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    Fundamentals ofEnvironment Unit

    012

    Unit 012 Ecosystems Servicesand

    Ecological foot prints

    Structure

    012.1. Introduction

    Objective

    012.2. Over view of ecosystem services

    Conceptual bases

    Provisioning services

    Regulatory services

    Cultural services

    Supporting Services

    Self Assessment Questions

    012.3. Ecological foot prints

    Urban foot prints

    Agricultural foot prints

    Transportation foot prints

    Water Prints

    Self Assessment Questions

    012.4. Summary

    012.5. Terminal Questions

    012.6. Answers

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    012.1 Introduction

    The previous chapters discussed about the various components of the earth

    and their composition and functions. The worlds ecosystem and their

    components provide myriad benefits to people. With the emergence of

    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the concept of ecosystem services

    gained importance.large notice. Ecosystem services normally consist of

    features of public goods, such that they are easily available to everybody.Therefore, private motivation to control ecosystem services never brings out

    their entire value to the public and they are prone to many issues from

    marketable product uses.

    The concept of ecosystem services has received significant attention since

    the appearance of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystem

    services generally have the characteristics of public goods, in that they are

    freely accessible to everyone. As a result, private incentives to maintain

    ecosystem services do not reflect their full value to society and they oftenface pressure from more marketable resource uses.

    ForAround the past two decades, one third of the global mangrove marshes

    are transformed to use by human beings, including many changed into

    precious shrimp ranches. A shrimp ranch yielded a commercial profit per

    hectare of $9,632 in Thailand in 2007. Over the past two decades around a

    third of the worlds mangrove swamps have been converted for human use,

    with many turned into valuable shrimp farms. In 2007 an economic study of

    such shrimp farms in Thailand showed that the commercial profits per

    hectare were $9,632. However, proper accounting of this figure showed that

    for each hectare, the government subsidies amount to $to $8,412

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    and8,412 and it also involved additional costs of $1,000 for pollution and$12,392 for losses to ecosystem services. (www.economist.com). This led

    to the resulted in loss ofharm the supply of food and medicine which

    humans gained from forests, loss of habitats for fish, and low buffering

    against storms. As a particular shrimp ranch remains productive only for

    three to four years, further money had to be spent on re-establishing them.

    later. Ifit is donecase of formangroves, put ian extra amount of$9,318 per

    hectare would be needed..Eventually the private sectors stand to gain by

    such operations while people suffer from the burden imposed on them. The

    overall message is that what advantages only looks so because the profits

    stay with the private sector whereas problems are reflected on the people in

    large size, which appears on no particular balance sheet. (The Economist,

    Oct 2011). Thus nature provides us with countless services which can be

    tapped for the benefit of mankind. Business provides both goods and

    services, similarly nature provides us with countless services.

    These comprised damage to the supply of foods and medicines that people

    had taken from the forest, the loss of habitats for fish, and less buffering

    against storms. And because a given shrimp farm only stays productive for

    three or four years, there was the additional cost of restoring them

    afterwards: if you do so with mangroves themselves, add another $9,318

    per hectare. The overall lesson is that what beneficial only does looks sobecause the profits are retained by the private sector, while the problems

    are spread out across society at large, appearing on no specific balance

    sheet (The Economist, Oct 2011). Just as businesses manufacture both

    goods and services, so too does nature providing us with innumerable

    services.

    Objectives

    After studying this unit, you will be able to:

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    discuss importance of natural capital and its role in economic,ecological and social function

    explain different kinds of ecosystem services

    conceptualize ecological foot prints of resource utilization

    describe how human activities contribute to ecological foot prints in

    food production, transportation, agriculture etc.,

    012.2 Over view of ecosystem services

    Towards the end of 1990s, some ecologists and economists teamed up on

    an attempt to estimategive value for natures services. In a total, tThey

    calculated that the value of natures services were to be around $33 trillion

    per year (Table 1). The value was almost two times that of the total gross

    development product of all nations at that time. ($18 trillion in 1997). The

    estimation created a buzz through the world and a liberal amount of

    controversy. The term ecosystem services was started to be widely used in

    the ensuing dialogueperiod., and officially recognized the term in a

    publication iIn 1997, the Ecological Society of America officially clarified that

    ecosystem services, "refers to a wide range of conditions and processes

    through which natural ecosystems, and the species that are part of them,help sustain and fulfillfulfil human life."1

    In the late 1990s, a group of ecologists and economists collaborated on an

    effort to assign value to nature's services. In sum, they estimated that

    nature's services were worth some $33 trillion per year (Table 1). Since the

    number was almost twice that of the total gross national products of all

    countries at the time ($18 trillion in 1997). The finding generated a global

    buzz and a generous dose of controversy. The term ecosystem services

    came into widespread use in the ensuing dialogue and, formalizing the term

    1http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com

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    in a 1997 publication, the Ecological Society of America explained that'ecosystem services', "refers to a wide range of conditions and processes

    through which natural ecosystems, and the species that are part of them,

    help sustain and fulfill human life." (http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com)

    Every land use decision consists of implied supposition about land value,

    yet no dollarbased figure is assigned. The issue is that the value of services

    offered by earths ecosystem cannot connect to present economic

    equations, partially as many benefits are placed outside the marketplace.

    Such services are regarded as public properties which add countless

    benefits to human welfare without ever being drawn into the money

    economy. For example, the production of essential nutrients such as

    nitrogen and phosphorous, which is not reflected in any countrys GNP,

    equals US$ 17 trillion of the US$33 trillion in annual ecosystem. (Table 1)

    Every land use decision involves implicit assumptions about value, even

    when no dollar figure is assigned. The problem is that the value of services

    provided by the Earth's ecological infrastructure does not fit into current

    economic equations, partly because most of the benefits fall outside the

    marketplace. Such services are public goods that contribute immeasurably

    to human welfare without ever being drawn into the money economy. Forinstance, the cycling of essential nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus,

    which is not reflected in any nation's GNP, accounts for US$17 trillion of the

    US$33 trillion in annual ecosystem (Table 1).

    A series of goods and services offered by ecosystems stresses that the

    biological diversity existing in them is necessary for our economic

    development and other facets of benefits. In a wide sense, ecosystem

    services indicate a series of conditions and processes out ofby which

    natural ecosystems and theircomponents organisms present there supports

    human life. These services control the growth of ecosystem goods, the

    natural products that are , harvested or used by humans. sSuch products

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    include as wild fruit and nuts, timber, gumame, medicines, natural fiberes,forage and so on. lMost significantly, especially for those in least developed

    grown economies , ecosystem services initiates help life by controlling

    necessary processes, such as purification of water and air, pollination of

    crops, nutrient cycling, production and renewal of soil, and decomposition of

    wastes, moreover by temperate environmental conditions through stabilizing

    climate, decreasing the risk of poor climatic conditions, preventing soil

    erosion and lessening floods and droughts.

