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    Dyslexia/Reading Disability Assessment

    By Jarice Butterfield, Ph. D., CBIS & Stacy Tolkin, M. A., LEP

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    Agenda Introduction to Reading Disabilities/Dyslexia (Jarice)

    Special Education and General Education DSM-V: Learning Definition of Reading Disability

    Review of Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention by Nancy Mather, PhD. (Stacy) Book Review and Activity Comparison Chart

    Reading Disability/Dyslexia Assessment Toolso Primary & Secondary Reading and Writing Difficulties (Jarice)o Cognitive Abilities: Areas of Processing that Impact Reading (Stacy)

    Assessment Considerations (Stacy) Case Studies and Small Group Activities

    o Group review of sample dyslexia/reading disability assessment and recommendations3

    5 CCR 3030 (b) (10)Eligibility Criteria (Aligns to IDEA)

    Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may have manifested itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The basic psychological processes include attention, visual processing, auditory processing, phonological processing, sensory-motor skills, cognitive abilities including association, conceptualization and expression.

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    Education Code 56337.5 (a) A pupil who is assessed as being dyslexic and meets eligibility criteria specified in Section 56337 and subdivision (j) of Section 3030 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations for the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1400 and following) category of specific learning disabilities is entitled to special education and related services.(b) If a pupil who exhibits the characteristics of dyslexia or another related reading dysfunction is not found to be eligible for special education and related services pursuant to subdivision (a), the pupils instructional program shall be provided in the regular education program.(c) It is the intent of the Legislature that the program guidelines developed pursuant to Section 2 of Chapter 1501 of the Statutes of 1990, for specific learning disabilities, including dyslexia and other related disorders, be available for use by teachers and parents in order for them to have knowledge of the strategies that can be utilized with pupils for the remediation of the various types of specific learning disabilities. 5

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-V)

    Specific Learning Disorder

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    The symptoms of specific LD must have persisted for at least 6 months, even though interventions that target those difficulties were provided. Furthermore, the affected academic skills must be substantially and quantifiably below levels expected for the persons age (SS 78 greatest diagnostic certainty) and cause interference with academic or occupational performance or with activities of daily living (based on a clinical synthesis of the individuals history, school reports, and psychoeducationalassessment).

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    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM V)

    Specific Learning Disorder (Continued)

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    The learning difficulties are not accounted for by intellectual disabilities, by uncorrected problems with visual or auditory acuity, or by lack of language proficiency, inadequate educational instruction, or psychosocial adversity. The academic domains and subskills that are impaired are specified within each of the following domains: reading (word reading accuracy, reading rate or fluency, reading comprehension), written expression (spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, clarity or organization of written expression), and mathematics (number sense, memorization of arithmetic facts, calculation fluency or accuracy, accurate math reasoning). Finally, the severity of the LD is identified.

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-V)

    Specific Learning Disorder (Continued)

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    DSM-5 further requires that the learning difficulties "manifest as a range of observable description behaviors or symptoms (Criterion A1-A6). At least one symptom must persist for a period of 6 months despite interventions targeting the symptom. A synopsis of the qualifying symptoms is presented below:1. Inaccurate or slow and effortful word reading, frequently guesses words, or has difficulties sounding out words.2. Difficulty understanding what is read.3. Difficulties with spelling.4. Difficulties with written expression (such as multiple grammatical and punctuation errors, poor paragraph organization, written expression lacks clarity).

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    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM V)

    Specific Learning Disorder (Continued)

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    Mild: Some difficulty in one or two academic domains, but mild enough that the individual may be able compensate or function well when provided appropriate accommodations or support services.Moderate: "Marked" difficulties in one or more academic domains so that the individual is unlikely to become proficient without intervals of specialized and intensive teaching during the school years. Some accommodations for at least part of the day may be needed at school, home or work to complete activities accurately and efficiently.Severe: Severe difficulties in learning skills affecting several academic domains, so that the individual is unlikely to learn those skills without ongoing individualized and specialized teaching for most of the school years. Even with appropriate accommodations and/or services the individual may still not be able to complete activities efficiently.

