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  • Leatherhead Food International

    MICROBIOLOGY HANDBOOK

    FISH AND SEAFOOD

    Edited byRhea Fernandes

    Leatherhead Food International

    Copy of Master copy of fish micro handbook 17 April:FishOils.qxd 29/04/2009 16:20 Page i

  • This edition first published 2009 byLeatherhead Publishing, a division of

    Leatherhead Food International Ltd

    Randalls Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7RY, UK

    URL: http://www.leatherheadfood.com

    and

    Royal Society of Chemistry

    Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road,

    Cambridge, CB4 0WF, UK

    URL: http://www.rsc.org

    Regstered Charity No. 207890

    ISBN: 978-1-905224-76-0

    A catalogue record of this book is available from the British Library

    2009 Leatherhead Food International Ltd

    The contents of this publication are copyright and reproduction in whole, or in part, is not permittedwithout the written consent of the Chief Executive of Leatherhead International Limited.

    Leatherhead International Limited uses every possible care in compiling, preparing and issuing theinformation herein given but accepts no liability whatsoever in connection with it.

    All rights reserved Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or reviewas permitted under the terms of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not bereproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the ChiefExecutive of Leatherhead International Ltd, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with theterms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licencing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of thelicences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerningreproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to Leatherhead International Ltd at the address printed onthis page.

    Printed and bound by Biddles Ltd., Kings Lynn

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  • Associate Prof. Covadonga Arias Microbial GenomicsDepartment of Fisheries and AlliedAquacultures Auburn UniversityAuburnAlabama 36849 United States of America

    Dr. Simon DerrickSpecial ProjectsThe Grimsby InstituteHumber Seafood InstituteEuroparcGrimsbyDN37 9TZUnited Kingdom

    Carlos Abeyta, Jr.Supervisory MicrobiologistPacific Regional Laboratory NorthwestU.S. Food and Drug Administration22201 23rd Dr. S.E.P. O. Box 3012BothellWA 98021-4421United States of America

    Linda Nicolaides, M.Ph., FRSPHEthical Trade and Food ManagementGroupNatural Resources InstituteUniversity of GreenwichCentral AvenueChatham MaritimeKentME4 4TBUnited Kingdom

    iii

    CONTRIBUTORS

    Prof. Martin AdamsFaculty of Health and MedicalSciencesUniversity of SurreyGuildfordSurrey GU2 7XHUnited Kingdom

    Jeffrey L.C. Wright C.M., Ph.D.,FCICCarl B. Brown DistinguishedProfessor of Marine ScienceUNCW Center for Marine ScienceMarvin Moss LaneWilmington NC 28409United States of America

    Rhea Fernandes and Dr. Peter Wareing Leatherhead Food InternationalRandalls Road LeatherheadSurreyKT22 7RYUnited Kingdom

    Eugenia Choi and Dr. Jenny PflegerRegulatory AdvisorsLeatherhead Food InternationalRandall RoadLeatherheadSurreyKT22 7RYUnited Kingdom

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  • v

    FOREWORD

    The Microbiology Handbook series includes Dairy Products, Fish and Seafood,and Meat Products, published by Leatherhead Food International and RSCPublishing. The books in the series are designed as easy-to-use guides to themicroorganisms found in foods. Each book provides a brief overview of theprocessing factors that determine the nature and extent of microbial growth andsurvival in the product, potential hazards associated with the consumption of arange of products, and growth characteristics for key pathogens associated withthe product. All handbooks also contain a review of the related legislation inEurope and UK, guides to HACCP, and a detailed list of contacts for various foodauthorities. The books are intended as a source of information for microbiologistsand food scientists working in the food industry and responsible for food safety,both in the UK and elsewhere.

    Acknowledgements

    All the authors involved in writing the first edition of this book are gratefullyacknowledged. I thank the contributing authors for their collaboration, which has been the chieffactor in ensuring the completion of this book. My gratitude is extended to DrPeter Wareing, Training Manager, for his scientific input and Victoria Emerton,Technical Team Leader for her valuable editorial contribution. I also acknowledgeand thank Jackie Apps, Alison Turner, and Ann Pernet for the work put intotypesetting and indexing. I dedicate this book to my husband - Goldwyn; thank you for all the support.

