Teaching Young Learners

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  • Best Classroom Practice

    Teaching Young Learners

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Kyiie Malinowska, IHWO 1

  • Best Classroom Practice

    Teaching Young Learners

    Is teaching YL really that different to teaching adults?

    What happens in a YL Classroom?

    Is it the same as what should happen? What wed like to happen?

    Is there a gap between our (and our teachers) vision of a YL

    classroom and reality?

    Is there a gap between theory and practice?

    Is there potential for more learning to happen in the YL classroom?

    How can we help support our YL teachers to be the best they can be?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 2

  • Welcome

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 3

    Image from :http://olivetorun.com/abc-123-get-to-know-me/

    Teacher

    Trainer

    Advisor

    Writer

    Coordinator

    Mentor

  • Who are you?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 4

    Image from :http://olivetorun.com/abc-123-get-to-know-me/

    ?

  • Who are you?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 5

    Image courtesy of :http://olivetorun.com/abc-123-get-to-know-me/

    ?

    Obviously the body game is great for revising body parts, but its also great for team building and creating a feeling of

    trust, especially with teens.

    TOP TIP: Great for study abroad and summer programmes when students often dont know each other and also come

    from different backgrounds so missing that group dynamic.

    WARNING: Its not suitable for all cultural backgrounds.

  • Who are you?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 6

    ?

  • Who are you?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 7

    1.Ferocious

    2.Fluffy

    3.Cuddly

  • Who are you?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 8

    1.Ferocious

    2.Fluffy

    3.Cuddly

    The silly adjectives activity can be a great ice-breaker for teens and

    normally gets a giggle. You can change it to reveal the answers as

    this is the kind of student you think you are and use it as a

    springboard for a conversation about reflecting on their own

    learning or learner training etc.

  • Who are you?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 9

    Public Relations Manager

    Its up to you to report back on your groups

    discussion.

    Secretary

    Its up to you to take notes and write things down

    when/if necessary.

    General Manager

    Its up to you to make sure everyone gets a

    chance/is encouraged to speak and is listened to.

    Project Manager

    Its up to you to make sure your group stays on

    task and finishes within the time limit.

  • Who are you?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 10

    Public Relations Manager

    Its up to you to report back on your groups

    discussion.

    Secretary

    Its up to you to take notes and write things down

    when/if necessary.

    General Manager

    Its up to you to make sure everyone gets a

    chance/is encouraged to speak and is listened to.

    Project Manager

    Its up to you to make sure your group stays on

    task and finishes within the time limit.

    Cooperative learning is great for project work.

    With YL though, be sure to break everything down into

    simple stages

  • Open wide, come inside

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 11

  • Open wide, come inside

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 12

    Using Mental Imagery

  • Open wide, come inside

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 13

  • Open wide, come inside

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 14

  • Open wide, come inside

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 15

    Weve all heard of schema and semantic network theory and that YL need to connect

    new language to their own world etc., but.

    did you know that some cognitive theorists have done studies showing that mental

    imagery is not just great for comprehension and memory, but it can also lead to greater

    grammatical awareness and understanding and that the cognitive act of mental imagery

    is connected to the verbal processes!

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 16

    Time for a group task

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 17

    Step 1

    Brainstorm some of the types

    of activities and tasks you are

    likely to see in an adult

    classroom

    e.g. An open close activity

    Image from: http://www.semrush.com/blog/publications/things-you-should-check-before-hiring-a-

    website-content-writer/

    Are YLs really that different to Adults?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 18

    Step 1

    Brainstorm some of the types

    of activities and tasks you are

    likely to see in an adult

    classroom

    e.g. An open close activity

    We all know that an ICQ here and there never goes astray in any classroom,.

    YLs not only have trouble listening and paying attention, they also sometimes need reassurance that they heard

    correctly (and its confidence boosting when an ICQ tells them they did).

    Are YLs really that different to Adults?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 19

    Step 2

    Brainstorm some

    developmental characteristics

    or key issues with

    implications in the classroom

    specific to YL

    e.g. they have shorter

    attention spans than adults

    Are YLs really that different to Adults?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 20

    Step 2

    Brainstorm some

    developmental characteristics

    or key issues with

    implications in the classroom

    specific to YL

    e.g. they have shorter

    attention spans than adults

    When given the opportunity and the right tools, YL are can be

    very creative and full of ideas. They are also easily

    distracted. Giving them time limits helps to keep them on task.

