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  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017

    Hertfordshire Minerals

    Planning

    Local Aggregate Assessment

    2017

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017

    Contents

    1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 2 INTRODUCTION 2 3 GEOLOGY OF HERTFORDSHIRE 3

    Sand and Gravel 4 Chalk 5 Clay 6 Hard Rock 6 Marine Aggregates 6

    4 SAND AND GRAVEL SALES 7 Extraction Sites 8 Apportionments 10 Local approach to determining apportionment figures 12 Landbank of permitted mineral reserves 13 Timeline for mineral planning 14

    5 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 14 Imports Sand and Gravel 15 Imports Marine sources 15 Imports Crushed Rock 16 Exports Sand and Gravel 16 Sales and Construction 17 Rail Aggregate Depots 18 Brick Clay 20 Chalk 20

    6 SECONDARY AND RECYCLED AGGREGATE 21 Inert Waste Management in Hertfordshire 22 Secondary and Recycled Aggregate Sources 23 Expected Contribution to Supply 24

    7 FUTURE AGGREGATES SUPPLY AND DEMAND 25 Supply 25 Potential Future Supply from Preferred Areas 28 Demand 28 Population Projections 28 Housing completions and forecast 29 Key Planned Infrastructure Requirements 30

    8 CONCLUSION 32

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1: Sand and gravel sales compared with permitted reserves in Hertfordshire since 2007

    Table 2: Permitted sand and gravel extraction in Hertfordshire

    Table 3: Sales and apportionment

    Table 4: Landbanks for sand and gravel in Hertfordshire in 2015

    Table 5: Hertfordshires primary aggregates imports and exports (2009)

    Table 6: Sales and consumption in 2016

    Table 7: Permitted chalk extraction sites in Hertfordshire

    Table 8: Total recycled and secondary aggregate processed over the last 10 years

    Table 9: Secondary and recycled aggregate sites

    Table 10: Requirement for sand and gravel in Hertfordshire over the Plan period of 15 year to 2031

    Table 11: Planned housing requirements at the district/borough councils

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1: Geological map of the main mineral resources of Hertfordshire

    Figure 2: Sales of sand and gravel in Hertfordshire 2007-2016 compared with apportionment

    Figure 3: Geology of Hertfordshire with permitted sand and gravel sites

    Figure 4: Hertfordshires rail aggregate depots

    Figure 5: Location of permitted sites in Hertfordshire for the production of recycled/secondary

    aggregates

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 1

    1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    1.1 The county council has a duty under the National Planning Policy Framework

    (NPPF) to produce a Local Aggregate Assessment (LAA). The LAA will be

    considered by the members of the East of England Aggregates Working Party.

    1.2 The LAA is an evidence base document for the review of the Minerals Local

    Plan. Its primary purpose is to set out aggregate supply and demand to calculate

    landbanks and acts as a monitoring report for aggregates. For Hertfordshire the

    aggregates reported are land won sand and gravel and secondary and recycled

    aggregates. The county does not have any reserves of hard rock. The LAA is

    updated annually to provide an up-to-date picture of the sand and gravel

    reserves and sales in the county over the last ten years and compares this with

    the predicted future land-won aggregate need whilst taking into account the

    imports and exports of sand and gravel and secondary and recycled aggregates.

    1.3 This document covers the calendar year for 2016. The headline figures for 2016

    show that extraction is steadily continuing at the active sand and gravel sites.

    One additional site began extracting within this timeframe, average sales have

    remained fairly steady and reserves have declined in line with sales. The

    permitted reserves can supply aggregate for a period of 8.5 years based on

    Hertfordshires current apportionment of 1.39 million tonnes.

    1.4 Sales of sand and gravel have decreased this year compared with last year by

    4.9%. At 1.165 million tonnes, they are above the ten year average as they were

    last year, but are now below the three year average. As a comparison, the ten

    year average sales figure is 1.15 million tonnes and the three year average is

    1.20 million tonnes. In terms of the destination of these sales, we only have a

    broad indication from 2014 data which shows that 57% was sold within Herts

    with 22% to the rest of the East of England area and 21% to other destinations in

    the UK.

    1.5 The county council intends to continue to use the sub-regional apportionment

    figure for the planning of sand and gravel in Hertfordshire, which is in line with

    the East of England Aggregates Working Partys collectively agreed approach to

    plan making.

    1.6 Of the sites listed in the adopted Minerals Local Plan with potential to extract

    sand and gravel, all three Preferred Areas have come forward for extraction. The

    third and final Preferred Area (BAE, Land at Hatfield Aerodrome) was granted

    planning permission subject to S106 at Committee in January 2017. Land at

    Ware Park covers the southern part of Preferred Area 2 at Rickneys Quarry had

    permission refused at Committee in March 2017. In addition planning permission

    has been granted subject to S106 at Furzefield, Hatfield Quarry at Committee on

    22 March 2017.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 2

    Summary of main conclusions of this LAA

    Performance in 2016

    Comparison with 2015

    Land won sand and gravel sales (tonnes) 1,164,633 59,651

    Permitted reserves of sand and gravel (tonnes)

    11,752,000 1,463,716

    Landbank based on apportionment (years)

    8.5 1

    Landbank based on 10 year average sales (years)

    10.2 1.2

    Landbank based on 3 year average sales (years)

    9.8 1.3

    Rail depot imports (sand and gravel) - 34,613

    Rail depot imports (crushed rock) 520,085 66,196

    2 INTRODUCTION

    2.1 The Government recognises the importance of minerals to support sustainable

    economic growth and our quality of life. They are a finite resource and can only

    be worked where they are found. The National Planning Policy Framework

    (NPPF) (March 2012) paragraph 145 requires Minerals Planning Authorities to

    monitor aggregate production and plan for a steady and adequate supply of

    aggregates.

