Microbiology Handbook Fish and Seafood
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Leatherhead Food International Leatherhead Food International
MICROBIOLOGY HANDBOOK FISH AND SEAFOODEdited byRhea Fernandes
This edition first published 2009 by Leatherhead Publishing, a division of Leatherhead Food International Ltd Randalls Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7RY, UK URL: http://www.leatherheadfood.com and Royal Society of Chemistry Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WF, UK URL: http://www.rsc.org Regstered Charity No. 207890
A catalogue record of this book is available from the British Library
2009 Leatherhead Food International Ltd
The contents of this publication are copyright and reproduction in whole, or in part, is not permitted without the written consent of the Chief Executive of Leatherhead International Limited. Leatherhead International Limited uses every possible care in compiling, preparing and issuing the information herein given but accepts no liability whatsoever in connection with it.
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CONTRIBUTORSAssociate Prof. Covadonga Arias Microbial Genomics Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Auburn University Auburn Alabama 36849 United States of America Dr. Simon Derrick Special Projects The Grimsby Institute Humber Seafood Institute Europarc Grimsby DN37 9TZ United Kingdom Carlos Abeyta, Jr. Supervisory Microbiologist Pacific Regional Laboratory Northwest U.S. Food and Drug Administration 22201 23rd Dr. S.E. P. O. Box 3012 Bothell WA 98021-4421 United States of America Linda Nicolaides, M.Ph., FRSPH Ethical Trade and Food Management Group Natural Resources Institute University of Greenwich Central Avenue Chatham Maritime Kent ME4 4TB United Kingdomiii
Prof. Martin Adams Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences University of Surrey Guildford Surrey GU2 7XH United Kingdom Jeffrey L.C. Wright C.M., Ph.D., FCIC Carl B. Brown Distinguished Professor of Marine Science UNCW Center for Marine Science Marvin Moss Lane Wilmington NC 28409 United States of America Rhea Fernandes and Dr. Peter Wareing Leatherhead Food International Randalls Road Leatherhead Surrey KT22 7RY United Kingdom Eugenia Choi and Dr. Jenny Pfleger Regulatory Advisors Leatherhead Food International Randall Road Leatherhead Surrey KT22 7RY United Kingdom
FOREWORDThe Microbiology Handbook series includes Dairy Products, Fish and Seafood, and Meat Products, published by Leatherhead Food International and RSC Publishing. The books in the series are designed as easy-to-use guides to the microorganisms found in foods. Each book provides a brief overview of the processing factors that determine the nature and extent of microbial growth and survival in the product, potential hazards associated with the consumption of a range of products, and growth characteristics for key pathogens associated with the product. All handbooks also contain a review of the related legislation in Europe and UK, guides to HACCP, and a detailed list of contacts for various food authorities. The books are intended as a source of information for microbiologists and food scientists working in the food industry and responsible for food safety, both in the UK and elsewhere.
All the authors involved in writing the first edition of this book are gratefully acknowledged. I thank the contributing authors for their collaboration, which has been the chief factor in ensuring the completion of this book. My gratitude is extended to Dr Peter Wareing, Training Manager, for his scientific input and Victoria Emerton, Technical Team Leader for her valuable editorial contribution. I also acknowledge and thank Jackie Apps, Alison Turner, and Ann Pernet for the work put into typesetting and indexing. I dedicate this book to my husband - Goldwyn; thank you for all the support.
