration activities conducted by Kria during

    2007 and 2008. These activities are included in this revised report to complete the

    description of all exploration activities conducted on the former Ruttan Mine. The

    results of these exploration activities do not materially change the resulting resource

    estimate presented in this report.

    Wardrop has prepared a National Instrument (NI) 43-101 compliant report and

    resource estimate for the mineralization remaining within the former Ruttan Mine.

    The estimate includes the areas known as the West Anomaly Mine and Main Mine as

    well as the recently discovered lens known as the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone.

    The Ruttan Mine property is located approximately 21 kilometres (km) east of the

    Village of Leaf Rapids, which in turn is approximately 750 kilometres north-northwest

    of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Vehicle access to the mine site is via Provincial Highway

    391 to Leaf Rapids and then the all-weather Southern Indian Lake road.

    The Ruttan property consists of the contiguous un-surveyed Copper 1 to 4 and

    Copper 8 to 11 mining claims as well as a single claim (Copper 12) staked by Kria on

    January 26th 2007. All of these claims are located in National Topographic System

    (NTS) quadrangle 64/B/05 within The Pas Mining Division, Manitoba. The nine

    Copper claims cover a nominal area of 1,994 hectares and contain the former Ruttan

    Mine, tailings ponds, waste rock disposal areas and lands previously occupied by the

    mine-mill complex.

    The former Ruttan Mine closed in 2002 due to low metal prices. Production from the

    mine in the period 1973-2002 was 55,175,754 tonnes grading 1.23% copper and

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 2 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1.41% zinc. The reserve estimates are not supported by an NI 43-101 pre-feasibility

    study and should not be relied upon. Wardrop has prepared a new resource

    estimate for the remaining mineralization at the former Ruttan Mine (this report).

    Both the open pit and the underground infrastructure on the Ruttan property are

    flooded. The near-pit surface run-off is currently channelled into the pit. Buildings

    related to the operation of the former mine have been demolished and some aspects

    of surface reclamation have been started by the Government of Manitoba.

    Newdene Gold Inc. (Newdene) entered into an option agreement with W. S. Ferreira

    Ltd, dated July 31, 2006, for the purpose of acquiring a 100% interest in the Copper

    1-4 mining claims. The Copper 8-11 claims were subsequently added and form part

    of the option agreement. On January 25, 2007 Newdene Gold Inc. sold its interest to

    Kria for $250,000 cash and retained a 2% net smelter royalty. At the time of writing

    the Copper claims (1 to 4 and 8 to 12) are in Kria’s name.

    The Copper claims are located in the west central portion of the Paleoproterozoic

    Rusty Lake greenstone belt in the Lynn Lake-Leaf Rapids Domain on the northern

    flank of the Trans-Hudson Orogen. The supracrustal rocks in the immediate area of

    the Ruttan Mine on the Copper claims are divided into the Mill Pond unit (MPU), the

    Mine Sequence unit (MSU), and the Powder Magazine unit (PMU) from north to

    south respectively. All units have been subjected to sub-greenschist to amphibolite

    facies metamorphism.

    The northern section of the MSU consists of a homogeneous sequence of layered,

    heterolithic, intermediate volcaniclastic rocks that ranges from 200 to 300 metres in

    thickness. These are referred to as the “footwall volcaniclastic rocks”. The middle

    section is approximately 75 metres thick and consists of variably altered

    volcaniclastic fragmental rocks of dacitic to rhyolitic composition with local exhalite

    layers. This section hosts several large lenses of massive sulphide mineralization

    which collectively make up the Ruttan deposit. The southern section of the MSU is

    up to 100 metres thick and is composed of a distinctive package of light grey to

    white, quartz-phyric, rhyolitic volcaniclastic rocks that have a uranium/lead (U/Pb)

    age of 1883+/- 2 million years (Ma). Three, or possibly four, periods of deformation

    have folded the ore bodies into steeply southeast plunging lenses separated by east-

    northeast trending shear zones.

    The Ruttan mine is classified as a bimodal-siliciclastic type of volcanogenic massive

    sulphide deposit (VMS), similar to those found in the Iberian Pyrite Belt of Portugal

    and Spain and in the Bathurst district of New Brunswick, Canada. Deposits of this

    type can be located with electromagnetic geophysical surveys and whole rock

    geochemical surveys. Wardrop considers that the exploration potential within the

    Ruttan claims is above average.

    Two near surface zinc- and/or copper-rich opportunities are identified in the historical

    database. One opportunity is the upper portion of the West Anomaly Mine which

    was developed and partially prepared for mining at the time of closure in 2002.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 3 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    The second opportunity, known as the north hanging wall zinc zone, is located east-

    northeast of the mine. Currently it has no underground access. Drill hole UD5803

    returned a weighted average Zn value of 26.18% over 3.86 metres.

    In mid-2008, Kria completed an exploration drilling program to evaluate the potential

    of these (and other) opportunities. A total of 35 drill holes were completed for a total

    of 11,114 metres. An updated resource estimate was developed based these and

    historical drill holes.

    The Ruttan Project contains areas of historical near-surface unmined resources;

    recent drilling by Kria has confirmed the presence of this mineralization. The

    exploration potential on the property is considered to be excellent, particularly the

    down-plunge extension of the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone.

    1 . 1 R E S O U R C E S T A T E M E N T

    Table 1.1 shows the resource estimate for the Ruttan project. The highlighted line is

    the suggested base case for a deposit in northern Manitoba.

    Table 1.1 Inferred Resources for the Ruttan Project at 1% CuEQ Cut-off Base

    Case

    Solid Names GradesVolume of

    Solids (m3)*

    Density

    (t/m3)

    Tonnage

    (t)*

    Cu

    (%)

    Zn

    (%)

    CuEQ07*

    (%)

    Combined Main

    and West

    Anomaly Mine

    Areas (includes

    the HW Zinc

    Zone)

    >2.0 894,870 3.672 3,285,659 1.90 3.13 2.59

    >1.5 2,265,640 3.642 8,252,155 1.50 2.30 2.06

    >1.0 4,742,140 3.616 17,148,138 1.23 1.60 1.64

    *m3

    – cubic metres t – tonnes CuEq – copper equivalent

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 4 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    2 . 0 I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D T E R M S O FR E F E R E N C E

    Beartooth is a Canadian registered mining company and publicly listed on the TSX –

    Venture Exchange.

    Kria is a private Canadian registered base metal exploration and development

    company focused on high quality base metal assets including lead, zinc, copper and

    nickel in New Brunswick and Manitoba, Canada.

    On October 23, 2008, Beartooth and Kria signed an agreement whereby Beartooth

    will acquire all of the outstanding common shares of Kria in exchange for common

    shares of Beartooth. In effect this is a reverse takeover of Beartooth by Kria where

    the merged companies shall be registered under the name of Kria Resources

    Incorporated1. It was proposed in the agreement that Beartooth common shares will

    be consolidated on the basis of one new common share for every 20 old common

    shares.

    Beartooth has agreed to issue one post-consolidation common share for each Kria

    common share. Each outstanding Kria convertible security will be exercisable for

    Beartooth common shares based on the exchange ratio. Upon completion of the

    merger Kria shareholders will hold approximately 82.5% of the issued and

    outstanding common shares of the combined company. Following completion of the

    merger, the Kria board of directors and management team will become the board

    and management team of the new combined company (Press Release, Oct 2008).

    The Ruttan property is located in northern Manitoba approximately 21 km east of the

    Village of Leaf Rapids and about 750 km north-northwest of Winnipeg, Manitoba. All

    nine claims are held in good standing by Kria:

    Copper 1 to 3 (inclusive) expires on March 18, 2012.

    Copper 4 expires on March 19, 2009

    Copper 8 to 11 (inclusive) expires on October 22, 2012.

    Copper 12 expires on April 10, 2009.

    Numerous lenses of base metal massive sulphide mineralization are present on the

    property and some of these have been exploited by two previous operators of the

    Ruttan mine (Sherritt Gordon and HBM&S). Two areas close to the mining

    1For purposes of simplicity, the ownership of the Ruttan Project, except where stated, shall be referred to as

    “Kria”.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 5 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    infrastructure have been drilled by Kria in 2007/2008 to investigate the base metal

    potential – these areas were not mined by either of the previous two operators.