    2.2 This document has been prepared to fulfil the requirement introduced within the

    NPPF to produce an annual Local Aggregate Assessment (LAA). It has been

    prepared in line with guidance within the National Planning Policy Guidance

    (NPPG) and POS/MPA Practice Guidance on the production and use of LAAs

    living document (May 2017).

    2.3 The purpose of the LAA is to assess the current local mineral provision against

    the requirements detailed in the NPPF and NPPG, including the Governments

    Guidance on Managed Aggregate Supply System which has now been

    incorporated into the NPPG. The document details performance in line with the

    East of England Aggregates Working Party. It also reviews guidance from the

    governments Department for Communities and Local Government relating to the

    NPPF. The county council will update this document on an annual basis and will

    use its contents to inform the review of Hertfordshires Minerals Local Plan.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 3

    2.4 This LAA details the current supply and demand in Hertfordshire, from which

    information relating to existing sites, reserves and aggregate apportionment

    levels to 2031 (plan period for the new Minerals Local Plan), based on the

    agreed East of England apportionment figure and rolling average of ten years

    sales data and other relevant local information, is included within this document.

    Other potential sources of aggregates are included, namely secondary and

    recycled aggregates, imports and exports.

    3 GEOLOGY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

    3.1 The main mineral resources in Hertfordshire are sand and gravel with smaller

    deposits of chalk and brick clay (as shown in Figure 1).

    3.2 The geology of Hertfordshire is largely Chalk of the Cretaceous period, overlain

    in the south and east by London Clay. In the far north and northwest of the

    county are small areas of Gault Clay. Throughout much of the county, the

    superficial deposits which overlay the solid geology complicate the picture.

    These include the Clay-with-flints of much of west Hertfordshire; including the

    Chilterns dip slope; the boulder clay of central and east Hertfordshire; and the

    gravels of the Vale of St Albans and the river valleys.1

    3.3 Sand, gravel, crushed rock, chalk and clay all provide the construction industry

    with the raw materials required for constructing and maintaining roads, buildings

    and other infrastructure. Minerals are also essential elements in the production

    of a variety of other products. An adequate and steady supply of minerals is

    essential if current standards of living are to be maintained in society as well as

    meeting basic needs for quality of life, such as shelter.

    1 Biodiversity Action Plan for Hertfordshire 2006, www.hef.org.uk

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 4

    Figure 1: Geological map of the main mineral resources of Hertfordshire 2

    Sand and Gravel

    3.4 Sand and gravel resources occur in Hertfordshire within superficial or drift

    deposits, subdivided into fluvioglacial sand and gravel, glacial sand and gravel,

    river terrace deposits and sub-alluvial deposits.3

    3.5 Sand and gravel deposits are found in most parts of the county although they are

    concentrated in an area south of a line between Bishops Stortford in the east

    and Hemel Hempstead in the west (often referred to as the sand and gravel

    belt). This area covers the whole of the District Council areas of Three Rivers,

    Watford, Hertsmere, Welwyn Hatfield and Broxbourne. Large parts of the City

    and District of St Albans and East Hertfordshire are covered, together with a

    small part of Dacorum. North Hertfordshire and Stevenage Districts fall outside

    the sand and gravel belt.

    3.6 Of the sub-alluvial gravel deposits, these occur within the valleys of the rivers

    Mimram, Ver and Colne of St Albans and Hemel Hempstead areas. Resources

    2 BGS & ODPM, 2003, Technical report CR/03/075/N Mineral Resource Information in support of National, Regional and Local Planning: Hertfordshire and Northwest London Boroughs 3 BGS & ODPM, 2003, Technical report CR/03/075/N Mineral Resource Information in support of National, Regional and Local Planning: Hertfordshire and Northwest London Boroughs

    Crown copyright and database rights 2017 Ordnance Survey 100019606

    Reproduced with the permission of the British Geological Survey NERC. All rights

    Reserved

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 5

    have in many cases been extensively worked and exhausted in the Ver and

    Colne valleys.

    3.7 Sand and gravel from Hertfordshire is mostly used by the construction industry.

    Most is washed and screened to remove clay particles and to separate the

    various sized stones and larger stones are usually crushed and screened again.

    Most sand extracted in Hertfordshire is sharp sand and is suitable for making

    concrete (when mixed with various selections of gravel sizes, cement and

    water).

    3.8 Crushed rock (imported to Hertfordshire) may be used in place of local gravel,

    but sand may only be substituted by fines from crushed rock which is more

    costly to use because of its lesser binding properties. Building sand, for use in

    mortars, may also be washed and screened before use. Known as soft sand it is

    less commonly found in the county and is mostly imported.

