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Transcript of Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Key · PDF fileQuantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

  • WORKING DRAFT

    May 2008

    Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Key Industrial Sectors in the United States

  • Table of Contents

    1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1-1 2. Alumina and Aluminum .............................................................................................................................................. 2-1

    3. Cement......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-1 4. Chemicals .................................................................................................................................................................... 4-1 5. Construction................................................................................................................................................................ 5-1 6. Food and Beverages................................................................................................................................................... 6-1 7. Forest Products .......................................................................................................................................................... 7-1

    8. Iron and Steel .............................................................................................................................................................. 8-1 9. Lime ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9-1 10. Metal Casting............................................................................................................................................................. 10-1 11. Mining ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11-1 12. Oil and Gas ................................................................................................................................................................ 12-1 13. Plastic and Rubber Products ................................................................................................................................... 13-1 14. Semiconductors........................................................................................................................................................ 14-1 15. Textiles ...................................................................................................................................................................... 15-1 References .................................................................................................................................................................................R-1 Appendices:

    A.1 Key Data Sources................................................................................................................................................................. A-2

    A.2 Emission Factors for On-site Fossil Fuel Combustion .......................................................................................................... A-4

    A.3 Emissions Estimation Methods for Electricity Purchases...................................................................................................... A-5

    A.4 General Conversion Factors & Global Warming Potentials ................................................................................................ A-14

    A.5 Energy Consumption Data.................................................................................................................................................. A-15

    A.6 CO2 Emissions for Other Fuels......................................................................................................................................... A-20

    A.7 Reporting Protocols ............................................................................................................................................................ A-21

    A.8 Economic Data ................................................................................................................................................................... A-22

    A.9 List of Acronyms ................................................................................................................................................................. A-23

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WORKING DRAFT (May 2008) i

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WORKING DRAFT (May 2008) ii

  • 1. Introduction

    This report complementsand is not intended toThis report seeks to provide greenhouse gas (GHG) emission replace or updatethe official GHG emissionsprofiles for key sectors of U.S. industry (including indirect inventory submission of the United States, the emissions from electricity consumption), which combined Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and

    accounted for 29% of total U.S. GHG emissions in 2002,1 Sinks: 1990-2005, which is prepared according to more than any other economic sector (Figure 1-1). Emission the official reporting guidelines established by the profiles are provided for 14 key industrial sectors. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Collectively, these sectors account for approximately 84% of Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental industrial GHG emissions in the United States (Figure 1-2). Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

    The emission estimates included in these initial industrial sector GHG profiles may be useful to a wide array of current public and private sector GHG inventory and reduction initiatives. They also may aid in the development of new ones. Individual companies or industry groups could use this information as a reference for preparing more detailed GHG inventories and for designing effective GHG reduction strategies. To supply these companies and industries with knowledge of emissions over which they have influence, the emission profiles provided in this report include, for the first time, estimates of emissions from purchased electricity. Because many industrial sectors energy profiles include significant electricity purchases and because national electricity generation is carbon-intensive, these profiles support holistic GHG management.

    The emission estimates in this report are provided for informational purposes. Due to differences in methodologies and simplifying assumptions, emission estimates in this report may vary from EPA emission estimates for other purposes. Use of figures in this report does not connote that these estimates are preferred to EPA estimates used in another context. Further, these emission estimates may be improved upon in the future as more GHG emissions are reported, and other estimates may be developed to incorporate additional life-cycle activities such as transport of materials into and out of the sector.

    Figure 1-1: Total 2002 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Figure 1-2: Total 2002 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Sector (MMTCO2E), Factoring in Purchased Electricity Emissions from Industrial Sources, by Sector

    (MMTCO2E), Factoring in Purchased Electricity

    Agriculture Forest Products US Territories Construct ion 6%9%Resi

    17%

    Commercial 17%

    Transportat

    Chemicals 18%

    Lime 1% Semiconductors

    1%

    Iron and Steel 6%

    M ining 5%

    Food and Beverages

    Textiles 27%

    5%

    Plast ic and Rubber Products

    2%

    Alumina and Aluminum 3%

    M etal Cast ing

    29%

    2%

    1% Total: 2,047 MMTCO2E

    Other Industrial Sectors ion 16%

    6%

    Oil and Gas 24%

    Cement 4%

    dential

    Industrial

    1%

    Total: 7,065 MMTCO2E

    Source: EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005. Source: Estimate based on methodology in Section 1.2. Note: Note: MMTCO2E stands for million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. other industrial sector emissions represent the emissions Emissions from electricity have been distributed among economic sectors. remaining within the industrial sector beyond those estimated for

    the 14 sectors addressed in this report.

    1 Total 2002 industrial emissions (including emissions from purchased electricity) are 2,047 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2E) as reported in the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005, Table 2-16.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WORKING DRAFT (May 2008) 1-1

  • Introduction

    Emissions of GHGs result from all sectors of the U.S. economy.2 With emissions from electric power distributed to the end-users, the largest percentage of GHG emissions, according to the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005, result from the industrial sector, accounting for approximately 29% of total U.S. GHG emissions. After the industrial sector, the transportation sector andto a lesser degreethe commercial, residential, and agriculture sectors follow, in descending order by total GHG emissions. Approximately two-thirds of the industrial sectors emissions result from the combustion of fossil fuels and from the industrial processes of each sector. The remaining one-third of industrial sector GHG emissions results from the off-site generation of electricity purchased by the sector. If designated as a separate sector of the U.S. economy, the electric power sector becomes the most emissive sector (32% of total U.S. emissions), followed by trans