    Base metal mineralization was discovered by drilling following an airborne

    electromagnetic (EM) survey in 1968. Subsequent ground EM and magnetic surveys

    were followed-up by diamond drilling in 1968/1969. A drill-indicated resource was

    defined in 1969 and the mine-site infrastructure was constructed between 1970 and

    1972. Open pit production ran from 1973 to 1980 while underground production ran

    from 1979 to 1987. HBM&S purchased the mine from SGM in 1987 and went on to

    discover the West Mine in 1988. The mine closed in 2002 due to low base metal

    prices.

    Wardrop conducted a site visit between August 6 and 8, 2007 to examine the

    location, access and physical condition of the Ruttan property. A review of the

    available drill core and drill set-ups for the 2007 program was also conducted. In

    addition, on-site discussions of practices and procedures were held with the

    geologist in charge of the drill program, the in-coming Vice-President of Exploration

    and the Vice-President of Operations for Kria.

    In 2007, Kria began an exploration program to evaluate the potential of the upper

    portions of the West Anomaly and the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone. At the time of writing

    Kria has drilled 35 holes for a total of 11,114 metres. Complete assay results for

    these holes are scheduled for release in May 2008. A Versatile Time Domain

    Electromagnetic (VTEM) survey was flown in April 2008 and borehole EM will be

    used to optimise additional drill targets. Various press releases are presented on the

    Kria website: (www.kiriaresources.com).

    The following list shows the meaning of the abbreviations for technical terms used

    throughout the text of this report.

    Abbreviation Meaning

    AEM Airborne electromagnetic survey

    AMAG Airborne magnetic survey

    Ag Silver

    As Arsenic

    Au Gold

    cm Centimetre

    Cu Copper

    ddh Diamond drill hole

    EM Electromagnetic survey

    g Gram

    g/t Grams per tonne

    ha Hectare(s)

    HBM&S Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting

    HLEM Horizontal loop electromagnetic (survey)

    IP/RES Induced polarization/resistivity (survey)

    km Kilometre(s)

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 6 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Abbreviation Meaning

    L Level

    m Metre(s)

    Ma Million years

    MAG Magnetic survey

    mm Millimetre(s)

    NI National Instrument

    PEM Pulse electromagnetic survey

    Pb Lead

    ppm Parts per million

    PUBCO Public company

    SGM Sherritt-Gordon Mines

    U/Pb Uranium/lead (age date)

    VLF-EM Very low frequency electromagnetic (survey)

    VTEM Versatile time-domain electromagnetic (survey)

    Zn Zinc

    2 . 1 T E R M S O F R E F E R E N C E

    Kria has retained Wardrop to prepare a NI 43-101 compliant Technical Report and

    Resource Estimate for the former Ruttan property in northern Manitoba.

    The address of the corporation is Suite 810, 65 Queen St. W., Toronto, Ont. M5H

    2M5. Kria is a private company incorporated under the laws of Ontario and the

    Ruttan Mine property is material to the corporation. This report may be used by Kria

    to support an application for listing on the Toronto Stock Exchange.

    This report is prepared in compliance with the Canadian Securities and

    Administrators NI 43-101 under the direct supervision of:

    Christopher Moreton, PhD, P.Geo, was formerly a Senior Geologist with Wardrop

    Engineering Inc. He directed the review of the data as well as the estimation of the

    resources for the Ruttan property. He also visited the property between the dates of

    August 6 and 8, 2007 to review the drill sites, drill core and general property layout.

    No limitations were put on the author by Kria during the preparation of this report.

    Pierre Desautels, P.Geo, was formerly a Senior Geologist with Wardrop

    Engineering Inc. He provided technical support as well as critical peer review of the

    methods and procedures for this report.

    Tim Maunula, P.Geo, is the General Manager for Wardrop Engineering’s Toronto

    Mining Office and provided on-going technical support and peer review of the final NI

    43-101 compliant report.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 7 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Noris Del Bel Belluz, P.Geol. is the Manager of Technical Services for Wardrop

    Engineering Inc. He provided on-going geological support and peer review of the

    final NI 43-101 compliant report.

    In February 2009, this report was revised by:

    Paul Daigle, P.Geo., a Senior Geologist with Wardrop and has over 19 years of

    progressive experience in evaluating and developing mineral exploration and mining

    projects worldwide.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 8 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    3 . 0 R E L I A N C E O N O T H E R E X P E R T S

    In the preparation of this report Wardrop has not relied upon any sources of

    information where the author is a non-qualified person with the exception of legal

    title.

    Land tenure information has been obtained from the Manitoba Industry, Economic

    Development and Mines (MIEDM), Mineral Resources Division web site, which

    contains a disclaimer as to the veracity of the data. In addition, the existence and

    validity of any un-registered agreements between parties are not reflected in the

    Manitoba land management system.

    Wardrop has relied on two principal sources of information for the data contained in

    this report as follows: digital and hardcopy information provided by Kria and a

    hardcopy technical report prepared by Harron (2007). Wardrop believes this

    information to be accurate.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 9 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    4 . 0 P R O P E R T Y D E S C R I P T I O N A N DL O C A T I O N

    Wardrop has not conducted a title search nor has it verified the legal description of

    the property.

    The Ruttan project is located approximately 21 kilometres east of the Village of Leaf

    Rapids, which in turn is approximately 750 kilometres north-northwest of Winnipeg,

    Manitoba (Figure 4.1). The Ruttan property consists of the contiguous un-surveyed

    Copper 1 to 4 and 8 to 11 (Figure 4.2) mining claims. All of these claims are located

    in NTS quadrangle 64/B/05 within The Pas Mining Division, Manitoba. The nine

    claims cover a nominal area of 1,994 hectares and contain the former Ruttan Mine,

    tailings ponds, waste rock disposal areas and lands previously occupied by the mine-

    mill complex.

    The following excerpt is taken from Harron (2007). It explains the issuer’s rights and

    obligations for the Ruttan property:

    Newdene Gold Inc. entered into an option agreement with W. S. Ferreira Ltd

    dated July 31, 2006, for the purpose of acquiring a 100% interest in the Copper

    1-4 and the Bill 5025* mining claims. The Copper 8-11 claims were

    subsequently added and form part of the option agreement. Terms of the

    agreement include aggregate cash payments of $100,000, the issuance of

    300,000 common shares of PUBCO, and, at the election of the optionor, either

    an additional $750,000 cash or 750,000 common shares of PUBCO. A work

    commitment of $1,000,000 before the second anniversary of the agreement, the

    granting of a 2% Net Smelter Return Royalty, and the opportunity to acquire 1%

    of the Net Smelter Return Royalty for $1,500,000 are additional terms included

    in the agreement.

    As of January 25, 2007, Newdene sold its rights and obligations in the properties

    to Kria. Terms of the transaction include $ 250,000 cash and a 2% Net Smelter

    Return Royalty in favour of Newdene. Kria has the right to purchase the entire

    Net Smelter Return (NSR) Royalty for $ 2,000,000 cash or common stock at any

    time.

    To the writer’s knowledge there are no current or pending challenges to the

    ownership or title of the lands, as revealed by examining claim abstracts

    maintained by the MIEDM, Mineral Resources Division, Winnipeg office.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 10 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Figure 4.1 General Location Map (From Harron, 2007)

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 11 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Figure 4.2 Property Map (from Harron, 2007)

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 12 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Newdene and W. S. Ferreira Ltd. (claim holders) warrant that the corporation

    has not received from any government authority any notice of, or communication

    relating to, any actual or alleged breach of any environmental laws, regulations,

    policies or permits.