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    Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention

    Commonly Used Standardized Measures

    11Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention, Page 85

    Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention

    Informal Assessment

    12Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention, Page 87

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    Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention

    Helpful Hints and Self Tests

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    Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention

    Chapter 11: Dyslexia in Different Language and English Language Learners

    Dyslexia or Second Language Learners? (Page 232)

    Assessment of Dyslexia in English Language Learnero Modified or Adapted Testso Nonverbal Testingo Native-Language Testingo English Language Testingo Suggested Best Practice

    14Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention, Page 223 - 240

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    Pages 238 - 240

    Time to Search Your Book!

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    Primary Reading and Writing

    Difficulties

    Letter Sound

    Basic Reading Skills

    Reading Fluency

    Spelling

    Phoneme-Grapheme Knowledge 18

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    Letter Sound

    Letter Identification:

    Case: Lower __/26 Upper __/26 Letter Sounds: C __/21 V __/5 (short)

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    Basic Reading Skills

    WIAT IIIo Word Readingo Pseudoword Decoding

    Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, ThirdEdition (KTEA-3)o Letter & Word Recognitiono Nonsense Word Decoding

    20Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention, Page 118

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    Reading Fluency: Rate and Accuracy

    WIAT III Oral Reading Fluency

    o Supplemental - 30 Second WindowoWord Reading SpeedoPseudoword Decoding Speed

    o Rate, Accuracy, and Fluency Scaled ScoresKTEA-3

    Silent Reading Fluency Word Recognition Fluency Decoding Fluency

    22Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention, Page 123

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    Reading Fluency: Rate and Accuracy (Continued)

    Grey Oral Reading Tests-Fifth Edition (GORT-5)

    Rate Accuracy Fluency

    23Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention pg. 123

    Spelling

    WIAT III o Spelling

    KTEA-IIIo Spelling

    Word Identification and Spelling Tests (WIST)o Spelling

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    Phoneme-Grapheme Knowledge

    WIAT III

    Early Reading Skills (Grade PK-3)o Information only Grades 4 and Up

    Pseudoword Decoding

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    Secondary Reading and Writing Difficulties

    Reading Comprehension (not due to a language processing deficit)

    Written Expression

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    Reading Comprehension

    WIAT III Reading Comprehension

    o Must start at enrolled grade level KTEA-3

    Reading Comprehension

    Grey Oral Reading Tests-Fifth Edition (GORT-5) Comprehension Scaled Score

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    Written Expression

    WIAT III

    Sentence Compositiono Sentence Combining and Sentence Building o Score can be misleading due to separate parts

    Essay Composition Manual and Quick Scoring Guide

    oWord Count and Theme Development and Text OrganizationoFocuses on fluency 10 Minutes

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    Written Expression (Continued)

    KTEA-3o Written Expression

    Test of Written Language Fourth Education (TOWL-3)

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    Cognitive Abilities: Contributing Factors to

    Reading Disabilities/Dyslexia

    Phonological Awareness

    Orthographic Awareness

    Memory

    Rapid Naming

    Processing Speed30

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    Phonological Awareness

    Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP-2) Phonological Awareness Composite

    Elision, Blending Words, and Sound Matching (Ages 4 6) Elision, Blending Words, and Phoneme Isolation (Ages 7 24)

    Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite (Ages 7 24) Blending Nonwords and Segmenting Nonwords

    Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test Third Edition (LAC-3)

    31Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention pp. 85-86

    Phonological Awareness (Continued)

    The Phonological Awareness Test 2 (PAT 2) Test of Auditory Processing (TAPS-3)

    o Word Discriminationo Phonological Segmentationo Phonological Blending

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    Phonological Awareness (Continued)

    Differential Ability Scales II (DAS-II)o Phonological Processing

    Feifer Assessment of Reading (FAR)o Phonological Index

    NEPSY II Phonological Processing

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    Orthographic Awareness

    WIAT III o Word Readingo Pseudoword Decodingo Spelling

    Jordan Left Right Reversal Test 3 (Jordan-3) Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills

    (DIBELS-6)

    FARo Orthographical Processing

    34Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention Page 113

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    MemoryMemory Span and Working Memory