    Are YLs really that different to Adults?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 21

    Step 3

    Together in your group decide

    on 4 typically adult tasks and

    4 YL characteristics/key

    considerations for teaching

    and write them down on the

    small pieces of paper I gave

    you during the last step.

    Be sure to keep the adult and

    YL piles separate.

    Are YLs really that different to Adults?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 22

    Step 3

    Together in your group decide

    on 4 typically adult tasks and

    4 YL characteristics/key

    considerations for teaching

    and write them down on the

    small pieces of paper I gave

    you during the last step.

    Be sure to keep the adult and

    YL piles separate

    When doing project work, its a nice idea to have the

    instructions written somewhere for groups to see and refer

    back to or discuss.

    Are YLs really that different to Adults?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 23

    Step 4

    Time to play!

    Are YLs really that different to Adults?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 24

    Step 4

    Time to play!

    Kids love playing matching games, but it seems like such a waste

    to use the cards the teacher has made only once. I like to recycle

    the cards and use them for as many activities as I can. I also like to

    encourage learners to try and connect them in more creative ways.

    Are YLs really that different to Adults?

  • Are YLs really that different to Adults?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 25

    To discuss with your group now:

    What are the advantages to Cooperative

    Learning when doing group/project work

    (allocating roles)?

    What other classroom management ideas

    might help a teacher who is used to teaching

    adults keep YL engaged and on task?

    To think about for later:

    How do you help the teachers at your school transfer skills (from

    teaching adults to YL)?

    How many of your teachers do you think know why memory games

    are played in the YL classroom?

    What do you think most of your teachers do with the pieces of

    paper after the game is done?

  • What happens (or should happen) in YL Classrooms? What activities or tasks do YLs do?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 26

    Project work

    Pellmanism/ memory games

    Picture dictation

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 27

    What happens (or should happen) in YL Classrooms? What activities or tasks do YLs do?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 28

    What happens (or should happen) in YL Classrooms? What activities or tasks do YLs do?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 29

    Younger YL need to be actively involved in the language. Body, mind and soul. Actions arent just fun and

    silly to watch, they provide visual clues and help students connect to and remember the language.

    Dont be afraid to hand some of the control over the learners and let them create the actions too.

    What happens (or should happen) in YL Classrooms? What activities or tasks do YLs do?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 30

    To discuss with your group now:

    Actions can help with remembering and internalising

    new vocabulary, but why else might you use actions or

    mime in a YL classroom?

    Action stories are fun, but why is fun important in a YL

    class? And why is it good to get them moving around?

    Do you get the feeling I threw the elephant story in

    mostly because I like it a lot? Why would I do that?

    To think about for later:

    Teachers are great scavengers. They love to get new ideas for activities

    and build up a bank of fun things to do in the classroom, but how often

    do they get caught up in the superficial (the game or task itself, the

    materials, the technology) and forget about the actual learning?

    What happens (or should happen) in YL Classrooms? What activities or tasks do YLs do?

  • What does a YL Classroom look like?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 31

    Image from: http://www.activityvillage.co.uk/classroom-resources

  • What does a YL Classroom look like?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 32

    Image courtesy of: http://www.activityvillage.co.uk/classroom-resources

    In my experience, half the class want to draw, because they love drawing, and the other half dont want to draw

    because either they dont like it, they dont have the skills or confidence, or they are mini perfectionists who freak

    out when the teacher tells them to stop or use a certain colour. And lets not forget the class clown who likes to add

    a dragon, robot, shark or penis. To EVERYTHING :(

  • What does a YL Classroom look like?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 33

    To discuss with your group now:

    Why did I ask you to put the paper on your

    heads?

    Is your picture perfect? Does it matter?

    To think about for later:

    How many photocopies does your school go through?

    Could your YL teachers use 1 scrap piece of paper for 3

    or more different (meaningful) activities?

