UNDERSTANDING FISH AND SEAFOOD

download UNDERSTANDING FISH AND SEAFOOD

of 48

  • date post

    03-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    20
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

UNDERSTANDING FISH AND SEAFOOD. TYPES, MARKET FORMS AND BASIC PREPARATIONS BEFORE COOKING. Years ago fish were really only eaten near shore or in areas with lakes, rivers and steams. That is no longer true. Fish is different from other proteins: Meat: few types, many cuts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of UNDERSTANDING FISH AND SEAFOOD

  • UNDERSTANDINGFISH AND SEAFOODTYPES, MARKET FORMSAND BASIC PREPARATIONSBEFORE COOKING

  • Years ago fish were really only eaten near shore or in areas with lakes, rivers and steams. That is no longer trueFish is different from other proteins:Meat: few types, many cutsFish: many types few cutsEach species has its own characteristics and cooking requirements

  • Important to learn basic principles of structure, handling and cookingFish are really divided into two categories:Fin fish: have fins and internal skeletonsShellfish: have external skeletons but no internal bone structureBecause of these differences it is important to look at them separately so that is what we will do!!

  • The cooking qualities of fish are affected by the lack of connective tissue Fish has very little connective tissue, cooks quickly, and is naturally tender.Moist-heat cooking methods preserve moistness and provide variety.Cooked fish will fall apart if not handled properly.

  • Special problems in fish cookery:When fish cooks flesh breaks apart into natural separations: flakingFish should not be cooked until it breaks apart so be careful of term flakes easilyFish is very delicate and is easily overcooked so take care

  • Observe the tests for doneness:Fish just separates into flakesthat is, it is just beginning to flake but does not yet fall apart easilyIf bone is present, the flesh separates from the bone and the bone is no longer pinkFlesh has turned from translucent to opaque ( usually white depending on fish)Remember: major flaw in fish cookery is overcooking

  • Cooking fat fish and lean fishFat content of fish ranges from 0.5% to 20%

    Lean fish are those that re low in fat: flounder, sole, cod, red snapper, bass, perch, halibut, pike

    Fat fish are those high in fat: salmon, trout, tuna, butterfish, mackerel

  • Cooking lean fishBecause lean fish has almost no fat it can easily become dry, especially if overcooked. It is often served with sauces to enhance moistness and give richnessMoist heat methods: especially well suited to poaching; preserves moistnessDry heat methods: if broiled or baked should be basted with butter or oil. Take care not to overcook itDry heat methods with oil: may be fried or sauted gains flavor from added fat

  • Cooking fat fishFat in fish enables them to tolerate more heat without becoming dryMoist heat methods: can be cooked by moist heat. Poached salmon and trout very popularDry heat methods: well suited for broiling and baking. Helps eliminate excessive oilinessDry heat methods with oil: Large fat like salmon and stronger flavored like bluefish and mackerel may be cooked in fat but take care to avoid excessive greasiness. Smaller ones like trout are often pan pried. Drain well before serving

  • Buying FreshFresh fish are very perishable, so look for following characteristics as a guide to good quality:Tips for Buying Fresh Whole FishFull, clear, bright eyes.Bright red or pink, clean gills.Fresh, mild odor.

  • Buying Fresh Whole FishShiny, brightly colored skin with tightly adhering scales.Firm flesh, elastic to the touch, clinging tightly to the bones.Proper display: on ice tables or in refrigerated units at 1-2 degrees Celsius (34-36 degrees Fahrenheit).

  • Buying Fresh Fillets and SteaksGlossy and freshly-cut appearance, firm texture.No browning / drying around cut edges.No discoloration.Proper display perforated plastic or metal trays to drain liquid in closed refrigerated units 34-36 For surrounded by crushed ice.

  • Buying FrozenFreezing locks in freshness, flavor and texture. Look for solidly frozen products.If surface is visible make sure there are no dried cottony patches or discolored spots on the surface of the fish, and there are no ice crystals or frost inside the wrapping.When buying frozen whole fish, choose fish with an ice coating or glaze, which prevents discoloration and drying.

  • Market FormsWhole / Round- Whole just as it comes from water Yields- 2-4 servings / kg or 1-2 servings / pound.Drawn / dressed- Whole fish, gutted with head / without head tail and fins Yields- 4-6 servings /kg 2-3 servings per pound.Steaks- Cross-section cuts of large fish. Yields- 4-6 servings /kg or 2-3 servings / pound.Fillets- Meaty sides of fish Yields- 6-8 servings / kg or 3-4 servings per pound.Butterflied- both sides of fish still joined with bones removed usually trout or smaller fish to be served stuffed or rolled Yields-1-2 portionsTranches or sticks- cross section of slices from fillets usually of thicker fillets Yields- 2- 4 portions depending on size

  • VARIETIES / CHARACTERISTICSHUNDREDS IF NOT THOUSANDS OF FISH VARIETIES ARE EATEN AROUND THE WORLDIN FOODSERVICE USA RELATIVELY FEW ARE REALLY USEDSIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN FLAVOR BETWEEN SALT AND FRESH WATER FISH: SALT WATER ARE SALTIERSALTWATER FISH ARE DIVIDED INTO FLAT AND ROUND FISH