    Table 4.1 List of Claims

    Name Number Area (ha)Record Date

    (yy.mm.dd)

    Expiry Date

    (yy.mm.dd)Registered Owner

    Copper 1 MB6509 214 06.01.18 12.03.18 Kria

    Copper 2 MB6510 224 06.01.18 12.03.18 Kria

    Copper 3 MB6511 224 06.01.18 12.03.18 Kria

    Copper 4 MB6512 256 06.01.18 09.03.19 Kria

    Copper 8 MB6908 140 06.08.23 12.10.22 Kria

    Copper 9 MB6909 200 06.08.23 12.10.22 Kria

    Copper 10 MB6910 256 06.08.23 12.10.22 Kria

    Copper 11 MB6911 224 06.08.23 12.10.22 Kria

    Copper 12 MB7016 256 07.02.09 09.04.10 Kria

    Totals 9 1,994

    Source: Government of Manitoba, Department of Science and Technology, Energy and Mines(website)

    The following excerpt is also from Harron (2007):

    In Manitoba a claim is good for two years after it has been recorded. To

    maintain tenure beyond two years the holder is required to perform and report

    exploration work. The work requirements are $12.50 per hectare for each year

    from year two to year ten, and $25.00 per hectare for year 11 and beyond.

    An exploration expenditure of $11,475 is required to be expended on the Copper

    1-4 and $10,250 on the Copper 8-11 claims by March 18, 2008 and August 10,

    2008 respectively in order to maintain tenure.

    In order to produce minerals from a claim, the claim must be converted to a

    surveyed mining lease. A claim can be converted to a mineral lease if a

    minimum of $625 per hectare of exploration expenditures has been reported

    over the life of the claim. The term of a mineral lease is twenty-one years with

    an annual rental of $10.50 per hectare. Additional twenty-one year renewals of

    mineral leases are available.

    A mineral lessee must submit a report on exploration work carried out under the

    lease. The report must contain the information required in the regulations and a

    certified statement of expenditures incurred in performing exploration work for

    each of the following periods:

    A. the first five years of the lease;

    B. the second five years of the lease;

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 13 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    C. the third five years of the lease;

    D. the last six years of the lease.

    In respect of surface exploration on the Copper 1-4 and 8-12 claims (Ruttan

    Mine site) special conditions and waivers, with regard to safety issues and

    provincial government liability, may be imposed.

    Underground exploration will require the filing of a closure plan along with a

    security deposit. This regulation applies for all advanced stage exploration

    projects and mining operations. Closure plans must meet provincial and federal

    environmental and workplace health and safety requirements.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 14 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    5 . 0 A C C E S S I B I L I T Y , C L I M A T E , L O C A LR E S O U R C E S , I N F R A S T R U C T U R E A N DP H Y S I O G R A P H Y

    The following information is modified from Harron (2007).

    The Ruttan Mine is located approximately 21 kilometres east of the town of Leaf

    Rapids in north-western Manitoba. An all-weather gravel road connecting the site to

    Leaf Rapids provides easy vehicle access in all seasons (Figure 5.1).

    Climatic conditions are typical of the northern boreal forest, with moderately cold

    winter conditions from November through March including an average of 0.6 metres

    to 2 metres of snowfall. Summer conditions include a moderate amount of

    precipitation and warm temperatures in the upper 20 degree Celsius (°C) and low

    30°C range persisting for several months. Experience indicates that most

    preliminary exploration activities can be executed year round, except geological and

    geochemical surveys, which are best executed in the summer months.

    Elevations on the properties range from approximately 286 metres to 328 metres

    giving a relief of approximately 41 metres. In general, the relief is dominated by

    rounded glacially sculpted hills.

    Drainage is poorly organized in this area which is typical of the Canadian Shield.

    Outcrops are scarce on the claims and the bedrock geology is known mostly from

    drill cores, geophysical interpretations and geological surveys.

    The property has the sufficient surface rights for future exploration or mining

    operations including potential tailings storage areas, potential waste disposal areas,

    heap leach pads areas and potential processing plant sites. The closure plan filed by

    HBM&S in 2002 has progressed to the point of rehabilitating the roads on the

    property. At the time of the 2007 site visit the mine buildings had already been

    demolished although the headframe winding house was purchased intact by Kria.

    Numerous waste stock piles as well as dried tailings ponds were also observed

    during the 2007 site visit.

    The numerous lakes in the vicinity of the two properties provide an ample source of

    process and potable water. Hydro-electrical power is also available in the area.

    Power line towers and wires still extend to the Ruttan Mine site and could be

    rehabilitated if required.

    The Village of Leaf Rapids is a mining town that supplied labour and services to

    support the Ruttan Mine and it maintains an inventory of vacant real estate. The

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 15 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    town is connected by provincially maintained highways to Thompson (220

    kilometres), Lynn Lake (100 kilometres) and to the highway network in the southern

    part of the province providing access to bulk fuel and general freight. Mining

    personnel and supplies can be sourced from either Thompson, the largest mining

    town in northern Manitoba, or possibly from Leaf Rapids.

    Table 5.1 Location and Access (from Harron, 2007)

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 16 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    6 . 0 H I S T O R Y

    6 . 1 C O P P E R C L A I M S

    The following is modified from Harron (2007).

    The Copper 1 to 4 and 8 to 12 claims cover the location of the historical Ruttan Mine.

    The history of exploration, development and ownership is briefly listed in Table 6.1.

    Table 6.1 History of the Copper Claims

    SGM 1968Hunting-type AEM &

    AMAG

    Stopped short of Ruttan Mine conductors, AF

    91664

    MMNR 1968 Questor AEM & AMAGDetected conductors at future Ruttan Mine, AF

    91988

    SGM 1968 Ground EM & MAGDelineation of Ruttan Mine conductors and a few

    DDHs

    SGM 196921,030 m diamond

    drilling

    Discovery, estimated reserve: 46.3 MM tonnes,

    1.5% Cu, 1.6% Zn to 600m level (Not NI 43-101

    Compliant)

    SGM 1970-7261,570m diamond

    drilling, bulk sampling

    Construction of mine/mill and town of Leaf

    Rapids

    SGM 1973-80 Open pit production 9,000 tonnes per day

    SGM 1979-87 Underground production 5,500 tonnes per day

    HBM&S 1987 Purchase of Ruttan Mine

    HBM&S 1988 Questor AEM & AMAG Covered whole area

    HBM&S 1988Discovery of “West

    Mine”Estimated at 8.2 MM tonnes

    HBM&S 1994 Spectrem ® Survey Deep AEM over all claims AF 94918

    HBM&S 1995-97Ground PEM, HLEM,

    MAG, diamond drilling

    Follow up of Spectrem anomalies with

    geophysics and diamond drilling AF 94917

    HBM&S 2002 Closure in July Low metal prices

    Note: SGM is Sherritt Gordon Mines Ltd. HBM&S is Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Ltd. andMMNR is the Manitoba Ministry of Natural Resources.

    The Ruttan ore bodies are steeply dipping lenses of massive sulphide mineralization

    separated by faults of various orientations. The sulphides outcrop over a distance of

    1.5 kilometres and have been tested to a known depth of 1.1 kilometres. The

    distribution of the main groups of lenses is presented in Figure 6.1 and a simplified

    longitudinal section shown in Figure 6.2.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 17 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Figure 6.1 General Location of the Mineralization (form Harron, 2007)

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 18 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Figure 6.2 Simplified Longitudinal Section (from Harron, 2007)

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 19 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Underground workings are present in the West Anomaly Mine and Main Mine areas.

    In addition, there is an open pit located more or less halfway between the two mine

    areas. Both the underground workings and the open pit are flooded. A shaft is

    located in the Main Mine area, although ancillary equipment is no longer present.

    The Ruttan Mine was operated continually until closure in 2002. HBM&S records

    indicate that the total production prior to closure from the Ruttan Mine was

    55,175,754 tonnes grading 1.23% copper and 1.41% zinc. This number has not

    been validated by Wardrop.

    In March 2002 an inventory of reserves was undertaken by HBM&S staff to assist

    with forward production planning. This study considered three different categories of

    sulphide ore: (a) stopes associated with a positive NSR, (b) stopes associated with a

    positive NSR, but deemed to be of high risk such that normal mining costs would

    probably not apply, and (c) stopes associated with a negative NSR.

    Historical diamond drill hole intersections have returned significant intercept widths

    and zinc grades in the hanging wall zinc zone. The zone has been traced from the

    175 metre level to the 600 metre level and remains open to depth. According to

    Harron (2007), a lack of drill stations in this part of the mine prevented further

    delineation of the zone.