    A stream of goods and services by ecosystems and the biological diversity

    contained within them is essential to our economic prosperity and other

    aspects of our welfare. In a broad sense, ecosystem services refer to therange of conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and

    the species that they contain, help sustain and fulfill human life. These

    services regulate the production of ecosystem goods, the natural products

    harvested or used by humans such as wild fruit and nuts, forage, timber,

    game, natural fibres, medicines and so on. More importantly, particularly for

    those in less developed economies, ecosystem services support life by

    regulating essential processes, such as purification of air and water,

    pollination of crops, nutrient cycling, decomposition of wastes, and

    generation and renewal of soils, as well as by moderating environmental

    conditions by stabilising climate, reducing the risk of extreme weatherevents, mitigating droughts and floods, and protecting soils from erosion.

    Conceptual Bases

    Ecosystem services are categorized into six groups widely depending upon

    both their ecological and economic functions. They are:

    Ecosystem services have been grouped into six categories broadly based

    on both their ecological and economic function. These are:

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    Provisioning services The products obtained derived fromecosystems, including genetic resources, food and fiberfibre, and

    fresh water.

    Regulating services The benefits obtained from the regulation

    control of ecosystem processes, including the regulation of climate,

    water, and some human diseases.

    Cultural services The nonmaterial benefits people obtain derive

    from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive

    development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experience,

    including, knowledge systems, social relations, and aesthetic values.

    Supporting services Ecosystem services that are necessary

    essential for the production of all other ecosystem services.

    Ecosystem services Value (Trillion $US)

    Soil formation 17.1

    Recreation 3.0

    Nutrient cycling 2.3

    Water regulation and supply 2.3

    Climate regulation (temperature and

    precipitation)

    1.8

    Habitat 1.4

    Flood and storm protection 1.1

    Food and raw materials 0.8

    Genetic resources 0.8

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    Atmospheric gas balance 0.7

    Pollination 0.4

    All other services 1.6

    Total value of ecosystem services 33.3

    Table 012.1 Total value of ecosystem services

    (Source: Nature, 387(6230):255)

    Provisioning services

    These are the products obtained from ecosystems, including:

    Food andfiberfibre: This includes comprises ofthe vast wide range

    of food products derived obtained from plants, animals, and

    microbes, as well as and also materials such as wood, jute, hemp,

    silk, and many other products derived obtained from ecosystems.

    Fuel: Wood, dung, and other biological materials serve act as

    sources of energy.

    Genetic resources: This includes comprises of the genes and

    genetic information used essential for animal and plant breeding andbiotechnology.

    Biochemicals, natural medicines, and pharmaceuticals: Many

    medicines, biocides, food additives such as alginates, and biological

    materials are derived obtained from ecosystems.

    Ornamental resources: Animal products, such as skins and shells,

    and flowers are used as ornaments, although even though the value

    of these resources is often frequently culturally determined. This is

    an example of linkages bonding between the different

    groupscategories of ecosystem services.

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    Fresh water: Fresh water is another example of linkages bondingbetween different groupscategories in this case, between

    provisioning and regulating services.

    Regulating Services

    Regulating services provide offer variousmany direct and indirect benefits

    advantages to humanshuman beings, includingwith clean fresh air and

    water, pollination, climate weather regulation and disease control (Table

    12.2). The maintenance protection of the earths biosphere isn depends

    based on a delicate subtle balance between these regulating services.

    Sustainable Persistent ecosystem service delivery relate to lease is

    baseddepends on the health, integrity and resilience of the ecosystem. The

    services got obtained from ecosystems should be open to economic

    analysis such that they should support the productive and consumptive

    aspects of human beings. This helps in economic valuation. Regulating

    services consist of both final and intermediate services. The services are

    discussed in detail below.

    For economic valuation, the services flowing from ecosystems must be

    amenable to economic analysis in that they should serve the consumptive

    or productive purposes of humans. Regulating services of ecosystems can

    be both final and intermediate services. Following are the details of theservices.

    Air quality Regulation: Trees trap absorb airborne particulate matter and

    help to improve develop air quality and human health. Air quality regulation

    is particularly important in the urban context, with rising populations and

    industrial growth. A study conducted in Tuscon, Arizona estimated that

    planting 500,000 mesquite trees would remove 6,500 tonnes of particulate

    matter annually once the trees reach maturity. Tuscon spends

    approximately US$ 1.5 million on an alternative dust-control program. Thus,

    the air quality regulation value of each tree in Tuscon is US$ 4.16.

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    Biodiversity Regulation: The US Forest Service estimates that replacingthe pest control services of birds in forests with chemical pesticides would

    cost more than US$ 17 per hectare. The cost to US agriculture of replacing

    natural pest control services by ecosystems with chemical pesticides would

    be approximately US$ 54 billion annually. Banana plantation in Costa Rica

    which pays an adjacent forested conservation area US$ 1.00 per hectare

    annually to provide natural pest control services. Because such costs have

    not actually been incurred, these estimates represent only the cost of

    replacing these regulating services and not the actual value of these

    services.

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    Table 012.2 Regulating services

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    Pollination: Many economically important species require pollination toproduce marketable crops. Yet, hard figures on the economic value of

    pollination are still lacking. Very few studies have specifically conducted

    analyses that match the scales at which land-use decisions are made.

    Estimates Calculations of the annual monetary financial value of pollination

    vary widelyvastly, from US$120 billion annually for all every pollination

    service.s.

    Erosion control: Ecosystems such as forests, wetlands and mangroves

    help to stabilize soils, reducing erosion. The vegetative cover shelters

    prevents soil from the force of rain by intercepting rainfall while roots help to

    maintain the soil structure. Plants growing along shorelines and submergedvegetation near coastal areas regions contribute support greatly extensively

    in controlling regulating erosion and facilitating sedimentation. The costs

    associated with erosion include loss of soil productivity for agriculture,

    damage to roads and other infrastructure, filling in of ditches and reservoirs,

    reduced water quality and impacts on fish populations. The value estimates

    of this service primarily reflect the costs associated with sedimentation.

    Water quality Regulation: Ecosystems such as forests and wetlands help

    to purify water by stabilizing soils and filtering pollutants from water. The

    quantity and quality of water flowing through the watersheds are important

    inputs to agriculture, hydro-power plants, and municipal water supplies. The

    cost of constructing and operating a water treatment plant to purify the

    polluted water is a common measure of the value of water purification

    service. Estimates of water quality values range from US$ 0.26 per acre-

    foot for electricity generation to as high as US$50 per acre-foot for irrigation

    and municipal use in US.

    Waste treatment and processing: Ecosystems play an importanta

    significant role in the treatment of wastes introduced discharged into the

    natural environment, but there are some inherent limits restrictions to this

    waste processing capability. For example, aquatic systems cleanse on

    averagealmost 80 percent of their global incident nitrogen loading, but this

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    intrinsic self-purification capability is being reduced lessened by the loss ofwetlands across the globe. As the characteristics of both wastes and

    ecosystems receiving these wastes vary, environments vary in their

    capability to absorb and treat wastes.