    WISC-Vo Digit Span Backwards (WM)o Letter-Number Sequencing (WM)

    Test of Auditory Processing (TAPS-3)o Numbers Forward (MS) and Reversed (WM)o Word and Sentence Memory (MS)

    CTOPP-2o Phonological Memory Composite

    Memory for Digits (MS) and Nonword Repetition

    35Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention pg. 100

    Memory (Continued)Memory Span and Working Memory

    Cognitive Assessment System Second Edition (CAS2)

    o Supplemental Compositeo Working Memory and Executive Function with Working Memory

    Kaufman Assessment for Battery for Children Second (KABC-2)

    o Glr Rebus and Atlantis (AM)o Gsm Word Order and Number Recall (MS)

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    Rapid Naming

    WISC-V Naming Speed Literacy Naming Speed Quantity

    CTOPP-2o Rapid Symbolic Naming Composite

    Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Namingo Rapid Non-Symbolic Naming Composite (Alternative for Ages 4-6)

    Rapid Color Naming and Rapid Object Naming

    37Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention pg. 92

    Rapid Naming (Continued)

    DAS2o Rapid Naming

    FARo Rapid Automatic Naming

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    Processing Speed

    WISC-Vo Codingo Symbol Searcho Cancellation

    DAS-IIo Speed of Information Processing

    CAS2o Planned Codes and Matching Numbers

    39Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention Page 95

    Assessment Considerations

    WIAT III: Subtests start points are determined by grade of enrollment not reading grade level (PyschCorp, p.60)

    How are basal scores established? Less subtests on standardized assessments can be given to

    students in PK/K Secondary measures may be required

    40Pearson PsychCorp. (2009). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Examiner's Manual, 3rd Ed. San Antonio, Texas.

    Table Activity

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    Case Studies and Small Group Activity

    Group review of sample

    Reading disability/dyslexia assessment and recommendations

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    Case Study 1Sample Reading Disability/Dyslexia Assessment

    TM

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    Background Information:TM is a student starting 2nd grade this year. Her teachers expressed concerns that she does not know all her letter sounds and cannot consistently decode even one-syllable words even after being provided reading intervention for two years. TMs overall English language arts skills are far below grade level expectancies for a 2ndgrade student. In addition, TM demonstrates weaknesses in math calculation skills. This is her initial assessment for special education.

    Reading Disability/Dyslexia AssessmentDiagnostic Case Study Recommendations

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    Step 1 Formal Assessment Data

    List academic achievement and oral language areas that have standard scores below 80 and 10th percentile.

    List any areas of academic achievement and oral language strengths that correlate to reading disability/dyslexia

    List any the areas of processing weaknesses that are correlated with reading disability/dyslexia

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    Reading Disability/Dyslexia AssessmentDiagnostic Case Study Recommendations

    (Continued)

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    Step 2 Informal Reading Assessment Data List any academic deficit that are correlated with reading

    disability/dyslexia are present

    Step 3 Error Analysis Describe in detail the pattern/type of errors made based on

    formal and informal assessment

    Reading Disability/Dyslexia AssessmentDiagnostic Case Study Recommendations (Continued)

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    Step 4 Reading Disability/Dyslexia Identification Based on the review of data, does the group concur that this

    student manifests reading deficits and processing profile typical of a student with reading disability/dyslexia?

    Step 5 Summary of Recommendations Make recommendations for intervention based on students

    needs Make recommendation for any needed accommodations/

    modifications

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    Reading Disability/Dyslexia AssessmentDiagnostic Case Study Recommendations (Continued)

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    Step 6 Goals Draft proposed reading goals based on the assessment results

    Case Study 2Sample Reading Disability/Dyslexia Assessment

    JA

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    Background Information:JA is a student starting the 4th grade that has identified for special education as having a learning disability in the area of reading and writing and speech and language services. He currently has an IEP and attends resource SPED program pull out for reading and writing. His parents are very concerned that he is going into the 4thgrade and cant read

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    Thank You!

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    Contact Us

    Jarice Butterfield, Ph. [email protected]

    Stacy Tolkin, M.A., [email protected]