    3.9 Currently sand and gravel extraction takes place at six quarries in Hertfordshire;

    Sand and Gravel Sites

    o Panshanger Quarry, Hertford o Tyttenhanger Quarry, Colney Heath; o Westmill Quarry, Ware; o Hatfield Quarry with the linked Symondshyde extraction site; o Thorley Hall Farm; & o Pynesfield.

    3.10 Another site had extant planning permission in 2016 for sand and gravel

    extraction, although no extraction was taking place in that timeframe at Water

    Hall.

    Chalk

    3.11 Chalk occurs as bedrock throughout much of the county. It is a major aquifer and

    is the most important source of groundwater in the county. The White Chalk runs

    through Watford and Hertford although much is covered by superficial deposits

    and chalk crops out along the sides of the valleys of the rivers Ash and Lea near

    Hertford and the Colne valley. The Grey Chalk is found in the north and far west

    of the county.

    3.12 The Chilterns area within Hertfordshire is an area that consists of rolling chalk

    hills capped with Clay-with-Flints superficial deposits. This area runs from Tring

    to Hitchin, through Welwyn, St Albans and Watford. Steep chalk scarp slopes

    are found in Tring with gentler slopes covering a larger area. Gentler chalk hills

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 6

    than the Chilterns are found in the East Anglian Chalk area which runs from the

    Chilterns through Hertfordshire and South Cambridgeshire.

    3.13 There were many chalk extraction sites in the past, essentially for local use.

    However today, the scale of working is relatively small and chalk is mainly

    quarried at a small number of sites to the north and west of the sand and gravel

    belt. Chalk in Hertfordshire is extracted for use as an agricultural lime on farms

    both within and outside the county.

    3.14 There are currently three chalk extraction sites in Hertfordshire:

    Chalk sites

    o Codicote; o Bedwell Park (just outside of Hertford); and o Anstey.

    Clay

    3.15 Hertfordshire sits within the Northern Thames Basin Character Area with geology

    of mostly London Clay overlain with superficial deposits of sand and gravel. The

    west Anglian Plain with geology of Gault Clay adjoins the northern part of the

    county and the Eastern Anglian Plain covers a large part of the East of the

    county with underlying chalk with a covering of Boulder Clay.

    3.16 The scale of working for brick clay is relatively small. The only brick clay is

    located in the Hemel Hempstead area. Brick clay is extracted for use at

    specialist brickworks in the county, of which there is one remaining in the county,

    in Bovingdon. The bricks are made from mottled clays of Reading Formation and

    Clay-with-Flints. Two sites in Hertfordshire have permission to extract brick clay

    for use at Bovingdon Brickworks. These sites are Pockets Dell Quarry and Land

    at Cox and Croft Fields, Shantock Hall Lane

    Hard Rock

    3.17 There is no hard rock found in the county. Hertfordshire imports crushed rock

    into the county via the rail aggregate depots. Reserves from outside of

    Hertfordshire will be relied upon for this source of mineral.

    Marine Aggregates

    3.18 Hertfordshire is a land locked county and as such contains no areas suitable for

    the dredging of marine aggregates. A relatively small amount of marine sand and

    gravel is consumed in the county which is imported via Kent and London.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 7

    4 SAND AND GRAVEL SALES

    4.1 Sales of sand and gravel (including soft sands) for the ten year period between

    2007 and 2016 inclusive are shown in Figure 2 and Table 1. The figures are

    based on actual sales data retrieved from the countys Aggregate Monitoring

    Surveys 2016 and the BGS Aggregate Minerals Survey 2014 for England and

    Wales collated data for Hertfordshires aggregate sales and destinations.

    4.2 However, there have historically been difficulties in obtaining mineral data and

    this problem is recognised nationally. Only some minerals data is made available

    to the minerals planning authority or can be inaccurate, inconsistent and

    incomplete. The county council is part of the East of England Aggregates

    Working Party (EEAWP), which is a technical working group comprising mineral

    planning authorities and other interested parties that are working together to

    obtain better survey data which is used by individual authorities and collated in

    the East of England Authorities Monitoring Report. It is hoped that in the years

    to come the data available for both minerals and waste will be more available

    and consistent.

    Figure 2: Sales of sand and gravel in Hertfordshire 2007 2016 compared with apportionments

    Source: HCC Authority Monitoring Report 2016 and EEAWP Aggregate Monitoring Survey return for 2016

    4.3 Sand and gravel production in 2016 was very similar to that in previous years at

    1.165 million tonnes. Sales have reached 1.20 million tonnes and above, four

    times over the last 10 year period.

    4.4 The average sales of sand and gravel in Hertfordshire over the last 10

    years is 1.15 million tonnes (2007-2016). As a comparison, this figure was

    1.01 0.99 1.21 1.17

    1.27 1.12 1.13 1.21

    1.22 1.16

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    Mill

    ion

    to

    nn

    es

    Year

    Sand and Gravel sales compared with apportionments

    Sales

    Apportionment

    3 year averagesales

    10 year averagesales

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 8

    1.16 million tonnes as of 2015, 1.13 million tonnes as of 2014 and 1.12 million

    tonnes as of 2013, thereby remaining relatively constant over the last few years.