    On April 7, 2011, Trevali Mining Corp. completed a plan of arrangement with Kria

    Resources Ltd. and changed its name to “Trevali Mining Corporation”. Pursuant to

    the plan of arrangement, the Company acquired all of the issued and outstanding

    common shares of Kria in consideration of 0.2 of Common Share for each common

    share of Kria. The acquisition was approved by shareholders on March 30, 2011,

    received final court approval on April 6, 2011, and closed effective April 7, 2011.

    Following closing, 87,663,745 Common Shares were issued and outstanding, of

    which 20,992,250 Common Shares were issued to Kria shareholders (representing

    23.95% of the issued and outstanding Common Shares). On June 8, 2011, the

    Company filed a business acquisition report, a copy of which is available at

    www.SEDAR.com.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 20 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    7 . 0 G E O L O G I C A L S E T T I N G

    The following description of the geological setting is adapted from Harron (2007).

    7 . 1 R E G I O N A L G E O L O G Y

    The Ruttan deposit is located in the west-central portion of the Paleoproterozoic

    Rusty Lake Greenstone Belt (RLGB) within the Lynn Lake-Leaf Rapids Domain on

    the northern flank of the Trans-Hudson Orogen (Figure 7.1). The RLGB is 65

    kilometres long and up to 35 kilometres wide and lies southeast of the Lynn Lake

    Greenstone Belt. The RLGB contains metamorphosed mafic and felsic volcanic

    rocks, volcanic-derived sedimentary rocks, and small mafic and felsic sub-volcanic

    plutons. All supracrustal rocks have been folded, faulted and subsequently intruded

    by larger mafic and felsic plutons. The Baldock Batholith, an assemblage of

    paragneiss, orthogneiss and plutonic rocks, completely surrounds the greenstone

    belt. The age of the RLGB, as determined by uranium/lead zircon age dating, is

    1878 +/- 3 million years (Baldwin et al, 1987).

    Contrasts in rock types and apparent stratigraphic discontinuities prompted Baldwin

    (1980, 1988) to subdivide the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the RLGB into four

    fault-bounded blocks. The Ruttan deposit on the Copper claims is located in the

    northwest portion of the Ruttan Block, which consists mainly of submarine mafic

    volcanic and sedimentary rocks.

    7 . 2 P R O P E R T Y G E O L O G Y

    7.2.1 RUTTAN M IN E (COPPER CLAIM S )

    The geology and stratigraphy of the Ruttan Mine area is described in detail by

    Speakman et al. (1982), Ames (1996) and Ames and Taylor (1996). From north to

    south, the supracrustal rocks in the immediate mine area are divided into the Mill

    Pond unit (MPU), Mine Sequence unit (MSU), and the Powder Magazine unit (PMU)

    (Figure 7.2).

    The MPU consists of allochthonous ocean floor mafic volcanic rocks that are

    juxtaposed to the south with the MSU across the northeast-trending Mill Pond Shear

    Zone.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 21 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Figure 7.1 Regional Geology – Rusty Lake Belt (from Harron, 2007)

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 22 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Figure 7.2 Geology – Ruttan Mine Area (from Harron, 2007)

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 23 0787190100-REP-L0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    The MSU is subdivided into three distinct lithological sections. The northern section

    consists of a homogeneous sequence of layered, heterolithic, intermediate

    volcaniclastic rocks that ranges in thickness from 200 to 300 metres and is referred

    to as the “footwall volcaniclastic rocks”. The middle section of the MSU, which is

    approximately 75 metres thick, consists of variably altered volcaniclastic and

    fragmental volcanic rocks of dacitic and rhyolitic compositions along with associated

    exhalites. This section hosts several large lenses of massive sulphide mineralization

    which collectively make up the Ruttan deposit. The southern section of the MSU is

    up to 100 metres thick and is composed of a distinctive sequence of light grey to

    white, quartz-phyric, rhyolitic volcaniclastic rocks that have a uranium/lead age of

    1883+/- 2 million years. Studies by Ames (1996) indicate that the MSU is of a

    transitional calc-alkaline to tholeiitic petrochemical affinity.

    The units south of the MSU are in contact with a sequence of intercalated

    greywacke-mudstones and polymictic conglomerates of the PMU. Controversy

    exists as to the nature of the PMU lower contact; it has been variously termed

    discordant, conformable or tectonic.

    To the west and north of the Ruttan deposit the supracrustal rocks are truncated by

    the Brehaut Lake pluton (1852.5+/- 1.2 million years), which consists primarily of

    homogeneous, light grey, medium-grained biotite granodiorite. Contact intrusion

    breccia zones and dykes emanate from the intrusion.

    To the south the supracrustal sequence is intruded by the Corner Lake pluton, which

    in the immediate mine area, consists predominantly of dark green, fine-grained

    hornblende diorite dykes and sills within the mineralization and its host rocks.

    Hydrothermal alteration in proximity to sulphide mineralization is pervasive and

    locally intense in the central portion of the MSU. It takes the form of interleaved

    lenticular zones of silicification, chloritization and sericitization, commonly referred to

    as exhalite and/or “ore equivalent horizon”.

    Three principal groups of lenses were defined by HBM&S at the Ruttan deposit

    based on their spatial distribution and structural settings: the B lenses, the West

    lenses, and the East lenses. Art’s Shear Zone (ASZ) separates the B lenses in the

    footwall from the West lenses in the hanging wall, whereas the East Shear Zone

    (ESZ) separates the West lenses in the footwall from the East lenses in the hanging

    wall. The ASZ and the ESZ are sigmoidal structures that dip toward the southeast at

    steep to moderate angles and appear to splay off the hanging wall of the North Wall

    Shear Zone (NWSZ). The NWSZ is steeply dipping to the south-southeast and

    partially envelopes the B lenses in the West Mine. All shear zones are characterized

    by laterally continuous zones of strongly foliated chlorite-biotite schist that range up

    to 30 metres in thickness. Asymmetric fabrics in the shear zones indicate dextral

    shear with a variable component of normal oblique slip.

    The Ruttan lenses are elongated and plunge to the southeast at moderate to steep

    angles (Figure 6.2). The long axes of the ore bodies are sub-parallel to mineral and

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 24 0787190100-REP-L0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    intersection lineations in the host rocks, the hinges of mesoscopic and macroscopic

    isoclinal F2 folds and the β–axis of a late network of anatomized D3 shear zones

    suggestive of structural control (Anderson et al, 2005).

    In the West Mine the B lens has a strike length of between 350 and 400 metres and

    typically it is 10 to 15 metres thick. Over short distances, along strike and down dip,

    it varies from 5 to 40 metres thick. This lens does not outcrop and extends from 170

    to 1,040 metres below surface, with a general plunge of 55° to 65° to the south-

    southeast. The B lens in the Main Mine is laterally continuous at surface with a strike

    length of approximately 500 metres and a steep dip to the south-southeast. The lens

    is typically 10 to 15 metres thick but locally it varies from 5 to 60 metres over shorter

    distances. In the down-dip direction the B lens separates into a series of discrete,

    regularly spaced copper-rich ore shoots that plunge steeply to the southeast and

    exhibit progressively decreasing strike lengths and thicknesses with depth. Within

    the ore shoots, zones of zinc-rich mineralization and large diabase boudins trend at a

    slight counter-clockwise angle to the strike of the lens. The deepest ore shoot

    ultimately pinches out 370 metres below surface.

    The West group of lenses (C, D, E, and F) constitutes a complex ore body bounded

    by ASZ in the footwall and ESZ in the hanging wall. At surface the West lenses have

    a maximum strike length of approximately 350 metres and contain intervals of

    massive sulphides that are up to 75 metres thick. The thickest sulphide

    accumulations are along the western termination of the West lenses and define a

    prominent copper-rich shoot plunging 55° to 65° to the southeast, and terminating

    around 770 metres below surface.

    The East group of lenses, which consists mainly of the H, J, K, L, JH, JL and JS

    lenses, has a strike length of approximately 600 metres and dips steeply to

    moderately to the southeast. These lenses extend from surface for more than 1,000

    metres with a general plunge of 55° to 60° to the southeast, and remain open to the

    east along strike and down plunge to the southeast. Level plans above the 800

    metre level indicate that the East lenses are arranged in a tight, roughly U-shaped

    pattern analogous to that of the West lenses, which is interpreted as the D3 hinge

    line of an isoclinal synform overturned to the north-northwest. In the fold hinge the J

    and K lenses merge to form a copper-rich ore shoot plunging 55° to the southeast

    along the western termination of the East lenses to an ultimate depth of 1,050

    metres.