    Many teachers know that a picture dictation is good for

    YL. I mean, they have it in the Cambridge YLE, so it

    must be good, right? But how many are able to tell you

    why its used for YL ?

  • 3 or more activities with 1 piece of scrap paper?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 34

    Image from: http://indulgy.com/post/RrpwaD2WO1/shut-the-front-door

  • 3 or more activities with 1 piece of scrap paper?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 35

    Image from: http://indulgy.com/post/RrpwaD2WO1/shut-the-front-door

  • 3 or more activities with 1 piece of scrap paper?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 36

    Image from: http://indulgy.com/post/RrpwaD2WO1/shut-the-front-door

    Kylie

  • 3 or more activities with 1 piece of scrap paper?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 37

    Image from: http://indulgy.com/post/RrpwaD2WO1/shut-the-front-door

    Kylie

  • 3 or more activities with 1 piece of scrap paper?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 38

    Image from: http://indulgy.com/post/RrpwaD2WO1/shut-the-front-door

    Kylie X X

  • 3 or more activities with 1 piece of scrap paper?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 39

    Image from: http://indulgy.com/post/RrpwaD2WO1/shut-the-front-door

    Are Have Need Like Can Cant Learn

    VYL

    YL

    TEENS

  • 3 or more activities with 1 piece of scrap paper?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 40

    Image from: http://indulgy.com/post/RrpwaD2WO1/shut-the-front-door

    Are Have Need Like Can Cant Learn

    VYL

    2-7

    YL

    8-12

    TEENS

    13-17

  • 3 or more activities with 1 piece of scrap paper?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 41

    Image from: http://indulgy.com/post/RrpwaD2WO1/shut-the-front-door

    Are Have Need Like Can Cant Learn

    VYL

    YL

    X

    TEENS

    Kids love battleships and it can be adapted to almost any piece of language. Even non-readers and writers can play

    if you use pictures. Just make sure its set up well and that they have a model of the language they need. And dont

    forget some feedback and praise of good language afterwards so that they are reminded why they did the activity.

  • What does a YL Classroom look like?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 42

    To discuss with your group now:

    Why didnt I ask you to draw lines?

    Why did I tell you to guess the classroom

    objects before you asked each other?

    How could each of these activities be

    exploited further?

    To think about for later:

    In the early years of teaching YL teachers work hard on

    giving instructions and classroom management and

    setting up activities, but what happens after activities?

    YL teachers often give praise, but sometimes forget to

    make it clear to YLs exactly why they did an activity.

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 43

    Mother duck said,

    Quack, quack, quack,

    quack!

    But only 4 little ducks

    came back

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 44

    To discuss with your group now:

    Why sing a song while YLs are

    drawing?

    When should you not use a song or

    chant as a timer?

    What kinds of things can these books

    be used for?

    To think about for later:

    If you had to choose just one, what is the most

    important thing for a YL teacher to have?

    Skills? Knowledge? Resources? School support?

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 45

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 46

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 47

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 48

    One CP has a group of 14-15 year olds who speak entirely in L1 throughout the lesson. What would you suggest during feedback?

    One group of CPs have a class of 8-9 year old boys, who are fairly riotous. What advice can you give them?

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 49

    One CP has a group of 14-15 year olds who speak entirely in L1 throughout the lesson. What would you suggest during feedback?

    Together they could draw up a plan / classroom rules determining when and how English will be used in class. Itll take time, and it may never work as well as the teacher may imagine. On the other hand, at this age students change a lot, and so it may well be a matter of surviving until the next summer holiday. In September the teacher may find herself facing a completely different group of students.

    One group of CPs have a class of 8-9 year old boys, who are fairly riotous. What advice can you give them?

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 50

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 51

    Is there an

    over-attention to

    mechanics of task and

    material and to the pursuit

    of fun and an under-

    attention to the moment-by-

    moment learning that our

    practices might or might not

    lead to

    in the YL classroom?

    Taken from Scrivener and Underhill, 2012

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 52

    To discuss with your groups AND think about

    for later:

    Are our learners capable of more, much more?

    Have the tasks and techniques we use in class

    become rituals and ends in themselves?