    Water-flow regulation: Watersheds capture arrest and accumulatestore

    water, thereby contributing supportingto the quantity amount of water

    available and the seasonal flow of water. The so-called albedo effect

    refers to indicates the process by which vegetation increases raises

    evaporation of water from the earths surface to causedevelop increased

    more cloud formation and rainfall. Through this effect, ecosystems

    dominated by vegetation, such as forest ecosystems, play a significant rolein determining rainfall patterns at a regional scale. Vegetation also acts as a

    sponge, soaking up and storing water when abundant and releasing it

    slowly during the dry periods. This system of water regulation reduces the

    impacts of flood and drought on downstream communities.

    Disease regulation: Ecosystems play an important role in the emergence

    or resurgences of infectious diseases. Modifications of ecosystems related

    to infrastructure developments such as dam building or expansion of

    agricultural irrigation, have sometimes increased the local incidence of

    vector diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis and arbovirus infections.

    Natural Hazard regulation: This regulating service relates to the ability of

    different ecosystems to mediate natural hazards and disruptive natural

    events. For example, ecosystems regulate the effects of extreme events

    such as floods, storms and fires by affecting both the probability and

    severity of events. Soils store large amounts of water and help in preventing

    or reducing floods and fires. Coral reefs buffer shields waves and protect

    preserve adjacent coastlines from storm damage. Wetlands attenuate floods

    by absorbing runoff peaks and storm surges. This regulating service

    contributes to the safety of human life and protection of man-made

    infrastructure.

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    Carbon storage and sequestration:

    Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in global carbon cycling acting as sink

    and source. Forests form an active carbon pool that accounts for 60 per

    cent of carbon storage in the earths land surface. Forests eliminate CO2

    from the atmosphere and accumulate the carbon in wooden tissues while

    growing actively. The rate of absorption of carbon and so the extent of

    carbon sink, is highest in the beginning stages of regeneration and the rate

    decreases as forests grow. Forests remove CO2 from the atmosphere and

    store the carbon in woody tissue when actively growing. The rate of carbon

    absorption and hence the magnitude of the carbon sink, is greatest in the

    earliest stages of regeneration and the rate declines as forests mature.

    Therefore, dynamics of carbon in forest vegetation and soils are significant

    in terms of global climate change policy frame work. The tropical forests,

    both moist and dry types, account for approximately 60% of global forests.

    While covering only 22% of potential vegetation by area, tropical forests

    have been estimated to account for 75% of the worlds terrestrial net

    primary productivity.

    Cultural Services

    These are considered as the non-material profits human beings acquirefrom the ecosystem through cognitive development, recreation, reflection,

    spiritual enrichment, aesthetic experiences, and alsosuch as the following:

    These are the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through

    spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and

    aesthetic experiences, including:

    Cultural diversity. The diversity of ecosystems is one factor that

    creates impact oninfluencing the diversity of cultures. Spiritual and

    religious values. Many religions attach connect spiritual and religious

    values to ecosystems or their components.

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    Knowledge systems (traditional and formal). Ecosystemsinfluence theimpact the types of knowledge systems developed

    generated by different cultures.

    Educational values. Ecosystems and their components and

    processes provide create the basis for both formal and informal

    education in many societies.

    Inspiration.Ecosystems provide a rich source of inspiration for art,

    folklore, national symbols, architecture, and advertising.

    Aesthetic values.Many people human beings find discoverbeauty

    or aesthetic values in various aspects forms of ecosystems, asreflected in the support for parks, scenic drives, and the selection

    of housing locations.

    Social relations. Ecosystems influence impact the types of social

    relations that which are established found in particular cultures.

    Fishing societies, for example, differ vary in many formsrespects in

    their social relations from nomadic herding or agricultural societies.

    Sense of place.Many people value the sense of place that which

    is associated connected with recognized features of their

    environment, including aspects of the ecosystem.

    Cultural heritage values. Many societies place put high value on

    the maintenance preservation of either historically important

    significant landscapes (cultural landscapes) or culturally significant

    species.

    Recreation and ecotourism.People often choose decide where to

    spend their leisure time based in part on the characteristics of the

    natural or cultivated landscapes in a particular specific area.

    Cultural services are tightly firmly bound connected to human values and

    behaviour, as well asand also to human institutions and patterns of social,

    economic, and political organization. Thus Therefore, perceptions of cultural

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    services areopinions of cultural services are possiblemore likely to differvary among individuals andindividuals and communities concerned about

    vastly compared to the opinion ofthan, say, perceptions oftthe importance

    of food production.

    Supporting Services

    Supporting services are those that which are essentialnecessary for the

    production generation of all other ecosystem services. They differ vary from

    provisioningstipulating, controllingregulating, and cultural services in that

    which their influenceimpacts on human beingspeople are either indirect or

    occur happen over a very long time, whereas but changes in the other

    categories have relatively direct and short-term impacts influence on

    peoplehuman beings. (Some services, like erosion control, can be

    categorized grouped as both a supporting and controllinga regulating

    service, depending based on the time scale and immediacy closeness of

    their impact influence on people.) For example, human beings do not

    directly use utilize soil formation services, although even though

    modificationschanges in this mightwould indirectly create an effect on affect

    people through the impact influence on the provisioning service of food

    production. SimilarlyIn the same way, climate regulation is

    classifiedcategorized as a regulating service becausesince modification in

    the ecosystem changes can have an influenceimpact on local or global

    climate based onovertime scales relatedrelevant to human decision-making

    (decades or centuries), butwhereas the generationproduction of oxygen gas

    (through photosynthesis) is categorized classified as a supporting service

    assince any influenceimpacts on the concentration amount of oxygen in the

    atmosphere might wouldhappen only only occuroveran extremelyvery long

    time. Some other examples of supporting services are primary production,

    production of atmospheric oxygen, soil formation and retention, nutrient

    cycling, water cycling, and provisioning of habitat.

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    Self Assessment Questions1. Biochemicals and natural medicines obtained from various ecosystems

    categorized as_________________

    (a) Provisioning services (b) Supporting Services (c) Cultural services

    (d) Regulating services

    2. The production of oxygen through photosynthesis is categorized as a

    supporting service. Say true or false.

    012.3. Ecological foot prints

    The Ecological Footprint (EF) refers to a measure of humanitys demand onnature. It calculates the amount of land and water area that a human

    population needs to generate the resource it uses and to absorb its carbon

    dioxide emissions, using existing technology. It determines the level to

    which human beings are using natures resources than they can regenerate.

    The components (variables) of sustainable consumption are combined

    using weighting factors depending on the Earths regenerative capacities for

    the measured resources. EF is normally provided combined with biocapacity

    (BC) that determines the bio-productive supply (Figure 12.1). Reserve or

    deficit (or overshoot for the globe) is the mathematical difference between

    EF and BC.