    Sulphide mineralization in the Ruttan deposits is principally composed of pyrite with

    highly variable, though generally subordinate, proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite,

    sphalerite, and minor galena. Common gangue minerals include chlorite, biotite,

    quartz, anthophyllite, magnetite, talc, anhydrite, gypsum, calcite and gahnite in order

    of decreasing abundance.

    Three principal types of sulphide mineralization are recognized in the deposits.

    Copper-rich massive sulphide, zinc-rich layered sulphide and copper-rich stringer

    sulphide. The copper-rich massive and zinc-rich layered sulphides form the most

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 25 0787190100-REP-L0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    significant ore bodies in the deposit. Copper-rich stringer sulphide is particularly well

    developed in the immediate footwall rhyolite of the B lens in the West Mine.

    In the late stages of mining, the hanging wall zinc zone (HWZ) was discovered. This

    new style of mineralization was discovered east of the East lenses on the 265 metre

    level of the Main Mine. The zone dips steeply to the southeast and has been traced

    down plunge from the 150 metre level to the 600 metre level. The mineralization

    consists of an irregular body of high-grade zinc mineralization hosted by epidotized

    biotite schist of the PMU. The mineralization is composed of approximately 90%

    coarse-grained equigranular sphalerite and 10% combined pyrrhotite, galena, pyrite

    and chalcopyrite (in order of decreasing relative abundance). Zinc and silver grades

    in this mineralization are an order of magnitude higher than in the Ruttan deposit

    (Anderson et al., 2005).

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 26 0787190100-REP-L0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    8 . 0 D E P O S I T T Y P E

    The following description is modified from Harron (2007).

    The Ruttan deposit is a bimodal-siliciclastic type of volcanogenic massive sulphide

    deposit, similar to those found in the Iberian Pyrite Belt of Portugal and Spain and in

    the Bathurst district of New Brunswick (Barrie and Taylor, 2001). In general,

    bimodal-siliciclastic deposits have approximately equal proportions of volcanic and

    siliciclastic rocks in the host stratigraphy, with felsic volcanic rocks more abundant

    than mafic volcanic rocks. The felsic volcanic rocks are generally calc-alkaline,

    whereas the mafic volcanic rocks are generally tholeiitic. The depositional

    environment is normally a rifted continental arc.

    Electromagnetic geophysical surveys are an efficient technique for discovering these

    highly conductive deposits. In the case of the Ruttan deposit magnetic pyrrhotite and

    magnetite are minor mineral phases which indicate that a modest magnetic signature

    is commonly associated with the electromagnetic signal.

    Geochemical trace element analyses are also a method of defining favourable host

    rocks. Results of 200 whole rock analyses summarized by Speakman et al (1982)

    demonstrate that a pervasive alteration zone extends stratigraphically below and

    laterally away from the deposit. The footwall volcaniclastic rocks are depleted in

    sodium oxide (Na2O), potassium oxide (K2O) and calcium oxide (CaO), and enriched

    in iron (II) oxide (FeO) and, to a lesser extent, magnesium oxide (MgO) toward the

    deposit. However, within 200 metres of the deposit there is a sharp increase in MgO

    and decreases in CaO and Na2O.

    Interpretation of rare earth element data suggests that positive europium (Eu)

    anomalies are associated with zinc-rich VMS deposits. The observed patterns are

    the result of Eu leached by hydrothermal fluids from the footwall rocks (creating

    negative Eu anomalies) and deposited together with other constituents in the

    associated exhalative rocks, “ore equivalent horizons” and sulphide deposits. These

    positive Eu anomalies extend up to one kilometre east of the Ruttan deposits along

    the same exhalative horizon. Negative Eu anomalies are common in exhalites at

    locations distal to sulphide deposits, which have not been hydrothermally altered

    (Gale et al, 2002).

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 27 0787190100-REP-L0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    9 . 0 M I N E R A L I Z A T I O N

    Multiple mineralized zones are present on the Ruttan property. These zones, which

    are dated at about 1,878 Ma, generally occur at the top of a felsic volcanic rock

    sequence that overlies dacites, andesites and basaltic units. Mafic to intermediate

    epiclastic units overlie the mineralized zones.

    Three massive sulphide bodies have been defined and these are known as the Main

    Mine, West Lenses and the West Anomaly. In general, each of these sulphide

    bodies consists of several lenses of massive to disseminated sulphide mineralization.

    Typically, the lenses are upright with dips ranging from 50° to 80° to the south. They

    vary in thickness from 4 to 50 metres with a strike length of 2,000 metres and a

    down-dip length of about 1,050 metres. Isoclinal folding and associated shear zones

    disrupt the original primary layering of the sulphides. Locally, however, the typical

    volcanogenic massive sulphide mineral sequence is present: disseminated to

    stringer pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite within a chloritic host rock is overlain by

    massive pyrite with subordinate pyrrhotite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, magnetite,

    quartz, anhydrite and calcite. Chalcopyrite and sphalerite are the ore minerals.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 28 0787190100-REP-L0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 0 . 0 E X P L O R A T I O N

    1 0 . 1 D R I L L I N G 2 0 0 7

    Ten holes (R0701 to R0709 inclusive, including one re-start) were drilled by Kria in

    2007 to test the upper portions of the West Anomaly and Main Mine area (Table

    10.1). These holes were spotted by Karl Albert (consulting geologist) using

    engineering grid coordinates defined by Steve Davies of Kria.

    Holes R0701 to R0704 tested the upper portion of the West Anomaly Zone (for a

    cumulative meterage of 916 metres) while the remaining six holes (including one re-

    start) were drilled in the vicinity of the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone (for a cumulative

    meterage of 1,505 metres). The coordinates for each hole were confirmed using a

    total station surveying tool after the drill rig had been moved off the collar.

    All four holes on the West Anomaly intersected multiple zones of base metal

    mineralization. Table 10.2 is a summary of the better values reported in a press

    release dated October 30, 2007.

    Kria also drilled five holes on the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone. Some of the results are

    shown in Table 10.3 (taken from a press release dated January 10, 2008).

    Borehole EM surveys were carried out on four of the holes to test for down-plunge

    extensions of the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone as well as the up-dip portion of the Main

    Zone. To date, no results have been released for these surveys.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 29 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Table 10.1 Kria 2007 Drill Hole Coordinates (Local Grid)

    Engineering Grid Geology Grid Bearing Dip Depth

    Hole ID Northing Easting Elevation Lat (mN) Dep (ft) Elevation (° Az) ( ° ) (m)

    RO701 2900.825 14594.029 1540.041 -204.3 00+0.2E 1540.041 339 -73.5 295.0

    RO702 2912.098 14638.258 1544.281 -208.9 1+50E 1544.281 339 -60.0 239.9

    RO703 2871.585 14700.343 1545.364 -268.3 2+95E 1545.364 339 -50.0 279.9

    RO704 2962.059 14717.230 1540.002 -188.9 4+49.2E 1540.002 339 -59.7 209.4

    RO705 3168.289 16150.439 1534.804 -485.2 51+00E 1534.804 346.1 -54.4 312.4

    RO706 3176.105 16164.296 1535.079 -482.6 51+50E 1535.079 345.6 -50.0 300.5

    RO707 3175.573 16164.126 1535.185 -483.1 51+50E 1535.185 338.4 -60.4 -

    RO707A 3175.620 16164.431 1535.158 -483.1 51+50E 1535.185 338.4 -60.4 327.7

    RO708 3176.182 16180.473 1535.018 -488.2 52+00E 1535.018 343.7 -50.4 269.8

    RO709 3220.021 16180.662 1534.489 -446.9 52+50E 1534.489 338.4 -64.5 294.7

    2,529.3

    Table 10.2 Significant Values from the 2007 West Anomaly Drilling

    Hole Number Area Core Length (m) Copper (%) Zinc (%)

    R0701 West Anomaly 10.16 0.64 5.04

    R0702 West Anomaly 4.08 0.43 7.07

    R0703 West Anomaly 27.40 0.53 4.24

    R0704 West Anomaly 9.05 1.01 4.63

    Table 10.3 Significant Values from the 2007 Hanging Wall Zinc Zone Drilling

    Hole Number Area Core Length (m) Copper (%) Zinc (%)

    R0707A Hanging Wall Zinc 11.25 0.18 7.43

    Including 3.3 0.24 15.85

    R0707A Hanging Wall Zinc 3.02 0.05 6.00

    R0709 Hanging Wall Zinc 0.98 0.05 1.04

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 30 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 0 . 2 D R I L L I N G , 2 0 0 7 - 2 0 0 8

    The Winter 2007/08 Program consisted of 21 drill holes and the deepening of two

    previously drilled holes (R0708 and R0709) for a total of 7.146.7 metres. Eighteen

    drill holes targeted the West Anomaly, while the remaining three drill holes and the

    two deepened holes targeted the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone.