Rhea Fernandes Leatherhead Food International
CONTRIBUTORS FOREWORD INTRODUCTION 1. CHILLED AND FROZEN RAW FISH 1.1 Definitions 1.2 Initial Microflora 1.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 1.4 Spoilage 1.5 Factors Affecting Fresh Fish Spoilage 1.6 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 1.7 Published Microbiological Criteria 1.8 References 1.9 Further Reading CHILLED AND FROZEN PREPARED FISH PRODUCTS 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Definitions 2.3 Initial Microflora 2.4 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 2.5 Spoilage 2.6 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 2.7 Published Microbiological Criteria 2.8 References MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH 3.1 Definitions 3.2 Initial Microflora 3.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 3.4 Spoilage 3.5 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 3.6 Published Microbiological Criteria 3.7 References 3.8 Further Reading CRUSTACEAN SHELLFISH 4.1 Definitions 4.2 Initial Microflora 4.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 4.4 Spoilage 4.5 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 4.6 Published Microbiological Criteria 4.7 References 4.8 Further Reading
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CURED, SMOKED AND DRIED FISH 5.1 Definitions 5.2 Initial Microflora 5.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 5.4 Spoilage 5.5 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 5.6 Published Microbiological Criteria 5.7 References 5.8 Further Reading FERMENTED FISH 6.1 Definitions 6.2 Initial Microflora 6.3 Processing and its Effects on the Microflora 6.4 Spoilage 6.5 Pathogens: Growth and Survival 6.6 References 6.7 Further Reading FISH AND SHELLFISH TOXINS 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) Toxins 7.3 Tetrodotoxin 7.4 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) Toxins 7.5 Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) Toxins 7.6 Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins (LST) 7.7 Neurotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) Toxins 7.8 Ciguatoxins 7.9 Azaspiracids 7.10 Cyclic Imines 7.11 Conclusion 7.12 References HACCP IN FISH AND SEAFOOD PRODUCT MANUFACTURE 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Definitions 8.3 Stages of a HACCP Study 8.4 Implementation and Review of the HACCP Plan 8.5 References
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EU FOOD HYGIENE LEGISLATION 189 9.1 Introduction 189 9.2 Legislative Structure 190 9.3 Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004 on the General Hygiene of Foodstuffs 191 9.4 Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004 Laying Down Specific Hygiene Rules for Food of Animal Origin 196 9.5 Regulation (EC) No. 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council Laying Down Specific Rules for the Organisation of Official Controls on Products of Animal Origin Intended for Human Consumption 212 9.6 Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on Microbiological Criteria for Foodstuffs 214 9.7 Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2006, S.I. 2006 No. 14 (Hygiene requirements specific to the UK) 221 9.8 Guidance 222 9.9 Other Relevant Legislation 223 9.10 Further Reading 223
PATHOGEN PROFILES 10.1 Aeromonas spp. 10.2 Clostridium botulinum 10.3 Clostridium perfringens 10.4 Listeria spp. 10.5 Plesiomonas 10.6 Salmonella spp. 10.7 Staphylococcus aureus 10.8 Vibrio cholerae 10.9 Vibrio parahaemolyticus 10.10 Vibrio vulnificus 10.11 References
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INTRODUCTIONFish and seafood are a main source of animal protein in the diet. Because of their health advantages over red meats, the consumption of fish and seafood has increased. Catches can be gathered from seas, rivers and lakes whose water can range from pristine to contaminated. Often contamination is from human and animal sources; thus, fish and seafood can be involved in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Geographical region, season, and, for fish, whether they are pelagic (surface to mid-water) or demersal (bottom) feeders will influence the numbers and types of microorganisms present on freshly caught seafood. The Microbiology Handbook- Fish and Seafood consists of the microbiology of seven different product categories: chilled and frozen raw fish, chilled and frozen prepared fish, molluscan shellfish, crustacean shellfish, cured, smoked and dried fish, fermented fish, and fish and shellfish toxins. The second edition of this handbook is a review of the entire book for currency of information. Key changes in this edition are the recent regulatory changes pertaining to food hygiene and microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Further Reading General Fish/Seafood MicrobiologyCross N. Seafood processing: basic sanitation practices, in Handbook of Food Products Manufacturing: Health, Meat, Milk, Poultry, Seafood and Vegetables. Eds. Hui Y.H., Chandan R., Clark S., Cross N.A., Nollet L.M. Hoboken, Wiley. 2007, 94767. Luten J.B., Jacobsen C., Bekaert K., Saebo A., Oehlenschlager J. Seafood Research from Fish to Dish: Quality, Safety and Processing of Wild and Farmed Fish. Wageningen, Wageningen Acade