South African Molluscan Shellfish Monitoring & Control ... · PDF file 2011 Shellfish...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    18-Aug-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of South African Molluscan Shellfish Monitoring & Control ... · PDF file 2011 Shellfish...

  • South African Molluscan Shellfish Monitoring & Control Programme

    Annual Report

    2011

    Custodian:

    Shellfish Monitoring Programme Marine Aquaculture Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Private Bag X2 Roggebaai Cape Town 8012

    Enquiries:

    Mr. Mayizole Majangaza, Email: [email protected], Tel: 021 403 7065, Fax: 021 434 2144

    mailto:[email protected]

  • Shellfish Monitoring Programme Annual Report February 2011

    i

    Contents

    ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 1

    INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 2

    SHELLFISH FARMS STATUS ............................................................................................................................ 2

    MONITORING OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ............................................................................................... 4

    MONITORING DATA AND FARM CLOSURES.................................................................................................. 7

    Biotoxins.................................................................................................................................................... 7

    Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) ............................................................................................................. 8

    Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison (DSP) ........................................................................................................... 9

    Amnesic Shellfish Poison (ASP) ........................................................................................................... 10

    Microbiological Contamination............................................................................................................... 10

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) ....................................................................................................................... 10

    Salmonella and Vibrio ......................................................................................................................... 11

    Heavy metals, Pesticides, PCBs and Radionuclides ................................................................................ 11

    COMPLIANCE HISTORY ................................................................................................................................ 13

    SHELLFISH MONITORING PROGRAMME PROGRESS ................................................................................... 13

    CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................... 15

    REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 15

  • Shellfish Monitoring Programme Annual Report February 2011

    ii

    FIGURES

    Figure 1: Distribution of shellfish farms along the South African coast ....................................................... 3

    Figure 2: PSP results for farms to the west of Cape Point ............................................................................ 8

    Figure 3: DSP results for farms to the west of Cape Point .......................................................................... 10

    Figure 4: E. coli results for farms on the South African Coastline............................................................... 11

    Figure 5: Cadmium results for farms to the East & West Coast of Cape Point ........................................... 12

    Figure 6: Lead results for farms to the East & West Coast of Cape Point .................................................. 12

    Figure 7: Mercury results for farms to the East & West Coast of Cape Point ............................................ 13

    TABLES

    Table 1: Schedule for testing of hazardous substances ................................................................................ 5

    Table 2: Regulatory limit for human health hazards monitored & test laboratories ................................... 6

  • 2011 Shellfish Monitoring Programme Annual Report

    1

    ABBREVIATIONS

    AM Aquaculture Management

    ASP Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research

    DAFF Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

    DoH Department of Health

    DSP Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

    EOP Environmental Officer Production

    EOSP Environmental Officer Special Production

    FCO Fisheries Compliance Office

    HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography

    LCMS Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NECSA Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa

    NRCS National Regulator for Compulsory Specification

    PCB Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PSP Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    SABS South African Bureau of Standards

    SAMSM&CP South African Molluscan Shellfish Monitoring and Control Programme

    SANAS South African National Accreditation System

    YTX Yessotoxins

    HABs Harmful Algal Blooms

    http://www.csir.co.za/

  • 2011 Shellfish Monitoring Programme Annual Report

    2

    INTRODUCTION

    The South African Molluscan Shellfish Monitoring and Control Programme (SAMSM&CP) is a programme

    within the Aquaculture and Economic Development Chief Directorate, which falls within the Fisheries

    Management Branch of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF).

    The programme aims to provide the necessary guarantees to local and international markets that the

    risk of disease and poisoning through consuming molluscan shellfish is adequately managed and

    minimized. To assure that this aim is achieved, the SAMSM&CP is working closely with the Fisheries

    Compliance Office (FCO) of DAFF, South African molluscan shellfish farmers, laboratories, National

    Regulator for Compulsory Specification (NRCS), Department of Health (DoH) and Municipalities.

    The following molluscan shellfish species farmed in South Africa include Haliotis midae (Abalone),

    Crassostrea gigas (Oyster), Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) and Choromytilus

    meridionalis (Black mussel).

    The shellfish farms are monitored by the SAMSM&CP for human health hazards such as biotoxins,

    microbiological organisms, heavy metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclides.

    Should the regulatory limit for any of the hazardous substances or organisms be exceeded the farms are

    temporarily closed for harvesting until the contaminant reaches acceptable limits.

    SHELLFISH FARM STATUS

    There were 19 shellfish farms monitored by the SAMSM&CP during 2011 of which 9 of the farms were

    to the west of Cape Point and 10 farms to the East of Cape Point (Figure 1). The farms to the west of

    Cape Point included 3 abalone farms, 2 mussel farms and 2 oyster farms. The farms to the east of Cape

    Point included 8 abalone farms and 3 oyster farms. One of the mussel farm on the west of cape point

    also culture oysters and one of the oyster farms culture mussels.

  • 2011 Shellfish Monitoring Programme Annual Report

    3

    Figure 1: Distribution of shellfish farms along the South African coast

    Most abalone farms were land based and one abalone farm was sea based. The abalone on land based

    farms are grown in tanks and the water is pumped into the tanks through free flow and/or recirculation

    systems. The oyster and mussel farms were sea-based and grown on ropes suspended from floating

    rafts; though on one farm the oysters were grown on racks that were planted into the substrate.

    Shellfish farms are susceptible to poor water quality as a result of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), sewage,

    industrial and domestic contamination. The farms which are at most risk are those situated near

    developed areas. Most of the farms in South Africa however are situated in areas that are relatively free

    of pollution and have had relatively low incidences of biotoxin concentrations exceeding the regulatory

    limit.

  • 2011 Shellfish Monitoring Programme Annual Report

    4

    MONITORING OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

    The Microbiological organisms are tested for by the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS), situated

    in Rosebank, Cape Town and Swift laboratories situated in Claremont, Cape Town. The tests included

    E. coli, Salmonella species and Vibrio species. SABS is accredited for salmonella and Vibrio and in the

    process of being accredited for ISO 16649-3 for testing E. coli. Swift is South African National

    Accreditation System (SANAS) accredited for SANS 6596 method for testing Vibrio and accredited for

    SANS 6179 and ISO 16649-3 methods for testing Salmonella and E. coli respectively.

    The biotoxins were tested for at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Rosebank,

    Cape Town. The biotoxins monitored include Paralytic Shellfish Po