    Drill hole locations were spotted using a total station surveying tool, then upon

    completion of the drilling, the coordinates for each hole were confirmed using the

    total station surveying tool.

    Drill holes R0710 to R0727 as well as R0805 and R0806 tested the upper portion of

    the West Anomaly Zone (a total of 4,754 metres) while the remaining three holes and

    two deepened holes were drilled in the vicinity of the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone (for a

    total of 1,828 m). The coordinates for each hole were confirmed using a total station

    surveying tool after the drill rig had been moved off the collar.

    After completion of the drill program, a down hole EM geophysical survey was

    carried out in six holes, three each on the Hanging Wall Zinc Zone and the West

    Anomaly. Results have not been released. Table 10.4 lists the drill holes and collar

    locations.

    Significant assay results from selected drill holes are listed in Table 10.5.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 31 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Table 10.4 Drill Hole Coordinates form the 2007-2008 Winter Drilling Program

    Hole ID

    UTM (Nad 27) Geology Grid Bearing Dip Depth

    Northing EastingElevation

    (m)Lat (mN) Dep (ft)

    Elevation

    (m)(° Az) (°) (m)

    R0710 6258767.5 460087.5 303.9 -169.5 0+50E 1542.8 340 -60 301.2

    R0711 6258679.1 460091.4 308.0 -252.0 0+51W 1546.9 340 -60 303.9

    R0712 6258836.6 460140.7 301.1 -126.4 2+99E 1540.0 340 -60 125.0

    R0713 6258787.9 460108.3 303.2 -158.8 1+39E 1542.1 340 -55 200.0

    R0714 6258858.9 460007.7 291.7 -54.3 0+75W 1530.6 340 -55 199.9

    R0715 6258665.3 460047.9 306.7 -248.3 2+00W 1545.6 340 -55 299.5

    R0716 6258420.7 460053.0 305.5 -475.6 4+97W 1544.4 340 -65 550.5

    R0717 6258373.6 459940.3 304.2 -475.1 8+97W 1543.1 340 -65 550.5

    R0718 6258811.4 460056.1 298.4 -116.7 0+11E 1537.3 340 -55 197.5

    R0719 6258726.9 460035.5 302.3 -153.6 1+11W 1541.2 340 -55 200.6

    R0721 6258721.5 460041.8 301.3 -194.0 1+56W 1540.2 340 -55 221.9

    R0722 6258735.0 460007.6 300.5 -168.5 2+32W 1539.4 340 -55 221.9

    R0723 6258680.0 460028.4 307.8 -227.2 2+40W 1546.7 340 -55 228.0

    R0724 6258681.4 460047.0 309.9 -233.1 1+82W 1548.8 340 -65 230.4

    R0725 6258651.9 460038.7 306.7 -257.1 2+45W 1545.6 340 -65 350.5

    R0727 6258813.7 460125.4 302.0 -141.7 2+23E 1540.9 340 -45 199.5

    R0708D 6259084.3 461657.8 296.1 -488.2 52+00E 1535.0 343.7 -50.4 *474.3

    R0709D 6259128.1 461655.8 295.6 -446.9 52+50E 1534.5 338.4 -64.5 *425.5

    R0801A 6259036.7 461639.5 296.2 -524.0 50+81E 1535.1 340 -55 500.2

    R0802 6259032.5 461668.5 297.1 -540.0 51+62E 1534.8 340 -55 502.3

    R0803 6259042.8 461718.1 296.7 -549.8 53+25E 1534.2 340 -53 490.1

    R0805 6258834.3 460175.6 301.0 -142.2 4+1E 1539.9 335 -63 173.1

    R0806 6258828.6 460208.3 300.5 -160.3 4+93E 1539.4 335 -63 200.6

    7146.7

    *Deepened holes (see Table 10.1).

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 32 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Table 10.5 Significant Results of the 2007/08 Winter Drill Program

    Hole Number Area Core Length (m) Copper (%) Zinc (%)

    R0708D HW Zinc 9.31 0.04 1.12

    R0710 West Anomaly1.47

    2.00

    0.20

    0.38

    4.21

    2.44

    R0711 West Anomaly5.46

    6.65

    0.35

    0.73

    2.58

    5.71

    R0712 West Anomaly 19.10 0.41 6.16

    R0713 West Anomaly2.00

    2.00

    1.09

    0.34

    4.96

    6.98

    R0715 West Anomaly2.00

    0.50

    0.63

    0.33

    2.56

    3.39

    R0724 West Anomaly 7.70 0.13 2.81

    R0727 West Anomaly 16.00 0.36 5.60

    R0801A HW Zinc9.90

    3.90

    0.17

    0.12

    3.39

    5.81

    R0806 West Anomaly

    3.00

    7.00

    4.70

    0.64

    1.40

    0.29

    5.28

    2.62

    2.77

    1 0 . 3 D R I L L I N G , 2 0 0 8

    The drill program conducted during the summer of 2008 consisted of five holes, one

    of which was a re-start, for a total of 1,437.7 metres. Targets were VTEM anomalies

    in close proximity to the historic Ruttan Mine. All holes failed to intersect significant

    mineralization and the anomalies are thought to be caused by cultural affects.

    Collars were spotted and located after completion of drilling with a hand held GPS

    device (Garmin 60 CSx). The drill hole coordinates are listed in Table 10.6.

    Table 10.6 Kria 2008 Summer Drill Hole Coordinates

    Hole IDUTM (Nad 83 Zone 14N)

    Bearing (°Az) Dip (°) Depth (m)Easting Northing Elevation (m)

    R0807 460088 6259793 300.9 347.9 -58.1 102.7

    R0808 460108 6259667 302.2 347.8 -60.0 102.7

    R0809 460153 6259565 301.7 338.7 -47.5 401.4

    R0812 461255 6258350 311.5 344.6 -45.5 503.8

    R0812A 461255 6258350 311.5 344.8 -44.5 327.1

    1,437.7

    The drill hole location map for all Kria’s drill programs may be found in Figure 10.1.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 33 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 0 . 4 G E O P H Y S I C S , 2 0 0 8

    In April 2008, Geotech Inc. was contracted to fly Versatile Time Domain

    Electromagnetic (VTEM) Geophysical Survey over the Property. A total 0f 1,723 line

    km flown along flight lines oriented at N160°E and at 100 metre spacings. Tie lines

    were flown every 1,000 m in a N070°E direction. At the time of writing this report,

    processing and interpretation of the geophysical data was ongoing.

    1 0 . 5 E X P L O R A T I O N E X P E N D I T U R E S , 2 0 0 7 - 2 0 0 8

    To date, Kria has completed over $4,330,000 of exploration expenditures on the

    former Ruttan Mine. A detailed list of the exploration expenditures in 2007 and 2008

    are listed in Table 10.7 below.

