Ruptured brain aneurysm
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- 1.Ruptured brain aneurysm Dr. Avinash KM MS, MRCS Ed(UK), Mch (KEM, Mumbai), FINR(Switzerland), FMINS(Germany), Interventional & Neurovascular surgeon and Stroke specialist, Endoscopic Neuro and Spine surgeon, Minimally invasive Neuro and Spine surgeon (FMINS). mob: 9740866228, E mail: [email protected] Consultant Neurosurgeon and Neurointerventionist Columbia Asia Hospital, Bangalore.
2. What is brain Aneurysm? A brain aneurysm, also referred to as a cerebral aneurysm or intracranial aneurysm (IA), is a weak bulging spot on the wall of a brain artery very much like a thin balloon or weak spot on an inner tube. Over time, the blood flow within the artery pounds against the thinned portion of the wall and aneurysms form silently from wear and tear on the arteries. As the artery wall becomes gradually thinner from the dilation, the blood flow causes the weakened wall to swell outward. This pressure may cause the aneurysm to rupture and allow blood to escape into the space around the brain. A ruptured brain aneurysm commonly requires advanced surgical treatment 3. What are the symptoms of aneurysms? 1. Asymptomatic incidentally detected aneurysms 2. Symptomatic unruptured aneurysms 3. Ruptured aneurysms Most brain aneurysms cause no symptoms and may only be discovered during tests for another, usually unrelated, condition(Asymptomatic incidentally detected aneurysms). In other cases, an unruptured aneurysm will cause problems by pressing on areas in the brain. When this happens, the person may suffer from severe headaches, blurred vision, changes in speech, and neck pain, depending on what areas of the brain are affected and how bad the aneurysm is. Symptoms of a ruptured brain aneurysm often come on suddenly. A sudden, severe headache that is different from past headaches.(worst headache of life) Neck pain. Nausea and vomiting. Sensitivity to light. Fainting or loss of consciousness. Seizures. 4. Watch videos about aneurysms and what is ruptured aneurysm About general Aneurysms: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Km_rYhtvOYI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mf8KOTn-R0o&feature=channel&list=UL About SAH ( Ruptured aneurysm): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUVejm_T0nY 5. What are the risk factors for formation of aneurysm? Modifiable risk factors Non modifiable risk factors Smoking Hypertension Heavy drinking OCP Atherosclerosis Coffee use Age Female sex Genetics/familial Collagen vascular diseases AVMs 6. Why aneurysmal rupture is dangerous? Death before reaching the hospital is 15%. Mortality rate (epidemiological study) of patients who reach hospital is 32% in USA, 43 to 44% in EUROPE and 27% in JAPAN. Significant lifestyle modifications among survivors is 12% (ISAT data) Dependents (MRS 4 and 5) is about 6.5% (ISAT data) 7. Why ruptured aneurysms(SAH) should be treated on urgent emergency basis? Rebleeding prior to treatment: The peak rate of rehemorrhage occurs in the first 24 h the spike of death and ranges as high as 1719%. The rebleed rate appears to be approximately 20% within the first 2 weeks of the ictus, and 40% at 1 month. The rate of rebleeding is roughly 23% per day. Death after rebleed is approximately 73%. 8. What are the Treatment options for treating aneurysmal rupture? Surgical clipping : Endovascular coiling Parent artery sacrifice with or with out bypass surgery 9. Which one of the two modalities is better? Coiling or Clipping? Morbidity and Mortality: ISAT TRIAL (for ruptured aneurysms): this is one of the largest study to date done for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The study results are as below Dead or dependent at one year (after surgery or endovascular treatment)- Surgical group: 30.6% patients were dead or dependent at one year Endovascular group: 23.7% of patients were dead or dependent at one year 10. Long-term ISAT Results : Long-term Recurrence or Rebleeding Requiring after primary coiling or clipping of brain aneurysm: Clipping coiling Total number of patients retreated for recurrance 0.9% 8.6% Total rebleeds after treatment 3 patients 7 patients Over all risk of rebleeding 0.3% 0.6% 11. Final comments Clearly, as per studies, Endovascular coiling is the treatment of choice for aneurysmal rupture with risks as shown above. How ever not all aneurysms can be coiled. For the aneurysms which cannot be coiled clipping is the option. 12. What international guidelines say about ruptured aneurysm treatment? Recommendations 1. Surgical clipping or endovascular coiling of the ruptured aneurysm should be performed as early as feasible in the majority of patients to reduce the rate of rebleeding after aSAH (Class I; Level of Evidence B). 2. Complete obliteration of the aneurysm is recommended whenever possible (Class I; Level of Evidence B). 3. Determination of aneurysm treatment, as judged by both experienced cerebrovascular surgeons and endovascular specialists, should be a multidisciplinary decision based on characteristics of the patient and the aneurysm (Class I; Level of Evidence C) 4. For patients with ruptured aneurysms judged to be technically amenable to both endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping, endovascular coiling should be considered (Class I; Level of Evidence B). 5. In the absence of a compelling contraindication, patients who undergo coiling or clipping of a ruptured aneurysm should have delayed follow-up vascular imaging (timing and modality to be individualized), and strong consideration should be given to retreatment, either by repeat coiling or microsurgical clipping, if there is a clinically significant (eg, growing) remnant (Class I; Level of Evidence B). 6. Microsurgical clipping may receive increased consideration in patients presenting with large (>50 mL) intraparenchymal hematomas and middle cerebral artery aneurysms. Endovascular coiling may receive increased consideration in the elderly (70 years of age), in those presenting with poor-grade (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons classification IV/V) aSAH, and in those with aneurysms of the basilar apex (Class IIb; Level of Evidence C). 7. Stenting of a ruptured aneurysm is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and should only be considered when less risky options have been excluded (Class III; Level of Evidence C).