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- MATA KULIAH : KLAIM DAN ASURANSI TRANSPORTASI LAUT Dosen Pengampu: RUMAJI, M.Sc. Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Administrasi dan Manajemen Kepelabuhan (STIAMAK) - Barunawati Surabaya September 2013 Copyright 2013- All Rights Reserved
- The Shipping Trade
- First came the viking cargo ships, the knarr. They were able to sail mostly downwind but required the use of oars. Staying mostly within sight of land, they knew a little about prevailing winds and navigated with the aid of a sundial and a sun stone.
- In the early 19th century Clipper ships sailed all over the world. Not much was required to sail the vessel except a strong back, a loud voice, and a basic knowledge of navigation. Navigational equipment probably included a compass, a sextant and a telescope. Life expectancy for the vessel was no more than a couple of years.
- Gyro Compass (maybe) Gyro Steering Stand (Doubtful) Radar (2) (used only approaching land) Loran A (probable) RDF (required) Fathometer (required) Radio Equipment (+ Operator) Telegraphy A cargo ship in the 1950s and 1960s was more fully equipped:
- The Norm in 2005 - Bridge Compasses Gyro (2) (digital) Electronic compass (probable) Magnetic compass Sonde Digital Steering Stand Radar (2) Digital with built in ARPA Loran C (fully automatic) GPS (Multiple) Fathometer Speed Log ECDIS Weather Fax Loggers Computer weather E-mail Digital Communications AIS SSAS Web Cams LookSea augmented reality GMDSS
- The Norm in 2005 Engine Room Steam Plants Diesel Diesel Electric Gas Turbines Generators Sewage Treatment Facilities Air Conditioning Systems Hydraulics Evaporators Controlled by a modern computerized control room
- In the early part of the 21st century, the face of shipping is quite different. Shipping has become a heavily regulated industry. Crews have to be increasingly well educated and trained and conform to regulations and procedures designed to protect cargo, crew, investors and environment. No longer as subject to the vagaries of wind and weather, modern cargo vessels are increasingly becoming the transportation mode of choice.
- Changing Dynamicsin the supply chain of ship board officers and crew have also occurred Traditionally, the worlds economic powers built the ships and trained their citizens to operate them Today, the citizenry of the developed countries are less likely to seek careers at sea Todays ships are much more likely to have been built in a foreign yard and have a multi-national crew Significant shortages of qualified ships officers and crews are expected over the next decade in all segments of the shipping industry English is the official language of shipping yet for the vast majority of ship crews, English is a foreign language.
- The MEGA BORG released 5.1 million gallons of oil as the result of a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The incident occurred 60 nautical miles south-southeast of Galveston, Texas on June 8, 1990. Human error remains the #1 cause of shipping accidents
- The New Era Natural gas is the economic/environmental fuel of choice 96% of natural gas reserves are located outside North America 25% of world natural gas consumption occurs in the U.S. We are entering a new era in LNG shipping with the imminent arrival of the first very large tankers with more that 200,000 cubic metres of cargo capacity. These tankers have new forms of propulsion (slow diesel or duel-fuel) and new technology such as reliquefaction plants on board.
- LNG ships are more technically advanced and carry a cargo unlike any other Cargo is carried at extremely cold temperature LNG can only be carried in specially designed ships Loading and discharge process is different from other tankers Cargo immediately starts re-gasification process (boil-off) Highly reduced volume 1/600th Most ships are steam powered Re-liquification & re-gasification plants on board
- LNG ships and the industry in general have enjoyed an unprecedented safety record for nearly 40 years. Why? Excellence and continued training of crew Experienced officers with long tenure in the LNG industry Superior quality of ships and equipment Long term contracts with point to point delivery Controlled and sustainable growth (supply continually meeting demand) Quality control instituted by the owner/operators
- The Demand Time-line Number of ships In service as of September 2004 174 ships (including 28 ships delivered since January 2002) In service as of May 2005 182 ships Expected new contracts for 2005 50-65 (21 are firm orders) Expected on order at end of 2005 143-158 Expected total of LNG fleet by end of 2009 339-354