    Table 10.7 Kria 2007 and 2008 Exploration Expenditures

    Year2007

    ($Cdn)

    2008

    ($Cdn)

    Total

    ($Cdn)

    Acquisition and property costs 329,237 303,763 633,000

    Exploration Expenditures

    Field equipment 11,855 49,111 60,966

    Drilling 1,137,243 1,201,884 2,339,127

    Wages and salaries 383,738 532,295 916,033

    Geological surveys 48,239 403,449 451,688

    Travel, transportation and freight 27,409 41,608 69,017

    Field consumables 179,595 259,293 438,888

    Field office support 27,224 29,537 56,761

    Total Exploration Expenditures 1,815,303 2,517,177 4,332,480

    TOTAL DEFERRED COSTS $2,144,540 $2,820,940 $4,965,480

    $Cdn – Canadian Dollars

    Source: Kria Resources Inc.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 34 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Figure 10.1 Drill Hole Location Map, Kria Drill Programs 2007-2008

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 35 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 1 . 0 D R I L L I N G

    Historically, diamond drill holes were sited on the hanging wall side of

    electromagnetic conductors and drilled a few metres past the conductor. Lateral

    spacing between drill holes varied according to field conditions, but generally the

    plan was to intersect the conductors at 200-foot (60 metre) intervals. Diamond

    drilling in the late 1960s and 1970s was mainly BQ and AX core size. HBM&S

    continued the practice of using BQ size core on surface and AX size underground.

    Records indicate that surface and underground core was logged by company

    employees in a formal core handling facility located at the mine site. Upon receipt of

    the core from the drill contractor, the footage markers were checked for proper

    location and were also used to estimate core loss (if any). After logging the core, the

    geologist marked the sample intervals on the core and provided appropriate sample

    tags and documentation for each interval to be sampled (from the same side of a

    splitting line). Sample intervals generally ranged from 0.3 metres to 1.5 metres and

    accommodated changes in lithologies and the length of the mineralized sections.

    Diamond drill logs were principally recorded on paper media when SGM ran the mine

    while digital logs were generated by HBM&S. In both cases the logs contained

    detailed descriptions of the lithologies, alteration assemblages, structural data, and

    mineralization as well as borehole trajectory surveys. However, in either case the

    hard copy drill hole data was not available for review by Wardrop.

    The sulphide-rich lenses are upright with dips ranging from 50° to 80° to the south.

    They vary in thickness from 4 to 50 metres with a strike length of 2000m and a down-

    dip length of about 1,050 metres. The mineralization is intersected at different

    altitudes because of the use of fan drilling underground and surface drilling with

    varying head azimuths and dips. Consequently, true widths for the mineralization

    have to be calculated on a hole by hole basis. Drilling was conducted on a regular

    grid down to 15 metre drill hole spacing and several core samples were collected

    where the drill hole intersected the mineralized zones.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 36 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 2 . 0 S A M P L I N G M E T H O D A N D A P P R O A C H

    Kria collected samples from the 35 holes drilled in 2007 and 2008. The following

    description (based upon a document supplied by Kria) documents the method of

    sampling.

    The geologist logs the core and prepares it for sampling - the core is marked in

    red grease pencil with a sample number, a core cutting line along the core axis

    and a sample interval denoted by red arrows at both ends of the sample interval.

    The geologist keeps sample books and a sample summary sheet for each drill

    hole.

    Nominal sample lengths are one metre.

    The sample intervals and related information are provided to Kria in the form of a

    summary list for each hole, the latter providing the sample numbers, from, to,

    width (metres) and a description.

    Similar sample information is also recorded in the sample books provided by TSL

    Laboratories/ALS Laboratories Group. In particular, the information consists of

    the date, drill hole number, sample description, from, to, remarks and the

    geologist’s name.

    A check is made to ensure that all the data from the sample books matches the

    sample summary sheets.

    After this has been done the sample interval is checked against the core in each

    box and then checked for sample number, drill hole number, from, to and width.

    Next, one of the three tear-off sample interval tags is placed into a plastic bag.

    The core is then broken to begin the sample interval (if it is not already broken).

    For drill holes R0701 to R0709, each core box with samples was boxed shut and

    transported to Snow Lake, MB by Stephen Davies. A core-cutting facility is

    available in this mining town.

    For the 2007/2008 winter drill program, Kria purchased a core saw which was set

    up in Leaf Rapids core logging facility and operated by local trained personnel.

    The core is then sawn into two halves along the red line using a diamond core

    blade. Each sub-section of core is approximately six inches in length.

    After the core is sawn in half it is placed in the sample bag with a sample tag. A

    check is made to confirm that the sample is being placed into the correct sample

    bag. The other half of the core is placed back into the core box and aligned in

    the original orientation as laid out in the core box.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 37 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    The entire sample interval is cut and continually checked to ensure the correct

    sample is placed into the correct sample bag.

    Once the complete sample is cut the sample bag is sealed and placed into rice

    bags for shipping by Gardwine North.

    At all times the samples are under the direct care and supervision of Stephen

    Davies, P.Eng. or M. Dayle Rusk, P Geo. up to, and including, placing the

    samples on the truck. Stephen Davies P.Eng. is an officer of Kria with the title VP

    Operations and Chief Operating Officer. M. Dayle Rusk P.Geo is VP Exploration

    for Kria.

    Wardrop observed some of this sampling protocol during the site visit. In addition, it

    was observed by Wardrop that the sample intervals were tied to lithological contacts

    wherever practicable. Within the mineralized zones there did not appear to be any

    recovery issues. Wardrop recommends that a sample tag is stapled into the core

    box at the appropriate location as a record of the sampling program.

    The bulk of the information in the database is derived from samples collected by staff

    members of different mining companies. There is no current documentation of their

    sampling.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 38 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 3 . 0 S A M P L E P R E P A R A T I O N , A N A L Y S E S ,A N D S E C U R I T Y

    There is no available documentation on the preparation, analysis and security of

    samples collected at the mine site prior to the involvement of Kria. However,

    discussions with former employees of the Ruttan Mine, as well as a review of

    summary reports, indicate that a protocol was followed. A summary of this protocol

    is given below (modified from Harron, 2007).

    Sample preparation was completed by company employees at the mine site. During

    the production period of the mine the sample preparation area and separate assay

    laboratory were located within a fenced off area.

    Split core samples were prepared and analyzed either by SGM personnel (pre-1987)

    or HBM&S personnel (post-1987). After the samples were logged, the split drill core

    was crushed in its entirety at the on-site laboratory to 70% passing two millimetres.

    From these coarse rejects a sub-sample of 200 to 250 grams was split and

    pulverized to 80% passing 75 microns. From each pulp a 100 gram sub-sample was

    split for assay. The remainder of the pulp (nominally 100 to 150 grams) and the

    rejects were archived on site for future reference. There is no record of these coarse

    rejects/pulps and their current location is unknown.

    The base metals of interest (copper and zinc), plus silver, lead, iron and gold, were

    determined using a 0.25 gram aliquot that was subjected to an aqua-regia digestion

    followed by analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry.

    The upper limit for the base metals determined by this method is one percent.

    Samples showing higher values were re-assayed using a 0.4 gram aliquot and a

    finish by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The upper limit for the precious metals is

    one part per million for each of silver and gold.

    The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program of Kria (2007/2008 drilling)

    inserted both blanks and certified reference materials in the sample stream. No

    sample duplicates were taken. Blank samples were inserted every 40th sample while

    commercially available reference materials were inserted every 20th sample. The

    latter were chosen to represent a range of grade values appropriate for the

    mineralization being sampled.

    During the summer 2007 drill program (R0701 to R0709) Kria submitted all

    exploration samples to TSL Laboratories in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (an ISO/IEC

    17025 accredited laboratory). All of the samples were crushed, pulverized and

    analysed by TSL. A multi-acid digestion was used followed by either Inductively

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 39 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP/AES) or Atomic Absorption

    Spectrometry (AAS).

    During the winter 2007-2008 drill program, samples were submitted to the ALS

    Laboratory Group preparation laboratory in Thunder Bay, Ontario where the samples

    were dried, crushed, and pulverized. Pulps were then couriered to the ALS North

    Vancouver laboratory (an ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratory) for analysis. Gold

    was analysed by fire assay, with either an AAS or AES (atomic emission

    spectroscopy) finish. Other metals were determined by HF-HNO3-HCI04 acid

    digestion, hydrochloric acid (HCl) leach and ICP-AES finish.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 40 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 4 . 0 D A T A V E R I F I C A T I O N

    During mine operation, standard samples were inserted into the sample stream at

    approximately 1 in 20 samples and batches exceeding a two standard deviation limit

    were re-analyzed. It is not known how many samples were submitted to an

    independent laboratory for check assaying. Wardrop was unable to verify any of this

    information.