    The renewable resource accounting results in a deficit if the EF is larger

    than the BC. Compensation of national ecological shortfall can be done

    either through trade with nations that process ecological reserves or through

    liquidation of national ecological assets. On the contrary, the compensation

    of global ecological shortfall cannot be done through trade. Therefore, it is

    equal to overshoot. From 1970s, humanity has been in ecological overshoot

    with yearly demand on resources exceeding what Earth can reproduce each

    year. Now the Earth takes one year and six months to reproduce what we

    use in a year. Today, when humanity is crossing the terrestrial limits,

    ecological assets are becoming more important. Every country has its

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    individual ecological risk profile: Most of them are running ecologicaldeficits, with Footprints bigger than their own biological capacity. Some of

    them depend greatly on resources from somewhere else, which are under

    ever-increasing pressure. In several areas of the world, the implications of

    ecological deficits can be destructive, and can lead to:

    resource loss

    ecosystem collapse

    debt

    poverty

    famine

    war The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a measure of humanitys demand

    on nature. It measures calculates how muchthe amount of land and

    water area a human population requires needs to generateproduce the

    resource it consumes uses and to absorb its carbon dioxide emissions,

    using prevailing existing technology. It measures determines the extent

    level to which humanity human beings areis using natures resources

    faster than that they can regenerate. The components (variables) of

    sustainable consumption are aggregated combined using weighting

    factors dependingbased on the Earths regenerative capacities for the

    considered measured resources. EF is usually normally presented

    provided combined together with biocapacity (BC), which that measures

    determines the bio-productive supply (Figure 12.1). Reserve or deficit

    (or overshoot for the globe) is the mathematical difference between EF

    and BC.The mathematical difference between EF and BC is called either

    reserve or deficit (or overshoot for the globe).

    The renewable resource accounting results in a deficit When if the EF is

    larger than the BC the renewable resource accounting results in a deficit.

    Compensation of A national ecological deficitshortfall can be compensated

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    done either through trade with nations that process ecological reserves orthrough liquidation of national ecological assets. In contrastOn the contrary,

    the compensation of global ecological deficitshortfall cannot be

    compensated done through trade., and is tTherefore, it is equal to

    overshoot. Since theFrom 1970s, humanity has been in ecological

    overshoot with annualyearly demand on resources exceeding what Earth

    can regeneratereproduce each year. It nNow takes the Earth takes one

    year and six months to regenerate reproduce what we use in a year. In

    todaythe present days world, where humanity is already exceeding

    planetaryenvironmental limits, ecological assets are becoming more critical.

    EachEvery country has its ownindividual ecological risk profile: Many of

    them are running ecological deficits, with Footprints largerbigger than their

    own biological capacity. OthersSome of them depend heavilygreatly on

    resources from elsewheresomewhere else, which are under increasingever-

    increasing pressure. In someseveral areas of the world, the implications of

    ecological deficits can be devastatingdestructive, and can leading to:

    rResource loss,

    E ecosystem collapse

    , dDebt,

    P poverty

    , fFamine

    and wWar.

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    Figure 12.1 Per-person resource demand (Ecological Footprint) and

    resource supply

    (Source:http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/trends/

    india/)

    Figure 012.2 Ecological Footprint and Human Wellbeing: Africa Report

    2006 (Source: http://www.footprintnetwork.org/)

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    Urban Foot PrintsIt is estimated that by Eeach week more than one million people are added

    to the world's cities. In a short span of time By the year 2000, more than a

    half of the whole worlds population will be in urban areas. A North American

    city that comprises 650,000 people may need 30,000 square kilometres of

    land. That is, a region roughly the size of Vancouver Island present in

    Canada to cope with only the domestic requirements without including the

    environmental needs of industry. In the same way, a similar size city in India

    may need 2,800 square kilometres. Urban density and city expansion have

    substantial effect on the environment. Artificially created areas which are

    linked to urban activity create an unusual form of biodiversity and theydirectly affect the quality of water, soil, air, and land. Rural areas are also

    under the pressure exerted by urbanisation. The urban ecosystem

    differentiates itself from natural eco-systems because of the design of

    artificial environments that change, amongst others, the climate (bursts of

    heat, less powerful winds) and disturbs the water cycle through water runoff.

    Air pollution directly affects plants. Following factors harm the development

    of trees:

    Noise

    Vibrations

    Lack of light

    Space underground

    Canada is one of the wealthiest countries in the world. Its inhabitants have

    the benefit of enjoying very high material standards by any measure. In

    reality, ecological footprint analysis illustrates that the total land required to

    sustain current consumption levels by the average Canadian is no less than

    4.3 hectares. It includes 2.3 hectares for carbon dioxide absorption alone

    (Figure 12.2). Therefore, the per capita ecological footprint of Canadians is

    about three times their "fair Earthshare" of 1.5 hectares.

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    For instance, Bboth Japan and the Netherlands are proud of their positivetrade and current account balances that are measured in monetary terms.

    Their populations are one among the most prosperous on the globe. These

    countries are densely populated yet relatively resource- (natural capital)

    poor. Therefore, they are known as stellar economic successes and

    developing countries held up these countries as models for emulation. At

    the same time, after estimation we have found that Japan has a 2.5 hectare

    per capita, and the Netherlands a 3.3 hectare per capita ecological footprint.

    This estimation presents Japan and Netherlands national ecological

    footprints about eight and 15 times bigger than their total domestic territories

    respectively. The noticeable dissimilarity between the physical and

    monetary accounts of such economic success stories increases

    complicated developmental questions in a world whose main strategy for

    sustainability is economic growth. Worldwide sustainability cannot be

    (ecological) deficit-financed. According to simple physics, all countries or

    regions cannot become net importers of biophysical capacity.

    The ecological footprint analysis describes that because of tremendous

    raise in per capita energy and material consumption that is made possible

    due to technology and globally increasing dependencies on trade, the

    ecological positioning of high-density human settlements no longer coincide

    with their geographic positioning. For survival and growth, twentieth-centurycities and industrial sectors bank on a huge and increasingly global

    hinterland of ecologically productive landscapes. Cities essentially

    "appropriate" the ecological output and life support functions of remote

    regions all over the earth through commercial trade and natural

    biogeochemical cycles. Perhaps the most vital insight from this result is that

    not a single city or urban region can attain sustainability on its own. In spite

    of local land use and environmental policies, a prerequisite for sustainable

    cities is the sustainable utilisation of the global hinterland.

    The other reason for this dependency is usually the effect of urban

    populations and cities on the ecosphere and rural environments. In this

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    century along with increasing material standards and the spread ofconsumerism, the huge migration of humans to the cities has turned urban

    industrial regions into nodes of strong consumption. The richer the city and

    the more linked they are to the rest of the world, the greater the load it is

    able to impose on the ecosphere by trade and other types of economic

    leverage. Seen in this light and contrary to popular wisdom, the apparent

    depopulation of various rural regions does not indicate that they are being

    deserted in any eco-functional sense. But, most of the citizens may have

    shifted somewhere else and the rural lands and ecosystem functions are

    being utilised in a more intensive manner than ever in the service of recently

    urbanised human populations.Each week Mmore than one million people

    populations are added to the world's cities. each week, Band by the year

    2000, overmore than a half of the totalwhole world population will be urban.