  • SOME FISH SPEND TIME IN BOTH SALT AND FRESH WATERSALMON FOR EXAMPLE LIVE MOST OF THEIR LIVES IN SALT WATER BUT SWIM UP FRESH WATER STREAMS/RIVERS TO LEY EGGS AND SPAWN: ANADROMOUSFISH THAT LIVE IN FRESH WATER BUT SWIM INTO OCEAN TO SPAWN ARE CALLED CATADROMOUS. EELS ARE IN THIS GROUPSO WE WILL LOOK AT SALTWATER 1ST

  • SALTWATER FLAT FISHVERY POPULAR IN COMMERCIAL KITCHENSLEAN WHITE FLESH WITH MILD DELICATE FLAVORVERY FLAT AND OVAL IN SHAPE WITH BOTTH EYES ON ONE SIDE OF FISH HEAD

  • FLOUNDER TYPE: LEAN

    VARIETIES: WINTER( Fluke) lemon sole, grey sole, Pacific Dover sole, sand dab

    CHARCTERISTICS: white flesh, fine flakes, mild sweet flavor

    WEIGHT: to 5 #Hard to see lying on the bottom because it blends in with sandy bottom

  • Sole (Dover or English sole)TYPE: lean

    CHARCTERISTICS: narrower, more elongated than flounder; flesh similar to flounder but firmer in texture. Prized catch!! EXPENSIVE$$$

    WEIGHT:1 T0 2 #

  • HALIBUTTYPE: LLEAN

    CHARCTERISTICS: LOOKS LIKE GIANT FLOUNDER WITH THICKER FLESH, DELICATE FLAVOR. CUT INTO STAKS AND FILLETS

    WEIGHT:4 TO OVER 100#http://www.fishex.com/galleries/halibut-upclose/halibut-upclose-08.html

  • TUBRBOTTYPE: LEAN

    CHARCTERISTICS: LARGE BROAD FLATFISH. WHITE FIRM DELICATE FLESH

    WEIGHT: 1 TO 25#

  • SALTWATER FISHRound FishShape more like what we think fish to be shaped likeBone structure with round backbone and curved rib bones protecting belly and innards

  • Artic CharTYPE: Fat, anadromous

    CHARCTERISTICS: similar to salmon and trout its relations. Flesh similar to salmon but with less fat but more than trout

    WEIGHT: usually around 4# but can be as large as 25#

  • Bluefish TYPE: Fat

    CHARCTERISTICS: Flavorful, oily flesh that is bluish when raw and gray when cooked. Abundant and inexpensive because of its flavor being fishy tasting

    WEIGHT: 1-10#

  • Chilean sea bassTYPE: Fat VARIETIES: not really a bass marketing term for Patagonian toothfish. Has become seriously overfished numbers have declined and price has risen. US imports highly regulated. Many chefs have agreed to stop serving to slow illegal fishing which threatens its survival.CHARCTERISTICS: white, oily flesh with large flakes, firm texture and mild flavorWEIGHT: usually around 20# but can be much bigger

  • Cod TYPE: Lean

    VARIETIES: small, young cod also called scrod

    CHARCTERISTICS: lean white delicate flavored flesh with large flakes. Most widely used fish in North America. Most fish sticks and similar items are made from cod

    WEIGHT: scrod 1-2 # Cod: 2 to 25#

  • Mahi-Mahialso known as dorado and dolphin fish (not related to mammal called dolphin )TYPE: LeanCHARCTERISTICS: firm fine textured flesh with rich sweet taste. Becomes very dry when overcooked so best cooked with moist heat or with fat or served with sauceWEIGHT: 5 to 40#

  • Monkfish also known as lotte, anglerfish, belly fish and poor mans lobsterTYPE: LeanCHARCTERISTICS: large, ugly fish but only tail is used. White flesh with fine texture somewhat like lobster. Holds up well in soup and stews but dries out if cooked dry without fatWEIGHT: 5 to 50#

  • Red snapperTYPE: lean

    CHARCTERISTICS: firm delicate sweet white flesh with large flakes. Large coarse bones, skin is red. Highly prized: popular in restaurants

    WEIGHT: 1 to 15#

  • Salmon TYPE: fat, anadromousVARIETIES: Atlantic, Chinook, sockeye, Coho, chum, humpback CHARCTERISTICS: rich pink to red flesh with somewhat meaty texture and flavor. One of the most prized of all fish. Also canned and smokedWEIGHT: 4 to 25#

  • SALMON VARIETIES

  • SHARK TYPE: FatVARIETIES: MAKO OR BLACK TIP USUALLY USED FOR COOKINGCHARCTERISTICS: firm texture, similar to swordfish but softer and a little moister and finer grained, less expensive. Has cartilage skeleton, no bones, usually cut into steaks. Must be used quickly or becomes off smelling and tastingWEIGHT: 25 to 40 or more #s

  • Skate: also known as rayTYPE: leanCHARCTERISTICS: may be sold whole but is usually only triangular wings. Skeleton only cartilage not bone, tough skin, gray on top white on bottom. Consists of sweet white gelatinous strips of meat extending the width of wings. Two fillets per wing above and below cartilageWEIGHT: varies up to a ton but most 1 to 4 # per wing

  • Striped BassTYPE: LeanCHARCTERISTICS: wild highly prized but catch limited so price high when not locally in season. Farmed developed in recent years in response to demand is a cross between white bass and wild striped bass (wiper)WEIGHT: 1 to 10 #

  • Swordfish TYPE: fat CHARCTERISTICS: very large fat fish with dense, me