    For the 2007/2008 drilling program Kria inserted blank samples every 40th sample

    and commercially available reference materials every 20th sample; this technique

    monitors contamination and accuracy. No duplicate samples were used to assess

    precision issues.

    Hard copy versions of the Ruttan Mine (pre-Kria) database records were not

    available for examination. According to Harron (2007), HBM&S collected digital data

    while most of the records collected by SGM were on paper only.

    Check samples from Kria’s drilling were collected by Wardrop in August 2007 and

    submitted to Activation Laboratories in Ancaster, Ontario (an ISO/IEC 17025

    accredited laboratory). The Wardrop samples were analysed using a sodium

    peroxide fusion followed by acid dissolution and ICP/OES.

    Table 14.1 displays the results for these samples along with the equivalent results

    from TSL Laboratories, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan for the same core.

    The values in Table 14.1 indicate that base metal mineralization is present in the

    selected samples. Sample variability between the two batches may be due to

    heterogeneity in the mineralization or differences between the two analytical

    techniques (amongst other things). Nevertheless, Wardrop is satisfied that there are

    significant grades of base metal mineralization within the Kria West Anomaly portion

    of the Ruttan property (from where the samples were taken).

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 41 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    Table 14.1 Check Sample Results from the 2007 Drilling Program

    Wardrop Check SamplesActivation Labs, Ancaster, Ontario

    Au Ag Cu Fe Pb Zn

    Unit Symbol g/tonne g/tonne % % % %

    Detection Limit 0.03 3 0.005 0.05 0.01 0.01

    Analysis Method FA-GRA FA-GRA FUS-Na2O2 FUS-Na2O2 FUS-Na2O2 FUS-Na2O2

    W121135 < 0.03 11 0.125 7.02 0.32 0.06

    W121136 < 0.03 < 3 0.199 36.5 0.01 7.88

    W121137 < 0.03 < 3 0.109 36.4 0.01 7.49

    Original Kria DataTSL Laboratories, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

    Au Ag Cu Fe Pb Zn

    121135 0.0714 6 0.145 5.4 0.12496 0.3012

    121136 0.0467 2.2 0.132 35.33 0.00764 7.39

    121137 0.0243 2.2 0.102 39.93 0.00971 5.14

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 42 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 5 . 0 A D J A C E N T P R O P E R T I E S

    There are no adjacent properties in this part of Manitoba. However, Barrie and

    Taylor (2001) provide commentary on worldwide analogs, suggesting that this is a

    normal VMS deposit similar to those in the Iberian Pyrite Belt.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 43 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 6 . 0 M I N E R A L P R O C E S S I N G A N DM E T A L L U R G I C A L T E S T I N G

    Kria has not completed any metallurgical testing of samples taken from either of the

    exploration targets drilled in 2007/2008.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 44 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    1 7 . 0 M I N E R A L R E S O U R C E A N D M I N E R A LR E S E R V E E S T I M A T E S

    1 7 . 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N

    This section was previously prepared for Kria and is included in document

    # 0787190100-REP-L0001-03.

    Wardrop has estimated an NI 43-101 compliant resource for the Ruttan deposit. The

    bounding coordinates for the project are shown in Table 17.1. These coordinates

    correspond to the block centroids (of the mine grid) provided by Kria.

    Table 17.1 Block Centroid Coordinates for the Ruttan Project

    Minimum Maximum

    Easting -155.0 2005.0

    Northing -802.5 102.5

    Elevation 195.0 1555.0

    17.1.1 DAT ABASE

    Kria supplied all of the digital data for the resource estimate. This data is metric and

    comes from the final HBM&S MineSite database at the time of mine closure (2002).

    The data was imported into Gemcom GEMS 6.04 Resource Evaluation Edition

    software package.

    The drill hole dataset included the header files, survey files and assay files for all

    underground and surface holes at Ruttan. No lithology files were supplied. Wardrop

    created a table for composited intervals (called the COMP_FINAL table) as well as a

    table to capture the length of mineralization within each solid (the SOLIDCOMBO

    table). Table 17.2 summarises the drilling data records supplied to Wardrop. This

    table also shows the holes used by Wardrop for the resource estimate. There were

    24 regional exploration holes that were not used in the resource estimate as these

    drill holes do not form part of the mineralized deposit.

    Manual checks on the database were made to remove any obvious errors prior to

    statistical treatments (such as negative values). However, some other issues, such

    as unusual sample lengths, could not be validated since the hard copy data was

    unavailable.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 45 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    The data supplied covers all of the lenses of mineralization within the Ruttan mine.

    Recent drill holes from the 2007/2008 drill program (32 holes) are also included in

    the dataset.

    Table 17.2 Summary of the Drilling Data Records

    Deposit Drill HolesCollar

    Readings

    Survey

    Readings

    Assay

    Entries

    All Holes in Dataset 5,866 5,866 54,899 296,681

    Holes used for Estimate 5,842 5,842 54,431 295,154

    Regional Holes not Used 24 Holes lie outside the block centroid coordinates

    Assay Readings used by Wardrop (greater than zero)

    Cu Zn Fe Pb

    215,999 207,316 218,974 2,003

    17.1.2 SPEC IF IC GR AVITY

    When HBM&S operated the Ruttan Mine the specific gravity was calculated, rather

    than interpolated, from assay values (Maunula, 1997). The formula used is given in

    Table 17.3.

    Table 17.3 HBM&S Specific Gravity Formula

    SG = 1/Tonnage Factor

    Tonnage Factor (m3

    /tonne) = 0.3623 – (0.0031*(CU/5+ZN/2+FE))

    The formula is derived from a linear regression curve fitted to experimental data (in-

    house specific gravity and assay values) collected for 175 lower mine drilling

    samples (Lantz, 1985). Specifically, the area of the mine studied is the east ore lens

    at the 800 metre level. In this formula, the Cu, Zn and Fe attributes (in %) are known

    as the Total Sulphide components and the denominators are derived from

    ‘mineralogical data and basic assumptions at the Ruttan Mine’ (Lantz, 1985).

    For this report and the resource estimate Wardrop has interpolated the specific

    gravity for each block in the block model based on the above formula.

    1 7 . 2 E X P L O R A T O R Y D A T A A N A L Y S I S

    Exploratory Data Analysis is the application of various statistical tools to elucidate the

    characteristics of the data set. In this case, the objective is to understand the

    population distribution of the grade elements through the use of such tools as

    histograms, descriptive statistics and probability plots. The following discussion

    applies to copper and zinc only since these are the key elements at Ruttan.

  • Trevali Mining Corp. 46 0787190100-REP-R0001-00Technical Report on the Former Ruttan Mine

    17.2.1 RAW ASSAYS

    Raw assay statistics are shown in Table 17.4. Only those values greater than zero

    were used in the statistical analysis.

    Table 17.4 Raw Assay Statistics for the Complete Dataset (Excluding Regional

    Holes)

    Minimum Maximum Average Standard Deviation Variance Count

    Cu (%) 0.001 26.30 0.68 1.22 1.49 215,999

    Zn (%) 0.001 47.85 0.70 2.39 5.69 207,316

    Fe (%) 0.1 74.00 16.76 14.12 199.3 218,974

    Pb (%) 0.01 28.40 0.13 0.80 0.65 2,003

    Frequency and cumulative probability plots for both Cu (%) and Zn (%) are shown in

    Figures 17.1 and 17.2.

    17.2.2 CAPPIN G

    Two methods are used to assess the need for capping:

    Cumulative frequency plots.

    Decile analysis.

    Examples of the cumulative frequency plots for the raw uncapped data are given in

    Figures 17.1 and 17.2. With large datasets the cumulative frequency plots do not

    always produce clear-cut values for capping levels. Instead, decile analysis can be

    used to assist with setting capping levels. Table 17.5 shows the capping levels and

    the number of capped samples for the complete dataset. A decile-percentile plot for

    zinc within the complete dataset is shown in Figure 17.3.

    Table 1