    In North American, aA typical North American city with a population of about

    650,000 would require 30,000 square kilometres of land. Thisan area is

    roughly the size of Vancouver Island that is , Canada. The land is required

    to meet domestic needs alone without even includingcounting the

    environmental demands of industry. In comparisonOn the other hand, in

    India a similar size city in India would require 2,800 square kilometres. On

    the environment, uUrban density and city expansion have

    significantimportant consequences on the environment. Artificially created

    areas which are linked to urban activity producecreates an atypicalunusual

    form of biodiversity and they directly affect affects the quality of water, soil,

    air, and land. Rural areas are also under the pressure exerted by

    urbanisation. The urban ecosystem distinguishdifferentiatees itself from

    natural eco-systems due tobecause of the creationdesign of artificial

    environments that change, amongst others, the climate such as (bursts of

    heat, less powerful winds) and disturbs the water cycle that is (water runoff.)

    Air pollution directly affects pplants. Following factors harm the

    development of trees:

    ; nNoise

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    , vVibrations , lLack of light

    and sSpace underground harm the development of trees.

    Canada is one of the world's wealthiest countries in the world. Its

    citizeninhabitants enjoyhave the benefit of enjoying very high material

    standards by any measure. IndeedIn reality, ecological footprint analysis

    showillustrates that the total land required to supportsustain presentcurrent

    consumption levels by the average Canadian is at leastno less than 4.3

    hectares. It, includesing 2.3 hectares for carbon dioxide

    assimilationabsorption alone (Figure 2). ThusTherefore, the per capitaecological footprint of Canadians is almostabout three times their "fair

    Earthshare" of 1.5 hectares.?

    For exampleinstance, Both Japan and the Netherlands both boastpossess

    positive trade and current account balances that are measured in monetary

    terms. , and tTheir populations are among two of thee most

    prosperouswealthiest places on earth. These countries are densely

    populated yet relatively resource- (natural capital) poor. Therefore, they are

    known as stellar economic successes and developing countries held up

    these countries as models for emulation. . Densely populated yet relatively

    resource- (natural capital) poor, these countries are regarded as stellar

    economic successes and held up as models for emulation by the developing

    world. At the same time, after estimation we have found estimate that Japan

    has a 2.5 hectare per /capita, and the Netherlands a 3.3 hectare per /capita

    ecological footprint. This estimation which givepresents Japan and

    Netherlands these countries national ecological footprints about eight and

    15 times largerbigger than their total domestic territories respectively. (Note

    that Table 2 is based on areas of ecologically productive land only.) The

    markednoticeable contrastdissimilarity between the physical and monetary

    accounts of such economic success stories raiseincreases

    difficultcomplicated developmental questions in a world whose principalmain

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    strategy for sustainability is economic growth. GlobalWorldwidesustainability cannot be (ecological) deficit-financed;. According to ssimple

    physics, dictates that not aall countries or regions cannot becomecan be net

    importers of biophysical capacity.

    Ecological footprint analysis illustrates explains the fact that as a result of

    the enormous increase in per capita energy and material consumption made

    possible by (and required by) technology, and universally increasing

    dependencies on trade, the ecological locations of high-density human

    settlements no longer coincide with their geographic locations. For survival

    and growth, twentieth-century cities and industrial sectors bank on a huge

    and increasingly global hinterland of ecologically productive landscapes.Twentieth-century cities and industrial regions for survival and growth

    depend on a vast and increasingly global hinterland of ecologically

    productive landscapes. Cities necessarilyessentially "appropriate" the

    ecological output and life support functions of distantremote regions all over

    the worldearth through commercial trade and natural biogeochemical

    cycles. Perhaps the most importantvital insight from this result is that not a

    single city or urban region can achieveattain sustainability on its own.

    RegardlessIn spite of of local land use and environmental policies, a

    prerequisite for sustainable cities is the sustainable exploitationutilisation of

    the global hinterland.

    The other sidepart of this dependency coin is the impact urban populations

    and cities have on rural environments and the ecosphere generally. In this

    century Combined withalong with risingincreasing material standards and

    the spread of consumerism, the mass huge migration of humans to the

    cities in this century has turned urban industrial regions into nodes of

    intensestrong consumption. The wealthierricher the city and the more

    connectedlinked to the rest of the world, the greater the load it is

    ablecapable to impose on the ecosphere through by trade and other

    formtypes of economic leverage. Seen in this light and contrary to popular

    wisdom, the seemingapparent depopulation of manyvarious rural

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    arearegions does not meanindicate that they are being abandoneddesertedin any ecofunctional sense. Whereas But, most of the peoplecitizens may

    have moveshifted elsewheresomewhere else, rural lands and ecosystem

    functions are being exploitutilised more intenselyextremely than ever in the

    service of newlyrecently urbaniszed human populations.

    Box 1: Ecological Footprint of London

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    Agricultural foot printFood production has successfully diverted many natural landscapes to aid

    human purposes when compared to any other ecologically important human

    economic activity. Some of the technology-based developments are:

    Spread of irrigation

    Extensive use of fertilizers

    Pesticides

    High-yielding crop varieties

    Field mechanisation

    Expanding trade

    These developments succeeded in maintaining global food production

    ahead of population rises through the last century, with the most impressive

    results in the post-WW-II period. In the meantime, today the population has

    increased to about 6.3 billion, that is, by 152 percent. In 1950, it was 2.5

    billion.

    Agriculture is the biggest component that contributes to a typical population

    eco-footprint (EF). This should not be any surprise. After transportation,

    food production such as meat, poultry, fruits, vegetables and grains causes

    the maximum level of environmental impact related to the average

    household transportation and food, along with household operations such

    as heating of space and water, running appliances and lighting that involve

    between 64 percent and 86 percent of the total ecological impact of

    household consumption in the various impact categories. A chief component

    of the food production impact is landscape shift. For instance, about 60

    percent of the US land area is granted to crop production or livestock

    grazing and 45 percent of the nations environment loss or alteration is

    because of agriculture.

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    Area of average cropland of the world used to produce the food items oftodays high-income consumers can be as high as 1.5 hectares that is 3.7

    acres per capita, which would be four to eight times the cropland needed by

    the world's poor population. The per capita demand for cropland in Canada

    is about 1 hectare which is about twelve times that of a typical Bangladeshi

    or Mozambican.

    Countries such as Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom that are

    wealthy have agricultural eco-footprints that are many times larger than their

    domestic farming land bases. In contrast with the poorer developing

    countries, these prosperous countries have, so far, funded their extensive

    food-based ecological deficits with the rest of the world. In fact, nationsthat are net food importers are more the rule than the exception. In the

    world almost 183 nations are partly dependent on food imports. Five

    countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, France and

    Argentina account for 80 percent of cereal exports and most of the safety

    net in international food markets. These nations have remarkably high

    cropland- to-population ratios and comparatively few soil constraints, and

    utilise intensively mechanised, fossil-energy dependent production

    techniques. It will be clear from this short discussion of cropland eco-

    footprints relative to land supply that soil constraints signify a main obstacle

    to increased food production in the future, mostly for those nations that needit the most. In some cases increasing the total area of cropland is feasible,

    but may need expansion of agriculture into low-grade land and huge

    damage to remaining wildlife natural habitat.

