Lecture 2: AIRSIDE
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Transcript of Lecture 2: AIRSIDE
Lecture 2: AIRSIDEBy: Zuliana Ismail PART 2
SignageAirside guidance signs provide direction and information to taxiing aircraft and any vehicles and assist in safe movement of aircraft.
Importance of the SignsTo show mandatory instructions, information on a specific location or destination in the aerodrome.Characteristics of signs:ClearRectangularDifferent colors for each categoryIlluminated (light up)
guidance signsDirection signs: To indicate the intersection for aircraft turning.Destination signs: To show direction to the specific destinations (cargo areas, military areas, international areas, etc.)Mandatory signs:To indicate that aircraft ARE NOT ALLOWED to enter (runway entrance & critical areas)Location signs:To identify aircraft location.Runway distance remaining signs: Landing distance remaining
guidance signs1. Mandatory signs 2. Location signs*
3. Direction signs4. Destination signs*5. Runway distance remaining signsSign Indicating 3,000 feet of Runway Remainingguidance signs
Airport Weather StationsEvery 20 minutesObserves temperature, wind speed & direction, visibility, cloud coverage.Cant observe sudden weather change.Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS)Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS)Every 1 hourObserve weather conditions change rapidly.Current weather, icing, lightning,, air pressure.Automated Sensor
Wind SockTo Indicate wind direction & speed.The stronger the wind, the straighter the wind sock.Move back and forth when the wind is gusty.
To Indicate wind direction only.To suggest the pilot the runway to be usedWind TeeGuiding pilot to determine the correct runway to use for landing and take offWind Indicators
What are the Importanceof Weather Detector? To prevent aircraft accidents.To avoid flight delay or cancellations.To make management of the air routes more efficientTo improve the safety of the aircraft in the air.
Navigational Aid Systems
Navigational Aid SystemsThere are a number of navigational aids available in Airports.A Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI): helps pilots fly a perfect approach for landing once they have found the airport. VHF Omni directional range (VOR) to help pilots find the direction to the airport. Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) to determine the distance to the airport.Instrument Landing System(ILS) to find the runway and fly the correct approach, even if they cannot see the ground.
*A Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI):
Doppler VHF Omnidirectional Range Station (VOR)Navigational AidsInstrument Landing System(ILS)
Airport Classification Codes*
Airport Classification CodesBased On Two Elements Example: 3C NPType of approachAerodrome reference code
Aerodrome Reference CodeThe aerodromes are coded according to the physical requirements of the critical aircraft
The aerodrome facilities must meet physical requirements of the critical aircraft
Aerodrome Reference Code (ARC)ARC is determined by two factors:Code number (1,2..,4) to reflect aircraft operating performance in terms of balanced field length of runways Airplane reference field length (RFL)Code letter (A, B, ..,F) to reflect the aircraft physical dimensionsWing span (WS)
Aerodrome Reference Code (ARC)Airplane reference Field Length (RFL): The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass.
Wing Span (WS)= the maximum extent across the wings of an aircraft
Wing Span (WS)
Aerodrome Reference Code*
Code element 1Code element 2Airplane referencefield length (RFL)(2)Codenumber(1)Wing span (WS)(4)Codeletter(3)RFL < 800 m
800 m RFL < 1200 m
1 200 m RFL < 1800 m
1 800 m RFL
4WS < 15 m
15 m WS < 24 m
24 m WS < 36 m
36 m WS < 52 m
52 m WS < 65 m
65 WS < 80 m A
ExerciseWhat is the airport classification codes for Boeing 747-400 & Airbus 380 landing at the Precision type Runway*Boeing 747-400 RFL=2990mWS=64.4mAirbus A380 RFL=>3300mWS=79.8m
*Aerodrome Reference Code
NoAircraft typeCodeElement 1CodeElement2Aerodrome Reference Code (ARC)RFL ( m) Code No.WS(m)Code letter1.ATR 42-2001010 224.6C?2.Fokker: 501760329.0C?3.A 320-2002058433.9C?4.A 340-3002200460.3E?
Aerodrome Reference Code*
AEROPLANETYPEREF CODEARFL(m)Wingspan(m)Lear Jet 553A129213.4Fokker F28-20003B164623.6Fokker:F27-5003C167029.0Airbus A300 B23D167644.8Boeing:B737-200B737-300B737-4004C4C4C22952749249928.428.928.9Boeing:B707-300B757-200B767-200ER4D4D4D30882057274344.438.047.6Boeing:B747-300B747-400B777-2004E4E4E32923383250059.664.960.9
**The Importance of Weather Information
To avoid flight delays, cancellations & other problems
To prevent accidents during take-off and landing
Weather is a factor in approximately 30% of aviation accidents and contributes directly or indirectly to nearly 80 % of fatal general aviation accidents. -NASA Research
Weather is one of the most influential factors in flight delays, cancellations, and other problems.
*Weather observations at the airport
In the US and Canada, the vast majority of airports, large and small, have some form of automated airport weather station, whether an AWOS, ASOS. Most larger airports also have human observers to provide additional observations to supplement the automated station. These weather observations are available over the radio, through Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) or via the ATC.
Planes take-off and land into the wind in order to achieve maximum performance. Because pilots need instantaneous information during landing, a wind indicators is also kept in view of the runway.*WIND DIRECTION INDICATORS
It is important for a pilot to know the direction of the wind. At facilities with an operating control tower, this information is provided by ATC. Information may also be provided by FSS personnel located at a particular airport or by requesting information on a common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) at air-ports that have the capacity to receive and broadcast on this frequency.
When none of these services is available, it is possible to determine wind direction and runway in use by visual wind indicators. A pilot should check these wind indicators even when information is provided on the CTAF at a given airport because there is no assurance that the information provided is accurate.
Wind direction indicators include a wind sock, wind tee, or tetrahedron. *The wind sock is a good source of information since it not only indicates wind direction, but allows the pilot to estimate the wind velocity and gusts or factor. The wind sock extends out straighter in strong winds and will tend to move back and forth when the wind is gusty.
Wind tees can swing freely, and will align themselves with the wind direction. It can also be manually set to align with the runway in use; therefore, a pilot should also look at the wind sock, if available.
The function of tetrahedron is similar with wind tee
LocationWind Indicators are usually located in a central location near the runway and may be placed in the center of a segmented circle, which will identify the traffic pattern direction, if it is other than the standard left-hand pattern. [Figures 12-11 and 12-12]
*ImportanceTo prevent any aviation accidents.To avoid flight delay or cancellations.To make management of the air routes more efficientTo improve the safety of the aircraft in the air.
* Various types of air navigation aids are in use today, each serving a special purpose.
*The distance measuring equipment (DME) system gives the pilots distance to a DME ground station.The pilot can tune one DME station with the navigation control panel.The DME-distance shows on the navigation displays unit
*Annex 14 provides the basic specification for aerodrome design and operations.
Pilots and airlines can operate to aerodromes with a similar standard or command.Miscommunication can be avoidedSafety for the travelling public
Knowledge of aerodrome standards is necessary for all personnel who are charged with duties associated with regulation and operation of aerodromes.
*For Airport Planning
Physical dimensions of runways, taxiways, & aprons (width, separation between runways, neighboring taxiways, aprons and building, separation between parallel taxiways and etc) depend on the aerodrome reference code selected for design purposes.