- Traditional and new entrant operators, and delivery years of new LNG ships (as of September, 2004) Operators 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total Traditional Operators Misc 1 2 2 5 2 12 Gas de France 1 1 1 0 0 3 Golar 1 0 2 1 0 4 Exmar 1 1 1 0 0 3 Nigeria LNG 2 2 1 0 0 5 MOL 0 3 5 0 0 8 Pronav 0 0 0 1 3 4 NYK 0 1 2 5 0 8 Sonatrach 1 0 0 1 0 2 Bergessen 0 2 1 2 2 7 Lief Hoegh 0 1 1 0 0 2 Kawasaki 0 1 2 2 0 5 Sub-Total 7 14 18 17 7 63 New Entrant Operators Teekay 1 0 1 2 0 4 Petronet 1 0 0 0 0 1 Angelokousis (Maran) 0 1 2 1 0 4 Moller/Maersk 0 0 1 0 0 1 BG Group 0 0 3 3 1 7 Knutsen 0 0 1 0 0 1 TMT 0 0 1 0 0 1 Tsakos 0 0 0 1 0 1 Dynacom 0 0 0 2 1 3 Cosco 0 0 0 1 1 2 Sovcomflot 0 0 0 1 0 1 OSG 0 0 0 2 2 4 Iino 0 0 0 0 1 1 Sub-Total 2 1 9 13 6 31 Total 9 15 27 30 13 94
- LNG Order Book Deliveries Source: Clarksons, September 2005
- Annual Capacity Growth - Based on Cubic Meter
- LNG Fleet Capacity Growth 86 Source : Clarksons September 2005
- LNG Fleet LNG Fleet Forecast Fleet will double in size by Y 2010 and grow another 35% by Y 2015
- Evolution of LNG Carrier Size
- LNG Transport System Technology
- Energy Bridge Regas Vessel
- Offshore LNG Terminals/Concepts
- Offshore LNG Terminals/Concepts
- Offshore LNG Terminals/Concepts
- RESULT = SHORTAGES
- Shortage of adequately trained officers and crew to meet increased manning requirements
- Composition of seafarers on board a LNG ship Navigation Engine Master Chief Engineer Chief Officer (Nav.) 1st Assistant Engineer Chief Officer (Cargo) 2nd Engineer 2nd Officer 4th Engineer 3rd Officer Junior Engineer Total 5 Total 5 Officers
- Composition of seafarers on board a LNG ship Navigation Department Engine Department Pursers Office Boatswain Oiler No. 1 Chief Cook Boatswain Oiler Second Cook Able Seaman Oiler Messman Able Seaman Oiler - Able Seaman Oiler - Able Seaman Fitter - Able Seaman - - Ordinary Seaman - - Total 8 Total 6 Total 3 Ratings
- Composition of seafarers on board a LNG ship Senior Officers (Management Level) 6 Junior Officers (Operational Level) 4 Total number of officers 10 (Note) 1st Assistant Engineer is a management level engineer in charge of cargo Ratings 17 Total composition 27 Summary
- Estimated demand for officers for LNG ships on order Year Deliveries Newly Required Seafarers Total Officers* 2004(4th Qtr) 2 delivered 156 52 (32) 2005 20 1,560 520 (312) 2006 27 2,106 702 (422) 2007 30 2,340 780 (468) 2008-2010 86-101 6,708-7,878 2,236-2,626 (1,342-1,576) Total 165-180 12,870-14,040 4,290-4,580 (2,576-2,810) * Figures in parentheses show the number of Senior Officers (Management Level)
- Shortage of qualified engineers with steam endorsement
- Estimated demand for turbine engineers Year Deliveries Newly required turbine engineers Officers Senior Officers 2004(4th Qtr) 2 (delivered) 26 16 2005 20 260 156 2006 27 351 211 2007 30 390 234 2008-2010 86-101 1,118-1,313 671-788 Total 165-180 2,145-2,290 1,287-1,374
- Shortage of time to adequately train senior officers from a different segment of the shipping industry to meet the qualifications for commanding LNG ships
- Suggested training scheme for personnel on LNG tankers Training General qualification for shipmaster, deck & engine departments Appropriate shore-based fire-fighting course Approved tanker familiarization course At least 3 months approved seagoing service on tankers Tanker familiarization certificate Experience appropriate to duties on LNG tankers Approved specialized LNG training program Certificate awarded Dangerous Cargo Endorsement (Gas) Service in positions with immediate responsibility for loading, discharging and care in transit or handling LNG cargoes
- Shortage of training billets aboard existing LNG ships to be able to meet the loading and discharge qualification requirements
- Shortage of LNG simulators and qualified instructors
- Consequences? LNG ships sit idle, cargo doesnt move highly unlikely Poaching of qualified senior LNG officers from one company to another occurs LNG ships sail with minimally trained (qualified) crews Serious accidents occur.
- Solutions: First, industry must recognize the looming problem International training standards for the LNG industry must be established by IMO and national entities Training programs for converting senior officers from one type of ship to LNG ships must be developed LNG companies must work together in order to provide training billets aboard LNG ships Underwriters and financiers should insist on some level of crew training and certification Worlds maritime academies must start process of providing basic LNG training to their undergraduate students SIGTTO and IAMU are developing model courses
- The Need
- The Sale Contract Transport contract (s) Cargo Insurance contract Payment conditions The Contracts in International Trade
- Seller & Buyer must agree on... how goods should be delivered; how basic costs should be divided; who should clear the goods for Import/Export who should pay for loading/unloading; how will risk of loss be divided; and who has got to take out insurance, and for what.