    Transportation footprints

    In general cars and trucks have a smaller carbon footprint than small

    aircraft, but a greater carbon footprint than large aircraft (because the

    amount of carbon dioxide per flight is spread over a greater number of

    passengers). Rail transportation has a smaller carbon footprint than cars or

    trucks, and ships have a smaller carbon footprint than rail.

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    Personal Transport Footprint: A footprint analysis Southwest England statesthat computation of a personal transport ecological footprint considers

    the energy that is essential for manufacturing, maintenance and fuel for

    various types of transport such as aeroplanes, trains and cars. In 2001,

    the personal transport ecological footprint for a Southwest

    resident was 2.6 million Gha (0.53 Gha per person), and accounted

    for 10 percent of the total ecological footprint of the area.

    The largest element was car travel. It accounted for 79 percent of the

    personal transport ecological footprint and 85 percent of the distance

    covered. Air transport had the second largest ecological footprint at 15

    percent, even though it was only 5 percent of the distance covered. The airtransport ecological footprint is high because of the energy input required for

    flying, mainly at take-off and landing

    (http://www.steppingforward.org.uk/ef/perstrans.htm).

    Utilisation of bio-diesel cuts down the discharge of carbon.

    Companies should begin using bio-diesel to secure the surroundings

    in addition to the life time of the vehicle.

    Opting for regular servicing keep you informed about the energy

    consumption and provides the benefit of extra mileage.

    Utilisation of Electric, Diesel Hybrid and LPG vehicles decreases

    carbon discharges.

    Business should plan route such that it reduces traveling time.Food

    production has effectivelysuccessfully divertedrerouted moreadditional

    natural landscape to human purposereasons than any other ecologically

    significantimportant human economic activity. Some of the technology-

    based developments are:

    Spread of irrigation

    Extensive use of fertilizers

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    Pesticides High-yielding crop varieties

    Field mechanisation

    Expanding trade

    These developments succeeded in maintaining global food production

    ahead of population rises through the last century, with the most impressive

    results in the post-WW-II period. In the meantime, today the population has

    increased to about 6.3 billion that is by 152%. In 1950, it was 2.5 billion.

    Meanwhile, of course, the human population has increased by 152% from2.5 billion in 1950 to about 6.3 billion today.

    Agriculture is the biggest component that contributes to a typical population

    eco-footprint (EF). Agriculture contributes one of the largest components to

    a typical population eco-footprint (EF). This should not be be noany

    surprise. Next toAfter transportation, food production such as (meat, poultry,

    fruits, vegetables and grains) causes the greatestmaximum level of

    environmental impact associaterelated with the average household

    transportation and food, together along with household operations such as

    (heating of space and water, running appliances and lighting)

    compriseinvolve between 64% and 86% of the total ecological impact ofhousehold consumption in the several various impact categories. A

    majorchief component of the food production impact is landscape

    alterationshift. For exampleinstance, about 60% of the US land area is

    dedicategranted to crop production or livestock grazing and 45% of the

    nations habitatenvironment loss or alteration is due tobecause of

    agriculture.

    Area of world-average cropland of the world used to produce the diets crops

    of todays high-income consumers can be as high as 1.5 hectares that is

    (3.7 acres) per capita,. TypicallyUsually the poorest of the worlds poor

    people required that cropland four to eight times the cropland required by

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    the poorest of the worlds poor. The per capita demand for cropland inCanada s per capita demand for cropland atis about 1 hectare which is

    about twelve times that of a typical Bangladeshi or Mozambican.

    WealthyProsperous countries such aslike Spain, the Netherlands and the

    United Kingdom have agriculturalfarming eco-footprints up to several times

    largerbigger than their domestic agricultural farming land bases. Unlike In

    contrast with the poorer developing countries, these wealthyprosperous

    nationcountries have, so far, financed funded their considerableextensive

    food-based ecological deficits with the rest of the world. ActuallyIn fact,

    countries nations that are net food importers are more the rule than the

    exception. In the world Mostalmost of the worlds 183 nations arepartiallypartly dependent on food imports. FJust five countries such as the

    United States, Canada, Australia, France and Argentina account for 80%

    of cereal exports and most of the safety net in globalinternational food

    markets. These countries nations have exceptionallyremarkably high

    cropland- to-population ratios and relativelycomparatively few soil

    constraints, and useutilise intensively mechaniszed, fossil-energy

    dependent production methodtechniques. It should will be clear from even

    this briefshort discussion of cropland eco-footprints relative to land supply

    that land soil constraints representsignify a majormain barrierobstacle to

    increased food production in the future, particularlymostly for thosecountries nations that need it the most. In some cases Iincreasing the total

    area of cropland is possiblefeasible in some cases, but would may

    requireneed expansion of agriculture into inferiorlow-grade land and

    massivehuge damage to remaining wildlife natural habitat.

    Transportation footprints

    In general cars and trucks have a smaller carbon footprint than small

    aircraft, but a greater carbon footprint than large aircraft (because the

    amount of carbon dioxide per flight is spread over a greater number of

    passengers). Rail transportation has a smaller carbon footprint than cars or

    trucks, and ships have a smaller carbon footprint than rail.

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    Personal Transport Footprint: A footprint analysis Southwest England Thecalculation of a personal transport ecological footprint takes into

    consideration the energy required for manufacturing, maintenance and

    fuel for different modes of transport, such as cars, aeroplanes and

    trains. In 2001, Tthe personal transport ecological footprint for a

    Southwest resident in 2001 was 2.6 million Gha (0.53 Gha per

    person), and accounted for 10% of the total ecological footprint of the

    regionarea.

    The largest component element was car travel. It, which accounted for 79%

    of the personal transport ecological footprint and 85% of the distance

    travelledcovered. Air travel transport had the second largest ecologicalfootprint at 15%, althougheven though it was only 5% of the distance

    travelledcovered. The air travel transport ecological footprint is high due

    tobecause of the energy input required for flying, particularlymainly at take-

    off and landing (http://www.steppingforward.org.uk/ef/perstrans.htm).

    Utilisation Using of bio-diesel cuts down on carbon

    emissiondischarge. Companies mustshould startbegin using bio-

    diesel to safesecure the surroundings in addition to the life time of

    the vehicle.

    Opting for Rregular servicing. It will tell you about the energyconsumption and will benefitgain extra mileage.

    Utiliszation of Electric, Diesel Hybrid and LPG vehicles will

    reducedecrease carbon emissiondischarges.

    Scheduling route to reduce traveling time. The businessCompanies

    should schedule route in a fashion manner that it reduces the time of

    travelingminimize traveling time.

