Materials for Life Professor Lynn Cominsky Joanne del Corral Sharon Janulaw Michelle Curtis July 9,...

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Materials for Life Professor Lynn Cominsky Joanne del Corral Sharon Janulaw Michelle Curtis July 9, 2003 NBSP Physical Science Leadership Institute
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Transcript of Materials for Life Professor Lynn Cominsky Joanne del Corral Sharon Janulaw Michelle Curtis July 9,...

  • Materials for LifeProfessor Lynn CominskyJoanne del CorralSharon JanulawMichelle CurtisJuly 9, 2003

    NBSP Physical Science Leadership Institute

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Standard ConnectionsStudents know properties of solid, liquid and gaseous substances, such as sugar (C6H12O6), helium (He), and Oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2) (5)Students know the common properties of salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl) (5)

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • First Activity: Sugar and SaltHow are sugar and salt different?If we couldnt taste them, how could we tell which is which?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Sugar and salt investigations:

    Given: quantities of sugar & salt, and all the equipment that you have been using during the past two weeksCan you predict how the physical properties of sugar and salt might differ?Can you design experiments to differentiate between sugar and salt?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts about SugarSugar is a type of carbohydrate and the most common molecules found in plants and animalsCarbohydrates are literally Carbon that is hydrated Carbon + waterC6H12O6 is glucoseOther common sugars:sucrose C12H22O11 fructose C6H12O6 All sugar names end in ose as do other carbohydrates

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Structure of Glucose

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts about SaltIn its simplest form, Salt is a molecule that pairs one element from the first group in the periodic table (e.g., Na) with an element from the seventh group (e.g., Cl)Group 1 elements have one unpaired electron in their outer shells, while Group 7 elements are missing an electron to complete their outer shells

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts about SaltSalts can be formed by mixing an acid and a base to form a salt and waterFor example: Hydrochloric acid + Sodium Hydroxide table salt + water HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2OIn solutions, salt dissociates into Na+ and Cl- ions Na+ has lost one electron Cl- has gained one electronIonic solutions can conduct current

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Structure of NaCl

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Second activity: Comparing gasesHelium, Nitrogen and Oxygen are all commonly occurring gasesConsult the periodic table to compare the properties of these gasesCan you draw pictures of the structure of each gas?Consult the materials in your binder to compare the uses of these gases

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts: Common gasesHelium is a Noble gas it is the second most common element in the Universe but is only present in trace amounts in the Earths atmosphereNitrogen and Oxygen are diatomic gases which are rare in the Universe but 78% of the atmospheric volume is nitrogen21% of the atmospheric volume is oxygenThey are both very chemically reactive

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Structure of Common Gases:N2Nitrogen gas is a diatomic molecule formed from two atoms of Nitrogen. Each atom has 7 electrons. The inner shell is filled with 2 of these electrons, leaving a total of 5 electrons that try to fill the next shell (which holds 8) for each atom.A triple covalent bond between the two nuclei shares 3 pairs of the electrons.Two other electrons are individually bonded to each nucleus.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Structure of Common Gases:O2Oxygen gas is a diatomic molecule formed from two atoms of Oxygen. Each atom has 8 electrons. The inner shell is filled with 2 of these electrons, leaving a total of 6 electrons that try to fill the next shell (which holds 8) for each atom.A double covalent bond between the two nuclei shares 2 pairs of the electrons.Four other electrons are individually bonded to each nucleus.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • VocabularySalt: ionic molecule that pairs a group 1 and a group 7 elementSugar: molecule that combines Carbon with an integral number of water moleculesIon: elemental form with extra or missing electronsNoble gas: an element in Group 8, which has a filled outer shell and is chemically (rather) inert

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • ELD Activities: Visual ImageryMake a slide show, or have images ready to show to the students.Ask them to first write down on a piece of paper or in their journal whether the object shown is a liquid, a solid, or a gas. Then ask volunteers to give their answer.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Publishers MaterialsTake some time to look through the state-adopted texts to find activities relating to commonly occurring substances, such as sugar, salt and atmospheric gases

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Break something to think aboutWhy do you think the relative abundances of helium vs. nitrogen/oxygen are so different between the Universe and the Earths atmosphere?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Standard Connections

    Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeated patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers. (8)

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Third Activity: Structure of SolidsGiven: toothpicks, styrofoam ballsUse the toothpicks to represent electrons in the outer shellsUse the styrofoam balls to represent the nuclei of the various elementsCreate models for NaCl, Glucose, Nitrogen gas and oxygen gas Compare the models what are the structural differences between Sugar and Salt? Between N2 and O2?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts: Structure of SugarsSugars come in many formsMonosaccharides glucose, fructoseDisaccharides - sucrosePolysaccharides made of many smaller glucose type rings Polysaccharides include starch, glycogen and cellulose

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Structure of Solids: Polymeric MoleculesStarch is made of many units of glucoseNumbered corners are C-H (not shown)This is (a small part of) amylose 4000 units of glucose

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Further investigations: Slime!

    Given: Borax, white glue, water, food coloring, ziploc bagAdd 1 Tbsp. Borax to 1 cup water, stir until dissolvedMake a solution of cup water and cup glue mix thoroughlyIn a ziploc bag, add equal parts borax solution and glue solutionAdd a couple of drops of food coloringSeal bag and knead mixtureDig in and have fun!

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Further questions:

    What are the properties of slime?How can we tell that this is a polymer?What other polymers do you know?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts: StructureIonic crystals such as salt, have a regular lattice structure Repeating units in salt are cubic in shape the molecule is also cubicSugars have units that can repeat to make complex carbohydrates such as starchRepeating units are cyclic in shape the overall molecule is chain-like

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • VocabularyPolymer complex molecule made of repeating units in a chain-like structureCrystal molecular structure made of repeating units in a cubic structureSaccharide sweet substanceStarch polysaccharide that is used for energy storage in plantsGlycogen polysaccharide that is used for energy storage in animals

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • ELD Activities: Analogies and Student InvolvementHave the students investigate their favorite food and snacks. Ask them to look at the Ingredient List on the label of the food packaging and list all the words ending in ose in their journal. Go over the words with them the next day. (A hint on health awareness might be welcome there as well!)

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Publishers MaterialsTake some time to look through the state-adopted texts to find activities relating to structure of common moleculesExamples: MH p. 221

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Lunch some things to think aboutHow do sugars and starches provide energy for plants and animals?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Standard ConnectionsStudents know how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic or neutral (8)

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Fourth Activity: Cabbage Juice ScienceMake your own acid/base indicator by boiling red cabbage. Use the juice to test whether different fluids are acids or bases. Compare the pH results from the cabbage juice to those obtained using litmus paper.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Equipment for Cabbage Juice activityred cabbage juicevinegar and lemon juicebaking soda, powdered lime, and liquid soapsome plastic spoons, stirring sticks, and 4 plastic cups5 medicine droppers1 marker

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Cabbage Juice Activity:Label 6 clear plastic cups with numbers 1-6 Fill all cups up ~1/4 of the way with cabbage juice.Collect your five samplesVinegarLemon juiceBaking sodaPowdered limeLiquid soap (non-antibacterial)Place a small amount of each sample into each of five of the plastic cups.If your sample is an acid, it will turn the cabbage juice pink. If your sample is a base, it will turn the cabbage juice green.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Further investigations:Label 2 clear plastic cups: 1 and 2 Fill all cups up ~1/4 of the way with water.Place one known acid and one known base into each of the cups.Place a piece of litmus paper into each of the cups.Basic solutions will turn red litmus paper blue and will leave blue litmus paper unaffected.Acidic solutions will turn blue litmus paper red and will leave red litmus paper unaffected.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts: pHAcidic solutions contain an excess of protons or H+. pH is a measure of how 'acidic' a solution is. The lower the pH, the more acidic the solution. In chemical terms, pH means "the negative log of the concentration of protons" in solution. Chemistry students should recognize this as pH = -log[H+].