    4.5 The rolling 3 year average is 1.20 million tonnes per annum (2014-2016).

    This was 1.16 million tonnes per annum in 2015, 1.15 million tonnes per annum

    in 2014 and 1.13 million tonnes per annum in 2013.

    4.6 Based on 2016 levels, Hertfordshire contributed 10% and in 2015 contributed

    11% of the sand and gravel sales in the East of England region 4.

    4.7 Figures for reserves are available from 2007. The table below shows the sales

    figure alongside the reserves figure for sand and gravel in Hertfordshire.

    Table 1: Sand and gravel sales compared with permitted reserves in Hertfordshire since 2007

    Year Sales of soft sand and sharp sands and gravel (tonnes)

    Permitted reserves of soft sand and sharp sands and gravel (tonnes)

    2007 1,010,466 10,840,668

    2008 988,517 10,869,000

    2009 1,214,3065 10,619,000

    2010 1,172,890 10,786,465

    2011 1,268,465 16,700,000

    2012 1,123,645 15,792,000

    2013 1,130,295 16,260,000

    2014 1,209,532 14,440,000

    2015 1,224,284 13,215,716

    2016 1,164,633 11,752,000

    Source: HCC Authority Monitoring Report 2017 & Annual East of England Aggregates Working Party Aggregates Monitoring Survey return for 2016

    4.8 The table above shows that between 2007 and 2010 the permitted reserves of

    sand and gravel in the county remained fairly constant; however this is now at a

    higher level due to additional planning permissions and reassessment of actual

    reserves by operators.

    Extraction Sites

    4 East of England Aggregates Working Party Annual Monitoring Report 2016, published August 2017 5 There is a slight difference between the figure in the HCC Annual Monitoring Report 2010 and the figure recorded by the East of England Aggregate Monitoring Survey for 2009 (1,214,306t and 1,207,000t respectively)

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 9

    4.9 There are currently six quarries in Hertfordshire with planning permission for the

    extraction of sand and gravel, with all six currently extracting. The details of

    these are presented in Table 2 below. As stated in paragraph 1.6, there are

    additional sites with a Committee resolution to grant planning permission subject

    to S106 which could contribute to additional permitted reserves in the near

    future.

    4.10 Based on 2016 levels Hertfordshire contains 10% of the permitted sand and

    gravel reserves in the East of England region6.

    4.11 As in previous years, anecdotal evidence suggests that sites are not producing

    enough sand and gravel to keep up with demand which has increased due to the

    upturn in development as the economy recovers out of recession.

    Table 2: Permitted sand and gravel extraction sites in Hertfordshire

    Active Extraction Site

    Operator Status Restoration Cessation dates

    Westmill Quarry

    Ware

    Cemex UK Ltd

    Active. Non-hazardous landfill

    Extraction

    31-12-2015

    Site permission 31-12-2017

    Hatfield Quarry

    Symondshyde Farm

    Cemex UK Ltd

    Active.

    Processing plant on original Hatfield Quarry site area.

    Inert landfill Extraction and site permission

    01-10-2020

    Tyttenhanger Quarry

    Colney Heath

    Tarmac Ltd Active.

    Permission in February 2011, for the extraction on land identified as Preferred Area No.3 in the Minerals Local Plan Review 2002-2016.

    Inert landfill Extraction and site permission

    31-12-2032

    Panshanger Quarry

    Hertford

    Tarmac Ltd Active.

    Inert landfill Extraction

    31-12-2030

    Thorley Hall Farm

    David Tinney

    Active Agricultural reservoir

    06-06-2021

    Pynesfield Harleyford Aggregates Ltd

    Active Agriculture and Small wetland area

    Extraction and restoration

    31-12-2018

    Permitted but Inactive Extraction Site

    Operator Status Restoration Cessation dates

    6 East of England Aggregates Working Party Annual Monitoring Report 2014&5, published July 2016

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 10

    Waterhall

    Hertford

    Waterhall (England) Ltd/Frank Lyons

    Inactive extraction.

    Only sand and gravel reserves under plant site.

    Inert landfill Extraction

    21-02-2017.

    4.12 In addition there are two sand and gravel quarry sites that are currently in the

    restoration phase. These sites are as follows:

    o Great Westwood Quarry near Watford (final restoration stage; o Waterhall in Bayfordbury near Hertford (permission for extraction

    ceased 21 February 2017. Bunkers Hill part of the site - inert landfill permission expires 31-12-2017).

    Figure 3: Geology of Hertfordshire with permitted sand and gravel sites

    Apportionments

    4.13 The current annual apportionment for Hertfordshire is 1.39 million tonnes of sand

    and gravel.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 11

    4.14 The countys sand and gravel apportionment figure has changed over time due

    to periodic reviews. In 1998 the annual apportionment was set at 2.4 million

    tonnes. The annual apportionment in the current adopted Minerals Local Plan

    was set at 1.99 million tonnes for the time period 2002-2016 (as detailed in

    former Minerals Planning Guidance Note 6: Guidelines for Aggregates Provision

    in England, 1994-2016, dated April 1994, as amended June 2003). This figure

    was subsequently reviewed through the National and Regional guidelines in

    2009 and now stands at 1.39 million tonnes for the time period 2005-2020. This

    sub-regional apportionment was approved by the East of England Aggregates

    Working Party based on the Managed Aggregate Supply System (MASS) which

    was in operation at the time and now forms part of the NPPG.