    Self Assessment Questions

    3. Ecological footprint evaluates humanitys demand on nature:

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    say Yes or No4. Rapid land use changes in a city may leads to sharp rise in

    ____________.

    a) Ecological foot prints b) regulatory services c) cultural services

    d) supportive services

    5. Hybrid vehicles and LPG vehicles usage may reduce ____________.

    a) Carbon emissions b) water pollution c) soil pollution

    d) business opportunity

    Water Footprint

    The concept of water footprint has been developed to have an indicator of

    water use relative to its consumption by people. The volume of water

    needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the

    inhabitants of the country is known as the water footprint of a country. The

    virtual water concept is closely related to the water footprint concept. The

    volume of water required to produce a commodity or service is called virtual

    water. International trade of commodities implies flows of virtual water over

    large distances. The water footprint of a country can be measured with the

    help of domestic water resources, reduction of the virtual water flow thatgoes out of the country and addition of virtual water flow that come into the

    country. The volume of water used from domestic water resources to

    produce the goods and services consumed by the people of the country is

    known as internal water footprintof a country. The volume of water used in

    other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by

    the people of the country is known as external water footprintof a country.

    The study aims to compute the water footprint for each country of the world

    for the period 1997-2001.

    The use of domestic water resources includes water use in the sectors like:

    Agricultural

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    Industrial Domestic

    The calculation of the total volume of water use in the agricultural sector is

    done on the basis of total quantity of crop produced and its corresponding

    virtual water content. The calculation of the virtual water content (m3/ton) of

    prime crops is done on the basis of crop water requirement and produce.

    The requirement of crop water for each crop is calculated with the help of

    the method developed by FAO. The calculation of the virtual water content

    of crop products is done on the basis of product fractions that include tons

    of crop product obtained per ton of primary crop and value fractions that

    include the market value of one crop product divided by the total market

    value of all crop items for consumptions that is obtained from one main

    crop. The calculation of the virtual water content (m3/ton) of live animals is

    done on the basis of the virtual water content of their feed and the volumes

    of drinking and service water consumed throughout their existence. The

    calculation of the virtual water content of livestock products is again done on

    the basis of product fractions and value fractions. Virtual water flows

    between countries are obtained from statistics on international product trade

    and the virtual water content per product in the exporting nation.

    The worldwide volume of water used for crop production is 6390 Gm3

    /yr. Itincludes both effective rainfall and irrigation water. Generally, livestock

    products have higher virtual water content than crop products. For instance,

    the worldwide average virtual water content of maize, wheat and rice

    (husked) is 900, 1300 and 3000 m3/ton respectively, but on the other hand,

    the virtual water content of chicken meat, pork and beef is 3900, 4900 and

    15500 m3/ton respectively. But the virtual water content of products strongly

    differs from place to place, depending upon:

    Climate

    Technology adopted for farming

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    Corresponding yieldsThe worldwide volume of virtual water flows associated with the

    international trade in commodities is 1625 Gm3 per year. About 20 percent

    of these virtual water flows is related to the industrial product trade and

    remaining 80 percent is related to the trade in agricultural products. The

    worldwide water footprint is about 7450 Gm3/yr, which is 1240 m3/cap/yr.

    The dissimilarities between nations are large. For example, the USA has an

    average water footprint of 2480 m3/cap/yr, whereas China has an average

    footprint of 700 m3/cap/yr. Following are the four major factors that

    determine the water footprint of a nation:

    Volume of consumption (related to the gross national income)

    Consumption pattern (for example, high versus low meat consumption)

    Climate (growth conditions)

    Agricultural practice (water use efficiency)

    The nations with a comparatively high rate of evapotranspiration and a high

    gross national income per capita have huge water footprints, such as:

    Portugal (2260 m3/yr/cap)

    Italy (2330 m3/yr/cap)

    Greece (2390 m3/yr/cap)

    The above discussed case often results in large consumption of meat and

    industrial goods. Some nations with a high gross national income per capita

    can have a comparatively low water footprint because of favourable climatic

    conditions for crop production. For example the United Kingdom has 1245

    m3/yr/cap, the Netherlands has 1220 m3/yr/cap,, Denmark has 1440 m3/yr/ca

    and Australia has 1390 m3/yr/cap. Some nations can demonstrate a high

    water footprint due to high meat ratios in the diet of the people as well as

    high consumption of industrial products, such as the USA (2480 m3/yr/cap)

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    and Canada (2050 m

    3

    /yr/cap). Global water reliance is significant. About 16percent of the global water use is not for producing domestically consumed

    products but for exporting products in the global market. Globalisation of

    trade increases the global water interdependencies.The water footprint

    conceptidea has been developed in order toto have an indicator of water

    use in relation tocompared with consumption of people. The water footprint

    of a country is defined as t The volume of water needed for the production

    of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country is

    known as the water footprint of a country. The virtual water concept is

    Cclosely linkedrelated to the water footprint concept is the virtual water

    concept. Virtual water is defined as tThe volume of water required to

    produce a commodity or service is called virtual water. International trade of

    commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water

    footprint of a nationcountry can be assessmeasured by taking the usewith

    the help of domestic water resources, subtractdeduct the virtual water flow

    that leavedeparts the country and add the virtual water flow that entercome

    intos the country. The internal water footprintof a nation is tThe volume of

    water used from domestic water resources to produce the goods and

    services consumed by the inhabitantspeople of the country is known as

    internal water footprintof a country. The external water footprintof a country

    is tThe volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and

    services imported and consumed by the inhabitantspeople of the country is

    known as external water footprint of a country. The study aims to

    calculatecompute the water footprint for each nationcountry of the world for

    the period 1997-2001.

    The use of domestic water resources compriseincludes water use in the

    sectors like:

    the aAgricultural

    , iIndustrial

    and dDomestic sectors.

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    The calculation of Tthe total volume of water use in the agricultural sector iscalculatedis done on the basis of based on the total volumequantity of crop

    produced and its corresponding virtual water content. The calculation of

    Tthe virtual water content (m3/ton) of primaryprime crops is calculated done

    on the basis ofbased on crop water requirements and yieldsproductions.

    The requirement of crop water requirement ofor each crop is calculated with

    the help of using the methodologymethod developed by FAO. The

    calculation of Tthe virtual water content of crop products is calculated based

    ondone on the basis of product fractions (that include ton of crop product

    obtained per ton of primary crop) and value fractions that include (the

    market value of one crop product divided by the aggregatetotald market

    value of all crop productitems for consumptions deriveobtained from one

    primarymain crop). The calculation of Tthe virtual water content (m3/ton) of

    live animals is calculated based ondone on the basis of the virtual water

    content of their feed and the volumes of drinking and service water

    consumed duringthroughout their lifetimeexistence. The calculation of the

    virtual water content of livestock products is again done on the basis

    ofbased on product fractions and value fractions. Virtual water flows

    between nationcountries are deriveobtained from statistics on international

    product trade and the virtual water content per product in the exporting

    countrynation.