    Rhea FernandesLeatherhead Food International

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  • vi

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  • CONTENTS

    CONTRIBUTORS iiiFOREWORD vINTRODUCTION xi

    1. CHILLED AND FROZEN RAW FISH 11.1 Definitions 11.2 Initial Microflora 31.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 51.4 Spoilage 91.5 Factors Affecting Fresh Fish Spoilage 121.6 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 151.7 Published Microbiological Criteria 191.8 References 201.9 Further Reading 24

    2. CHILLED AND FROZEN PREPARED FISH PRODUCTS 272.1 Introduction 272.2 Definitions 28 2.3 Initial Microflora 312.4 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 322.5 Spoilage 432.6 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 452.7 Published Microbiological Criteria 472.8 References 49

    3. MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH 533.1 Definitions 533.2 Initial Microflora 593.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 603.4 Spoilage 653.5 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 663.6 Published Microbiological Criteria 703.7 References 713.8 Further Reading 77

    4. CRUSTACEAN SHELLFISH 794.1 Definitions 794.2 Initial Microflora 804.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 814.4 Spoilage 834.5 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 844.6 Published Microbiological Criteria 874.7 References 894.8 Further Reading 92

    vii

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  • 5. CURED, SMOKED AND DRIED FISH 935.1 Definitions 935.2 Initial Microflora 955.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 965.4 Spoilage 1085.5 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 1135.6 Published Microbiological Criteria 1165.7 References 1175.8 Further Reading 120

    6. FERMENTED FISH 1236.1 Definitions 1236.2 Initial Microflora 1266.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 1276.4 Spoilage 1356.5 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 1366.6 References 1376.7 Further Reading 140

    7. FISH AND SHELLFISH TOXINS 1417.1 Introduction 1417.2 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) Toxins 1427.3 Tetrodotoxin 1447.4 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) Toxins 1467.5 Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) Toxins 1487.6 Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins (LST) 1517.7 Neurotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) Toxins 1537.8 Ciguatoxins 1557.9 Azaspiracids 1587.10 Cyclic Imines 1607.11 Conclusion 1657.12 References 166

    8. HACCP IN FISH AND SEAFOOD PRODUCT MANUFACTURE 1758.1 Introduction 1758.2 Definitions 1768.3 Stages of a HACCP Study 1778.4 Implementation and Review of the HACCP Plan 1848.5 References 186

    9. EU FOOD HYGIENE LEGISLATION 1899.1 Introduction 1899.2 Legislative Structure 1909.3 Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004 on the General Hygiene of Foodstuffs 1919.4 Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004 Laying Down Specific Hygiene Rules for Food of

    Animal Origin 1969.5 Regulation (EC) No. 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council

    Laying Down Specific Rules for the Organisation of Official Controls on Productsof Animal Origin Intended for Human Consumption 212

    9.6 Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on Microbiological Criteria for Foodstuffs 2149.7 Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2006, S.I. 2006 No. 14 (Hygiene

    requirements specific to the UK) 2219.8 Guidance 2229.9 Other Relevant Legislation 2239.10 Further Reading 223

    viii

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  • 10 PATHOGEN PROFILES 22510.1 Aeromonas spp. 22510.2 Clostridium botulinum 22610.3 Clostridium perfringens 22710.4 Listeria spp. 22910.5 Plesiomonas 23010.6 Salmonella spp. 23010.7 Staphylococcus aureus 23210.8 Vibrio cholerae 23310.9 Vibrio parahaemolyticus 23410.10 Vibrio vulnificus 23510.11 References 236

    CONTACTS 241

    INDEX 247

    ix

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  • INTRODUCTION

    Fish and seafood are a main source of animal protein in the diet. Because of theirhealth advantages over red meats, the consumption of fish and seafood hasincreased. Catches can be gathered from seas, rivers and lakes whose water canrange from pristine to contaminated. Often contamination is from human andanimal sources; thus, fish and seafood can be involved in the transmission ofpathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Geographical region, season, and, for fish,whether they are pelagic (surface to mid-water) or demersal (bottom) feeders willinfluence the numbers and types of microorganisms present on freshly caughtseafood.

    The Microbiology Handbook- Fish and Seafood consists of the microbiologyof seven different product categories: chilled and