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts: pH"Neutral" solutions (e.g.,water) have a pH of 7. This number coincides with the amount of H+ naturally formed in water from the equilibrium reaction: H2O H+ + OH- "Basic" solutions have a pH greater than 7, meaning that they have less free H+ than that in neutral water.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts: pHRed cabbage contains pigments call anthocyanins. The pigments give it the red/purplish color. Anthocyanins belong to group of chemical compounds called flavonoids. Other plants that contain anthocyanins include beets, cranberries and blueberries.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • VocabularypH: A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions. The pH scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14.Base: Any of a class of compounds whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a bitter taste, a slippery feel, the ability to turn litmus blue, and the ability to react with acids to form salts. Acid: Any of a class of substances whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • ELD Activities: Visual imagery and student involvementForm groups of 14 students. Have all students wear an H+ sign. Draw a circular boundary (one per group) on the ground and ask each group to make acidic, neutral, or basic solutions by adding, or removing H+s (represented by each student) using the pH scale as a reference.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Publishers MaterialsTake some time to look through the state-adopted texts to find activities relating to pH, acids and bases.Examples: HM p. C78

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Break some things to think aboutDo you think pH would be a useful test to discriminate between sugar and salt? Why or why not?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Standard ConnectionsStudents know living organisms and most materials are composed of just a few elements (5)

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Fifth Activity: Essential elements in living organismsReview the handout in the binder that includes many tables summarizing the elemental abundances in different locationsHow many elements are essential to plants? To animals?How do the abundances change from the Universe to the solar system?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Fifth Activity: Essential elements in living organismsHow do the abundances change from the solar system to the atmosphere?How do the abundances change from the atmosphere to the oceans?How do the abundances change from the oceans to the crust?How do the abundances change from the crust to plants?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Further investigations:

    What do these changes tell you about the evolution of life in the Universe?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Key concepts: Essential Elements Light elements (H and He) dominate the early UniverseAs the solar system formed, heavier elements (made in stars) were incorporated to make the planetsThe atmosphere is about N2 and O2There are a limited number of elements that are essential to plants and animal life, including H, C, N and O.

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • VocabularyAbundance: relative amount of an element

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • ELD Activities: Compare and Contrast Table A

    Write down examples of living organisms. Remember you are a living organism! Find or draw a picture of the living organisms you found List all elements this organism or material needs in order to survive (i.e. water)

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • ELD Activities: Compare and Contrast Table B

    Write down examples of materials Find or draw a picture of the materials you found List all elements this organism or material needs in order to keep form (i.e. Carbon)

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Questions for ELD Tables:

    1. Using table A and B, list the common elements you see in living organisms and materials:2. What does this tell you about living organisms and most materials? Are they similar in any ways?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Publishers MaterialsTake some time to look through the state-adopted texts to find activities relating to the elements that are essential to plants and animals

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Take away brain teaserWhat do you think the gases are that make up the atmospheres of the gas giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn?

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • Lesson Study ActivitiesIdentify a key concept from todays lecture for further developmentReview the publishers materials about this key concept Think about the best way to present this key concept in your classroom

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

  • ResourcesPhysics by Inquiry L. McDermott and the PEG at U Washingtonhttp://www.saltinstitute.org/15.htmlhttp://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/SDPS/SD.PS.ions.htmlhttp:// biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/ bio104/glucose%20alone.jpg http://www.greenspirit.org.uk/resources/glucose.gifhttp://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/onlcourse/chm110/molimages/N2.GIFhttp://www.poemsinc.org/oceano/abund.htm

    Prof. Lynn Cominsky

    Helium is primordial, but is used up in stars. When stars explode, they create heavy elements. The heavy elements are found in clouds that condense to make planetary systems. Solids stay in the planets, and gases are trapped by the planets gravity to make atmospheres. Living processes on Earth created more Nitrogen and Oxygen than were created by stellar explosions.The borax acts as a connector for the glue molecules (polyvinyl acetate) making long polymeric molecules which appear slime-like.Sugars and starches are broken down into glucose by the bodys digestive system. The glucose circulates in the bloodstream. The body burns glucose into CO2 and H2O, releasing energy that the body uses.Neither sugar nor salt should produce free Hydrogen ions in water solutions.Chemical composition at formation depended on temperature (mostly determined by distance from Sun)From Jupiter outwards, temperatures were much lower, so frozen water coalesced with frozen rocky material, or at even lower temperatures, frozen methane or ammonia