    4.15 Figure 2 provides a comparison of Hertfordshires sales figures over the ten year

    period 2007 to 2016 against the countys apportionments during this period.

    4.16 The apportionment level changed in 20057 from 1.99mtpa to 1.39mtpa. It can be

    seen in the graph that sales have been below apportionment levels and do not

    meet apportionments for any year, although came close in 2006 and 2011.

    4.17 The government has revised the apportionment over time. It announced revised

    requirements for national and regional aggregates provision in 2009, which were

    lower than the previous requirements published in 2003. When regional planning

    was in place, the review of the East of England Regional Plan recommended an

    annual apportionment of 1.44 million tonnes. However, publication in September

    2009 of the National and Local Guidelines for Aggregate Provision in England

    from 2005-20208 provided a figure of 1.39 million tonnes and with the abolition of

    regional planning this apportionment figure has been agreed and set locally for

    Hertfordshire by the East of England Aggregates Working Party.

    4.18 The 2009 guidelines states in Annex A that the revised apportionment reflects an

    overall fall in national demand for sand and gravel and crushed rock, an increase

    in the assumed contribution use of alternatives to primary aggregates notably

    construction and demolition waste, an increase in the assumed contribution of

    marine sand and gravel and decrease in the assumed contribution of net

    imports.

    4.19 Figure 2 illustrates how this lower apportionment level reduces the gap between

    sales and apportionments.

    7 As set out in DCLG, 2009, National and regional guidelines for aggregates provision in England 2005-2020;

    8 DCLG, 2009, National and regional guidelines for aggregates provision in England 2005-2020;

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 12

    Local approach to determining apportionment figures

    10 year and 3 year sales average

    4.20 The NPPF states in paragraph 145 that Mineral Planning Authorities (MPAs)

    should prepare an annual LAA based on a rolling average of 10 years sales

    data, and other relevant information, and an assessment of all supply options

    (including marine dredged, secondary and recycled sources). When planning for

    a steady and adequate supply of aggregates, such local information includes

    geology, environmental issues, local demand and past patterns of supply.

    4.21 The governments aim is to provide a simpler and more transparent approach to

    calculating the apportionment than the sub-regional apportionment method that

    relies on a complex model incorporating a range of confidential variables.

    4.22 The NPPG suggests the use of the 3 year sales average to identify a general

    trend in sales and consider increasing supply if this is appropriate. The NPPG

    suggests that the rolling 10 year average, 3 year average sales and sub-regional

    guidelines should all be had regard to in order to establish a broad view of

    planned provision.

    4.23 The difference in the agreed apportionment and average sales are as follows:

    Table 3: Sales and apportionment

    Sales and apportionment Million tonnes per annum

    Agreed apportionment 1.39

    10 year sales average 1.15 (2007-2016)

    3 year sales average 1.20 (2014-2016)

    4.24 The NPPG states MPAs can plan for more or less than the figure set out in the

    sub-regional guidelines based on their LAA and in those areas where

    apportionment of the land-won element has already taken place, those figures

    may be used as an indicator as to how much should be planned for (NPPG,

    paragraph 071).

    4.25 There may be advantages of taking into account average sales data over a

    period of time which levels out the peaks and troughs of an economic cycle by

    accounting for periods of slow (2008-2011) and high (2001-2007) economic

    growth. However, the table above shows that if the current ten or three year

    sales averages were used to calculate the sand and gravel landbank for

    Hertfordshire, this would result in a lower provision being planned for. This figure

    will change yearly due to the rolling average of sales data, but at present would

    place additional pressure on neighbouring MPAs to meet any shortfall if the

    demand for aggregates rises such as increased certainty of a higher level of

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 13

    future growth in the county as Local Planning Authorities set their housing

    figures.

    Landbank of permitted mineral reserves

    4.26 Permitted reserves of sand and gravel in Hertfordshire (i.e. sites with planning

    permission to extract) are currently 11,752,000 tonnes (as of the end of 2016)

    (see table 1). The annual apportionment for Hertfordshire is 1,390,000 tonnes

    based on the DCLG 2009 guidance.

    4.27 By using the permitted reserves and dividing this figure by the annual

    apportionment figure, this shows the landbank in years. A landbank is defined in

    the Minerals Local Plan as a stock of planning permissions for the winning and

    working of minerals.

    4.28 The current landbank (as of the end of 2016) for Hertfordshire is 8.5 years. This

    is lower than the landbank for the East of England which stands at 9.4 years9

    4.29 As a comparison, landbanks for the previous years (all based on 1.39mtpa since

    2005) were as follows:

    o 9.5 years in 2015. Minimal reserves were approved.

    o 10.4 years in 2014. Minimal reserves were approved.

    o 11.7 years in 2013. A reassessment of reserves took place and

    additional reserves approved.

    o 11.4 years in 2012. No additional reserves were approved.

    o 12 years in 2011 when additional reserves were approved; o 7.8 years in 2010. The reason for this lower figure is due to the fact that

    Rickneys eastern extension was not permitted at this time which is reflected in the subsequent years up until December 2013.

