Neuroscience project- reading and dyslexia

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Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of Everyday Life Final project: A brief investigation into the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia -Pugh, K.R. et al. (2001) Neurobiological studies of reading and reading disability. Journal of Communication Disorders. 34, 479 – 492 ( http://www.lscp.net/persons/ramus/fr/GDP1/papers/pugh 01.pdf ) -Ramus, F. (2004) Neurobiology of dyslexia: a reinterpretation of the data. Trends in Neurosciences. Vol.27 No.12. -Shaywitz, S.E. and Shaywitz, M.D. (2001) The This project involved audio narration- please click here on each page!
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Transcript of Neuroscience project- reading and dyslexia

Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of Everyday Life

Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of Everyday Life

Final project:A brief investigation into the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia-Pugh, K.R. et al. (2001) Neurobiological studies of reading and reading disability. Journal of Communication Disorders. 34, 479 492(http://www.lscp.net/persons/ramus/fr/GDP1/papers/pugh01.pdf)-Ramus, F. (2004) Neurobiology of dyslexia: a reinterpretation of the data. Trends in Neurosciences. Vol.27 No.12.-Shaywitz, S.E. and Shaywitz, M.D. (2001) The neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia.(http://www.ncsall.net/[email protected]=278.html)

This project involved audio narration- please click here on each page!

Reading and DyslexiaReadingComplex process:Transformation of visual features (letters) into linguistic soundPhonological awareness and skillRepresentation and access of word meanings

Developmental dyslexia mildly hereditary disorder persistent, chronic difficulty in reading otherwise normal intellectual functioning and environmental opportunities.Affects 5-17% of school children in USA, and 80% of individuals identified as learning disabled. (Shaywitz and Shaywitz, 2001)Equally present in males and females, but males more likely to be identified

Variety of symptoms- as well as phonological impairment, also sensory difficulties in visual, auditory and tactile domains, and problems with motor control and balance. Frequent co-morbidity with other disorders such as SLI, ADHD, and dyspraxia.

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1. Identify the parts of the nervous system that are active in your example

Pugh et. al. (2001)Temporoparietal (dorsal) area (including Wernickes Area)Mapping of orthographic to phonological and semantic representations

Occipitotemporal (ventral) areaMapping of orthographic to phonological and semantic representations (word-form area)

Anterior areas (including Brocas Area)Articulatory recoding Shaywitz et. al. (1995)- phonological processing is more lateralized to left Brocas area in men. In women, there is a more bilateral activation. Please click here

2. Describe the functions of the nervous system that are apparent and/or impaired in your example

fMRI studies:Brain activation patterns provide evidence for impairment in word segmentation and phonological function.This disruption can be seen when dyslexic readers are asked to perform tasks making demands on phonological analysis.

Relative underactivation in posterior brain regions and overactivation in anterior regions.Shaywitz and Shaywitz (2001)In dyslexia: Impairment in reading, attributed to phonological deficit and poor phoneme-grapheme mapping. Problems in functioning of visual, auditory and motor systems is also seen.Please click here

Post-mortem studies:Differences in left perisylvian cortex, underlying white matter, thalamus and corpus callosum.Anomalies of cell migration in perisylvian cortex and thalamusEctopias- of 50-100 neurons that miss their target during neuronal migration, leading to mild cortical disorganization)Microgyri- more severe disorganization of the cortexHigher number of small neurons in left medial geniculate nucleusRamus, F. (2004)

Data not sufficient for a single neurobiological model, but clear disruption in anatomy and functioning of brain areas involved in phonological processing.

2. Describe the functions of the nervous system that are apparent and/or impaired in your example

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3. Explain in detail the ways in which this course has allowed you to better analyze the events and phenomena around you.*Taekwondo- consideration of motor system and reflexes during training*Clarinet- appreciation of the role of the cerebellum in motor learning*Analyzing movement, actions of people and animals around me.

*Greater general understanding of brain anatomy and navigation

Some examples of the course material aiding in analysis during everyday life

*Perception- I can better understand problems of myopia with my own eyesight, and those of my friend, who has a form of colour-blindness.*Appreciation of the challenged faced by a family friend with Parkinsons