    The globalworldwide volume of water used for crop production, including

    both effective rainfall and irrigation water, is 6390 Gm3/yr. It includes both

    effective rainfall and irrigation water. In generalGenerally, livestock

    products crop products have lower higher virtual water content than crop

    products livestock products. For exampleinstance, the globalworldwide

    average virtual water content of maize, wheat and rice (husked) is 900,

    1300 and 3000 m3/ton respectively, whereasbut on the other hand, the

    virtual water content of chicken meat, pork and beef is 3900, 4900 and

    15500 m3/ton respectively. HoweverBut, the virtual water content of

    products strongly varies differs from place to place, depending upon:

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    tChe climate , tTechnology adopted for farming

    and cCorresponding yields.

    The globalworldwide volume of virtual water flows relatedassociated to the

    international trade in commodities is 1625 Gm3 per /year. About 280% of

    these virtual water flows is related to the industrial product trade and

    remaining 80% trade in agricultural products., while the remainder is related

    to industrial product trade. The globalworldwide water footprint is about

    7450 Gm3/yr, which is 1240 m3/cap/yr. The differencedissimilarities between

    countries nations are large. For example,: the USA has an average waterfootprint of 2480 m3/cap/yr, whilewhereas China has an average footprint of

    700 m3/cap/yr. Following are Tthe four major factors that determineing the

    water footprint of a countrynation are:

    V volume of consumption (related to the gross national income)

    ; cConsumption pattern (e.gexample. high versus low meat

    consumption)

    ; cClimate (growth conditions); and

    aAgricultural practice (water use efficiency).The countries nations with a relativelycomparatively high rate of

    evapotranspiration and a high gross national income per capita (which often

    results in large consumption of meat and industrial goods) have largehuge

    water footprints, such as:

    Portugal (2260 m3/yr/cap)

    , Italy (2330 m3/yr/cap)

    and Greece (2390 m3/yr/cap).

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    The above discussed case often results in large consumption of meat andindustrial goods. Some countries nations with a high gross national income

    per capita can have a relativelycomparatively low water footprint due

    tobecause of favourable climatic conditions for crop production. For

    example, such as the United Kingdom has (1245 m3/yr/cap), the

    Netherlands has (1220 m3/yr/cap,), Denmark has (1440 m3/yr/cap ) and

    Australia has (1390 m3/yr/cap). Some countries nations can

    exhibitdemonstrate a high water footprint because ofdue to high meat

    proportionratios in the diet of the people and as well as high consumption of

    industrial products, such as the USA (2480 m3/yr/cap) and Canada (2050

    m3/yr/cap). InternationalGlobal water dependencyreliance is

    substantialsignificant. About An estimated 16% of the global water use is

    not for producing domestically consumed products but products for export in

    the global market. With increasing gGlobalisation of trade will increase the,

    global water interdependencies are likely to increase.

    012.4 Summary

    Let us recapitulate some important points discussed in this unit:

    Ecosystem services refer to the benefits got by people from

    ecosystems.

    These services are broadly categorised into six classes based on

    their ecological and economic function.

    Ecosystem service approach incorporates the value that humans

    obtain from healthy ecosystems into decision making.

    It clearly links nature to the well-being of humans and other

    structures conservation efforts in terms of the services, or benefits,

    that an ecosystem gives under various scenarios.

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    Once humanity identifies this link, and the value offered to them by agiven ecosystem, the impetus for conservation is realisedborn.

    Further, these services have the potential to affect the business

    practices and policy for the populated regions of the world where

    traditional conservation cannot work.

    Even though complete full conservation in mostthese regions may

    not be unfeasible, key ecosystem services and function can be

    sustainedEcosystem services are the benefitprofits people

    obtainacquire from ecosystems.

    These services are broadly categorized into six classes based ontheir ecological and economic function.

    Ecosystem service approach incorporates the value that humans

    deriveobtain from healthy ecosystems into decision making.

    It clearly links nature to human well-beingcomfort and

    framestructures conservation efforts in terms of the services, or

    benefits, that an ecosystem providegives under different various

    scenarios.

    Once humanity recognizeidentifies this link, and the value

    provideoffered to them by a given ecosystem, the impetus for

    conservation is born.

    Further, these services have the capability to affect policy and

    business practices for the populated areas of the world where

    traditional conservation cannot work.

    Even ifEven though full conservation in these arearegions may be

    impossible,unfeasible key ecosystem services and function can be

    maintainsustained..

    012.5 Terminal Questions

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    1.Write a note on conceptual basics of ecosystem services.

    2. Discuss in detail about role of regulating services on human health.

    3. List out some of the provisional services.

    4. Write short note on Ecological foot prints.

    5. How water footprints would be helpful to attain sustainable

    development.

    012.5 Glossary

    Ecological footprint (EF): It calculates how much bioproductive area

    (whether land or water) the people would require to produce on asustainable basis the renewable resources it consumes, and to absorb the

    waste it creates, using prevailing technology.

    Biocapacity (BC): Itcalculates the bioproductive supply that is accessible

    within a particular area (e.g. of arable land, pasture, forest, productive sea).

    Virtual water: Itis defined as the volume of water required to manufacture

    a product or service.

    Ecological footprint (EF): It measurecalculates how much bioproductive

    area (whether land or water) thea populationpeople would require to

    produce on a sustainable basis the renewable resources it consumes, andto absorb the waste it generatecreates, using prevailing technology.

    Biocapacity (BC): Itcalculates measures the bioproductive supply that is

    availableaccessible within a certain particular area (e.g. of arable land,

    pasture, forest, productive sea).

    Virtual water: It is defined as the volume of water required to

    producemanufacture a commodityproduct or service.

    012.6 Answers

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    SAQ1. (a) Provisioning services

    2. Yes

    3. Yes

    4. (a) Ecological foot prints

    5. (a) Carbon emissions

    Terminal Questions

    1. Refer section 012.2.1

    2. Refer section 12.2.3

    3. Refer section 12.2.2

    4. Refer section 12.3

    5. Refer section 12.3.4

    References

    1. WEHAB (2002), A Framework for Action on Biodiversity and

    Ecosystem Management, Water, Energy, Health, Agriculture and

    Biodiversity Working Group Report, contribution to the World Summit

    on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26

    August 4 September 2002. United Nations, New York.

    2. UNEP (2010) Guidance Manual for the Valuation of Regulating

    Services, ISBN: 978-92-807-3131-6, Publishing Services Section,

    UNON, Nairobi-Kenya,

    3. Ecosystems and their services,

    http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.300.aspx.pdf

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    4.Ecological Footprint and Biocapacity, Luxembourg: Office for OfficialPublications of the European Communities, 2006, (http://europa.eu)

    5. A resource flow, and ecological footprint analysis of Greater London,

    www. citylimitslondon.com

    6. Rees W and M Wackernagei 1996, urban ecological footprints: why

    cities cannot be sustainable and why they are a key to sustainability,

    environ impact assess rev 1996;16:223-248

    7. Rees W The Eco-Footprint of Agriculture:A Far-from-

    Thermodynamic)-Equilibrium Interpretation In The Eco-Footprint of

    Agriculture: A Far-from-(Thermodynamic)-Equilibrium Interpretation8. Water footprints of nations, Volume 1: Main Report 2004, UNESCO-

    IHE Delft P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands

    9. http://www.economist.com/node/15321193

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