    4.30 Sand and gravel permitted reserves that make up the figure to calculate the

    landbank are contained in seven sites in Table 2 (Westmill, Hatfield,

    Tyttenhanger, Panshanger, Thorley Hall Farm, Pynesfield & Waterhall).

    4.31 Table 3 shows the most up-to-date landbank calculations based on the reserves

    and showing the difference when sales figures are used compared with the

    apportionment figure.

    Table 4: Landbanks for sand and gravel in Hertfordshire in 2016

    Permitted reserves as at 31/12/2016 11,752,000

    East of England AWP apportionment for Herts 2005-2020 1,390,000

    Landbank based on EEAWP apportionment (years) 8.5

    9 East of England Aggregates Monitoring Report 2014&2015, published July 2016.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 14

    Permitted reserves as at 31/12/2016 11,752,000

    10 year average sales 2007-2016 1,150,703

    Landbank based on 10 year average sales (years) 10.2

    Permitted reserves as at 31/12/2016 11,752,000

    3 year average sales 2014-2016 1,199,483

    Landbank based on 3 year average sales (years) 9.8

    4.32 The NPPF states that MPAs should make provision for the maintenance of

    landbanks of at least seven years for sand and gravel and should prepare an

    LAA based on a rolling average of 10 years sales data and other relevant

    information. This is provided by way of securing planning permissions for sites

    that will provide aggregate over this period to fulfil the apportionment on a yearly

    basis. As stated in the table above, the landbank in the county is currently above

    the required seven year level, when based on the agreed EEAWP

    apportionment. The level of provision of sand and gravel would be extended by

    further years when calculating it against the ten and three year sales averages.

    Timeline for mineral planning

    4.33 For mineral planning purposes the landbank is crucial. The council will consider

    the existing high level of planned provision when reviewing the Minerals Local

    Plan. Based on the reserves and given the end date of the existing Minerals

    Local Plan (2002-2016) and time for working up the review document from now,

    it is considered that a reasonable time frame would be 2016-2031. This is in line

    with the NPPF, in paragraph 157 which states that Local Plans should be drawn

    up over an appropriate time scale, preferably a 15-year time horizon, take

    account of longer term requirements, and be kept up to date;

    Start of plan End of plan

    2016 2018 (adoption) (8.5-10.2 year landbank) 2024-2026 2031 (15 year period)

    5 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

    5.1 Data relating to the sales and consumption of aggregates are collected and

    collated at the national and regional level. The most up to date published figures

    have been used in this report.

    5.2 A national four-yearly Aggregate Minerals Survey (AMS) provides indepth and

    up to date information of regional and national sales, interregional flows,

    transportation, consumption and permitted reserves of primary aggregates in

    England and Wales. Conducted by DCLG and BGS the latest survey was carried

    out in 2015 to capture data for 2014. Table 4 has been compiled using the AMS

    2009 report with additional information obtained through direct correspondence

    with the BGS relating to the origin and destination of aggregates.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 15

    Table 5: Hertfordshire's primary aggregates imports and exports (2009)

    Mineral Import

    amount

    (tonnes) 10

    Consumption

    (tonnes)11

    Export

    (tonnes)12

    Balance

    (imports-

    exports)

    (tonnes)

    Land won sand and

    gravel

    163,000 1,053,000 317,000 - 154,000

    Marine sand and

    gravel

    1,000 1,000 0 + 1,000

    Total sand and

    gravel

    164,000 1,054,000 317,000 - 153,000

    Crushed rock 413,000 413,000 0 + 413,000

    Total aggregates 577,000 1,467,000 317,000 + 260,000

    Note: In balance column, a - prefix indicates a net export, and a + prefix indicates a net import.

    5.3 The results of the Aggregate Minerals Survey in 2009 showed that movements

    of sand and gravel into and out of Hertfordshire are not self-balancing (Table 5).

    Overall, Hertfordshire is a net exporter of sand and gravel, although there is a

    small amount of marine sand and gravel imported. Hertfordshire relies on

    imports of crushed rock, as this is not found in the county.

    Imports Sand and Gravel

    5.4 Of the land won sand and gravel consumed in Hertfordshire (1,126,000 tonnes)

    as reported in the AMS 2014:

    o 60-70%% came from within Hertfordshire; o 10-20% came from Essex; o 1-10% came from Bedford Borough, o Cambridgeshire, Central Bedfordshire & Suffolk (within the East of

    England) and Windsor & Maidenhead District and Great London East (outside of East of England);

    o

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 16

    5.6 In summary, of the imports of sand and gravel into Hertfordshire, approximately

    9-29% came from within the East of England area and 71-91% from outside the

    East of England area. 15

    Imports Crushed Rock

    5.7 Of the total crushed rock consumed in Hertfordshire (591,000 tonnes) as

    reported in the AMS 2014 (Table 11):

    o 80-90% came from Leicestershire; o 10-20% came from Somerset; o 1-10% came from Cambridgeshire, Shropshire and Powys; o

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 17

    Total imports of sand and gravel and crushed rock into the UK in 2012 were 39.2 million tonnes and total exports from the UK were 68.2 million tonnes23

    The Annual Minerals Raised Inquiry (AMRI) 2014 reports the following:

    o A total of 4.7 million tonnes was extracted in Great Britain24. There are no figures reported for clay extracted and sold for Hertfordshire.