    How can we stop covering material and start

    focusing on the potential for deep learning?

    What small tweaks and adjustments can we

    make to shift the whole focus of our teaching

    towards getting that engine of learning going?

    Scrivener and Underhill, 2012

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 53

    Skills

    Knowledge

    Resources

    School Support

  • Who are the teachers?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 54

    Skills

    Teaching Skills

    Communication Skills

    Language Skills

    Pedagogical reasoning skills and decision making

    Knowledge

    Subject matter

    Contextual Knowledge

    Theoretical knowledge

    Task bank

    Resources

    Classroom Equipment

    Materials

    Stationary

    Books

    YL Managers/ peers

    Training

    School support

    Disciplinary procedures and protocols

  • What do the teachers need?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 55

    Skills

    Teaching Skills

    Communication Skills

    Language Skills

    Pedagogical reasoning skills and decision making

    Knowledge

    Subject matter

    Contextual Knowledge

    Theoretical knowledge

    Task Bank

    Resources

    Classroom Equipment

    Materials

    Stationary

    Books

    YL Managers/ peers

    Training

    School support

    Disciplinary procedures and protocols

    Adult Education should

    have as one of its main

    tasks to invite people to

    believe in themselves. It

    should invite people to

    believe that they have the

    knowledge.

    Freire, 1973, cited in Freeman and Richards, 1996

  • How can we bridge the gap?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 56

    Skills

    Teaching Skills

    Communication Skills

    Language Skills

    Pedagogical reasoning skills and decision making

    Knowledge

    Subject matter

    Contextual Knowledge

    Theoretical knowledge

    Task bank

    Resources

    Classroom Equipment

    Materials

    Stationary

    Books

    YL Managers/ peers

    Training

    School support

    Disciplinary procedures and protocols

    What areas are falling

    short?

    What can be done to help

    fill the gaps?

    What type of teacher

    development and support

    best fits the gaps?

    Who will decide who needs

    what?

    How will it be given?

    How will you ensure the

    tacit is explicit?

  • How can we bridge the gap?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 57

    Skills

    Teaching Skills

    Communication Skills

    Language Skills

    Pedagogical reasoning skills and decision making

    Knowledge

    Subject matter

    Contextual Knowledge

    Theoretical knowledge

    Task bank

    Resources

    Classroom Equipment

    Materials

    Stationary

    Books

    YL Managers/ peers

    Training

    School support

    Disciplinary procedures and protocols

    Teacher Training Courses

    Teacher Development Sessions

    Conferences

    Workshops

    Swap shops

    Observations

    Peer observations

    Articles

    Action Research

  • What about those activities we did?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 58

    What is the aim of the activity?

    What are the underlying principles?

    What is the learner doing?

    What is the learner learning?

    Is it meaningful?

    Is it challenging?

    How can it be adapted?

  • What about all those questions for later?

    Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 59

    How do you help the teachers at your school transfer skills (from teaching adults to YL)?

    How many of your teachers do you think know why memory games are played in the YL classroom?

    What do you think most of your teachers do with the pieces of paper after the game is done?

    Teachers are great scavengers. They love to get new ideas for activities and build up a bank of fun things

    to do in the classroom, but how often do they get caught up in the superficial (the game or task itself, the

    materials, the technology) and forget about the actual learning?

    How many photocopies does your school go through?

    Could your YL teachers use 1 scrap piece of paper for 3 or more different (meaningful) activities?

    Many teachers know that a picture dictation is good for YL. But how many are able to tell you why ?

    In the early years of teaching YL teachers work hard on giving instructions and classroom management and

    setting up activities, but what happens after activities? YL teachers often give praise, but sometimes forget

    to make it clear to YLs exactly why they did an activity.

    If you had to choose just one, what is the most important thing for a YL teacher to have?

    Skills? Knowledge? Resources? School support?

  • Eaquals 06/08/2014 Teaching Young Learners by Kylie Malinowska, IHWO 60

    Thanks for listening

    Kylie Malinowska

    IH World Organisation YL Advisor & YLC

    web: www.ihworld.com

    email: [email protected]

    twitter: IHWO_YL_Ts

    blog: klokanomil.wordpress.com