# NBSP Physical Science Leadership Institute Professor Lynn Cominsky Joanne del Corral Al Janulaw...

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NBSP Physical Science Leadership InstituteProfessor Lynn CominskyJoanne del CorralAl JanulawMichelle Curtis

Sonoma State UniversityJune 27, 2003

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

IntroductionsLynn CominskyJoanne del CorralAl JanulawMichelle Curtis

What are your goals for the institute?Pretest

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Scientific MethodInvestigation and Experimentation standards exist for all gradesScience progresses by asking questions and performing careful investigations, then analyzing the results to find answersBeginning skills include describing, measuring, comparing, sorting and orally communicating results

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Scientific MethodIntermediate skills include recording, graphing and analyzing data, and communicating results through written reportsAdvanced skills include analyzing uncertainties, prediction of results using a model or theory, designing controlled experiments, using advanced instrumentation and model fitting to experimental results

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Laboratory NotebookIf you are taking the course for extended ed credit, your notebook will be collected for gradingYou will use your binder as a laboratory notebook. All observations, data, and answers to questions must be kept in the notebook.

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Standard ConnectionsStudents know objects can be described in terms of the materials they are made of and their physical properties, such as color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility (K)

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Using Physical Properties to Identify Objects Given: an apple, ruler, string, balance

Carefully observe the apple.Write a description of the apple in your notebook.Use the ruler and string to measure the apple. Record its measurements.

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Using Physical Properties to Identify ObjectsWeigh the apple, record the weight. Now return the apple to the group.Try to find your apple from the group on the basis of your description and measurements. Use your balance, ruler and string to repeat the measurements. Compare the measurements to those you took earlier.

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Using Physical Properties to Identify ObjectsHow did they compare?Could you find it?Now return the apple to the group, and pass your description and measurements on to another class member.Can they use your description and measurements to find your apple?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Using Physical Properties to Identify ObjectsCompare your description to those of the other members of the classHow are they alike? Different?Create a list of properties by comparing your description to those of your classmates.Using this list, find a way to classify apples based on their physical properties

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Break Something to think aboutWhich is faster, observing or measuring?Which provides more exact information?Could you make any predictions about apples that could be tested in another experiment?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Measuring UncertaintyYou have already made one set of measurements of your apple and repeated the measurementsHow did the two measurements of the apples weight compare?What would happen if you used another balance? If someone else did the measurement? Try it.

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Measuring UncertaintyFrom comparing the results of the different weight measurements, what do you think is a good estimate of the uncertainty of your measurements?How well do you think you can read each individual measurement from the balance?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Measuring UncertaintyNow consider the measurements of the apple that you made using the ruler and the stringWhat do you think are possible sources of error in these measurements?How well did the measurements compare when you repeated them?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Key Concepts: UncertaintyThere are two types of uncertaintySystematic derived from the accuracy of your measuring instrumentStatistical - derived from the spread in a group of measurementsA typical systematic uncertainty is a reading error usually half of the finest scale that you can read

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Key Concepts: UncertaintyA typical statistical uncertainty is a standard deviation sThis represents the spread in values around the mean which includes 68% of your measurements, if they are distributed normally Bell curve-1s+1smean

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Math connections: UncertaintyConsider a list of test scores in your classYou can add them up and divide by the number of students in your class to find the average (or mean)You can also plot them in the form of a histogram to see the distribution of scores. If you have a lot of students, the shape of the distribution should look like a Bell curveNow look at the list of scores in your binder

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Math connections: UncertaintyMake a table that shows how many scores are in bins between 0-5, 6-10, 11-15.through 96-100.Make a plot of the number of scores in each bin, vs. the bin. This is called a histogram.Now see if you can figure out the range of scores that is within + or 1s of the mean. This should include about 68% of the scores. What is this range?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Lunch Thinking DeeperIf you give the grade of C to the students with the mean test score:What is the range for a B?What is the range for a D?What is the range for an A?What is the range for an F?What would be a good way to assign + and grades?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Graphing data ActivityA histogram plot is one type of plot that can be used to analyze dataIn this activity, we will perform an experiment to measure the circumference of a circular object as a function of its diameterGiven: Many different circular shapes of different sizes, string, ruler

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Standard ConnectionsScientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations Draw conclusions from scientific evidence and indicate whether further information is needed to support a specific conclusion. (4 and 5)

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Graphing ActivityMeasure the circumference (using the string and ruler) and diameter of each objectRecord your results in a tablePlot a graph of the circumference vs. the diameterRemember the independent variable goes on the x-axis, and the dependent variable goes on the y-axisD

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Graphing ActivityShould the point (0,0) be included on the graph?Draw a smooth line through the middle of your points.Compute the slope of the line by choosing 2 points that are far apart on the line that you drewSlope = (y2 y1) / (x2-x1) The slope of this line is a special number for circles. What is it?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Graphing Activity- thinking deeperWhat does this activity tell us about how we can use tables and graphs?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Break things to think aboutWhat is the difference between a line graph and a bar graph?When would you use each type of graph?

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Introduction to Lesson StudyIntroductionsJames ButlerMillie AndersonJames and Millie are teacher leaders who are going to tell you about Lesson Study, and the work we will be doing throughout the academic year using this process

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Cartesian Diver Activity Given: one plastic bottle, one glass dropper, water Fill the bottle with water.Put enough water into the dropper so it barely floats in water.Drop the dropper into the bottle and close the bottle lid tightly.Squeeze the bottle.

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Questions: Cartesian DiverWhat do you notice?How do you explain what happens?What does a person have to understand conceptually to fully explain how the Cartesian Diver works? http://www.physicslessons.com/cartesian123.gif

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

English Language LearningThroughout this institute, we will be exploring strategies to assist students who are English Language LearnersAs a first step, write in your notebook some new words or subjects that you have learned today, and ways that you can remember these concepts.

Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Average is about 74, the standard deviation is about 7.About 24 of the grades are between 67-81 CB grades are 82-89A grades are over 90D grades are 60-67F grades are below 60.

+/- grades could use standard deviation.C+ would be 78-81C- would be 67-70C would be 71-77, etc.