    o The UK had a rise in total clay sales from 6,464 to 6,806 thousand tonnes 2013-2014;

    o The UK had a rise in sales from 3,528 thousand tonnes 2012- 2013 to 3,312 thousand tonnes 2013-2014. There are no figures reported for chalk extracted and sold for Hertfordshire.25

    o Hertfordshire is listed as one of only 13 areas in Great Britain that produce chalk.

    o UK total sales of sand and gravel rose from 51,925 in 2012-2013 to 56,129 thousand tonnes.26

    From the East of England area perspective the Areas Annual Monitoring Report 2014

    reports the following:

    o Hertfordshire contributed 10% of sand and gravel sales in the East of England in 2014 and 11% in 2015; 27

    o Cambridgeshire & Peterborough and Bedford, Central Bedfordshire & Luton have a higher landbank of sand and gravel than Hertfordshire in the East of England; 28

    o The East of England landbank (average over all authorities) stands at 9.5 years using the sub-regional apportionment figure derived from the National and regional Guidelines 2005-2020.; 29

    o Cambridgeshire & Peterborough and Norfolk are the only authorities in the East of England that extract rock and propose to maintain current extraction rates;30

    o Although likely to be under-representations, in 2015 the EEAWP area imported over 2.2 million tonnes of aggregate (sand and gravel and crushed rock) from outside the area by rail depots and wharfs. In comparison exports of aggregates from the area by rail were over 100,000 tonnes. 31

    Sales and Construction 23 Page 19 of BGS, 2014, United Kingdom Minerals Yearbook 2013, Minerals and Waste Programme Open Report OR/14/036 22 Table 8, DCLG & ONS, March 2016, Annual Mineral Raised Inquiry (AMRI) Mineral extraction in Great Britain 2014, Business Monitor PA1007 25

    Table 9, DCLG & ONS, March 2016, Annual Mineral Raised Inquiry (AMRI) mineral extraction in Great Britain 2014, Business Monitor PA1007 26

    Table 2, DCLG & ONS, March 2016, Annual Mineral Raised Inquiry (AMRI) Mineral extraction in Great Britain 2014, Business Monitor PA1007 27

    Figure 2 of East of England Aggregates Working Party, Annual Monitoring Report 2014-2015 28

    Table 3, East of England Aggregates Working Party, Annual Monitoring Report 2014-2015 29 Table 3, East of England Aggregates Working Party, Annual Monitoring Report 2014-2015 30

    Table 1, East of England Aggregates Working Party, Annual Monitoring Report 2014-2015 31

    Page14, East of England Aggregates Working Party, Annual Monitoring Report 2014-2015

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 18

    5.13 The following table shows the comparison of sales and consumption in

    Hertfordshire in 2014.

    Table 6: Sales and consumption in 2014

    Destination Proportion Assumed Figure

    Hertfordshire 57% 689,433t

    East of England 22% 266,097t

    Elsewhere 21% 254,002t

    Total Sales of Land Won Sand & Gravel

    (2014)

    100% 1,209,532t

    Consumption 1,146,000t

    Source: DCLG & BGS, 2014, Collation of the results of the 2014 Aggregate Minerals Survey for

    England and Wales

    5.14 The AMS indicated that most of Hertfordshires sand and gravel produced is

    consumed in the county (57%). Of the exports, the majority of the sand and

    gravel is used outside of the East of England region (21%).

    Rail Aggregate Depots

    5.15 Linked with the mineral industry is the need for rail aggregate depots within the

    county. Currently Hertfordshire has a total of four such sites which are at:

    o Langley Sidings, Stevenage; o Rye House, Hoddesdon; o Harper Lane, Radlett; and o Orphanage Road, Watford.

    5.16 These are shown on the proposals map in the Hertfordshire Minerals Local Plan,

    2007 and Minerals Consultation Areas Supplementary Planning document, and

    are safeguarded facilities. Hitchin Rail Aggregate Depot is also shown, however

    this has since ceased its operation and the site has been cleared.

    5.17 Imports of minerals at the operational rail aggregate depots32:

    Mineral imported at RADs Total tonnage

    Crushed rock 520,085

    Sharp sands and gravels

    Total 520,085

    5.18 Crushed rock passes through Langley Sidings. Concrete batching is carried out

    at Orphanage Road, ready mix at Langley Sidings and Harper Lane and asphalt

    32

    HCC Rail Aggregate Depots, Aggregate Monitoring Surveys 2016 (only received figures from 2 of the 4 RADs)

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 19

    plants at Langley Sidings and Harper Lane. The asphalt plant is no longer

    operating at Rye House, instead the site only handles dry stone.

    5.19 Further discussions are planned to be carried out with the rail aggregate depots

    to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the destinations of minerals to and

    from these sites.

    5.20 The Mineral Planning Authority responds to District/Borough Council Local Plan

    consultations requesting the safeguarding of rail aggregate depots. Where there

    is pressure on the continued operation of these sites due to other development

    proposals, the county council will be an active member of any discussion group

    to shape proposals so as to retain the rail aggregate depot and a suitable buffer

    around it or assist with the relocation to another site. The county council has one

    rail aggregate depot that may be at risk from other development over the time

    period of the next Minerals Local Plan, namely Orphanage Road, Watford.

    Figure 4: Hertfordshire's rail aggregate depots

    Crown copyright and database rights 2017 Ordnance Survey 100019606

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 20

    Brick Clay

    5.21 Hertfordshire has one site which excavates brick clay for the use on-site in the

    production of specialist bricks. The current planning permission at the site runs

    until 31 September 2035 for extraction.

    5.22 There is no apportionment for clay provision; however the NPPF requires that a

    stock of permitted reserves of at least 25 years for brick clay is required. The

    adopted Minerals Local Plan did not require a landbank of brick clay. The review

    of the Minerals Local Plan therefore needs to address this issue. This will be

    planned for in the review of the Minerals Local Plan and could be shown as a

    Mineral Safeguarded Area(s).

    5.23 Reserves at the site are unpredictable due to the nature of the deposit. In

    accordance with the current planning permission, there are permitted reserves at

    the site for 18 years. However the site is not operating as it has been in previous

    years. If there is no potential for further clay extraction in Hertfordshire,

    Hertfordshire will need to co-operate with neighbouring authorities to plan for the

    maintenance of brick clay over the next 25 years.

    5.24 The existing policies in the adopted Minerals Local Plan 2002-2016 can be relied

    upon by decision makers to determine any planning applications that may come

    forward until the Minerals Local Plan is reviewed. The NPPF is a material

    planning consideration and therefore would need to be taken into account.

    Therefore reference to the NPPF may be necessary should any issues relating

    to clay come forward before the review of the Minerals Local Plan.

    Chalk

    5.25 Chalk is extracted in Hertfordshire for use as an agricultural lime on farms to

    improve soil quality and is therefore classed as an industrial mineral rather than

    an aggregate used in construction (e.g. for use in cement).Hertfordshire does not

    have a working cement plant and therefore it is not necessary to plan for a

    separate landbank for this resource.

    5.26 The Annual Minerals Raised Inquiry Survey 2014 states that there were sales of

    30 thousand tonnes of chalk in Hertfordshire for agricultural uses33. For

    information purposes and the monitoring of sites the table below provides further

    information on these sites with permitted reserves:-

    33

    Table 9, DCLG, 2014, Annual Minerals Raised Inquiry Survey Minerals extraction in Great Britain 2012, Business Monitor PA1007

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 21

    Table 7: Permitted chalk extraction sites in Hertfordshire

    Site Operator Status Cessation date for

    planning permission

    Codicote

    Quarry Codicote

    Quarry Ltd

    Currently active.

    Extraction since

    1948, in two parts:

    RoMPP (northern

    part) and IDO

    (southern part).

    Extraction to cease by

    21/2/2042

    Bedwell

    Park Quarry BP Mitchell

    Haulage

    Contractors

    Ltd

    Currently active. Extraction to cease by

    21/2/2042

    Anstey

    Chalk

    Quarry

    Anstey Quarry

    Company Ltd

    Winning and working

    of chalk and

    reclamation of the

    site by the

    importation of inert

    waste.

    Extraction to be

    completed by

    31/12/2018 and

    importation by

    30/06/20.

    6 SECONDARY AND RECYCLED AGGREGATE

    6.1 Mineral Planning Authorities are expected to plan for aggregates, taking account

    of all sources and having regard to the overall objective to minimise the amount

    of primary extraction. Secondary and recycled aggregates play their part in

    providing a source of material for construction which reduces the need for

    extraction at quarry sites and reduces the amount of waste from construction

    sites needing to be landfilled. With these obvious benefits, the use of this

    material is encouraged. The county council is monitoring in its AMR, under target

    8 of the Waste Core Strategy and Development Management Policies document,

    the annual percentage diversion of C,D&E waste from landfill. A considerable

    amount of inert waste is currently being used in the restoration of extraction

    sites.

    6.2 Secondary aggregates are usually by-product wastes from construction,

    industrial or mineral extraction processes. This includes both natural and

    manufactured materials such as glass, incinerator bottom ash, fine ceramic

    waste, scrap tyres, flue ash, slag, china clay, coal and slate extraction and spent

    foundry sand.

    6.3 Recycled aggregates are aggregates produced from reprocessed construction,

    demolition and excavation (CD&E) waste. This includes crushed concrete, stone

    and brick, asphalt road planings and railway ballast.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 22

    6.4 The processing of aggregate occurs both on construction sites for reuse on the

    same site or off site for use in other construction works.

    Inert Waste Management in Hertfordshire

    6.5 The data available on recovered material that can be sold as recycled and

    particularly secondary aggregate is variable and not considered completely

    reliable. The county council receives limited data provided by site operators in

    the annual surveys relating to aggregate recovery. In 2016 there was 234,783

    tonnes of secondary and recycled aggregate produced in Hertfordshire. 34 A

    reduction in operations has been noticeable in this years figures.

    Table 8: Total recycled and secondary aggregate processed over the last 10 years

    Year Recycled and Secondary Aggregate Processing (tonnes)35

    2007 267,210

    2008 229,769

    2009 258,427

    2010 346,560

    2011 303,869

    2012 316,941

    2013 329,457

    2014 362,203

    2015 317,314

    2016 234,783

    6.6 According to the Environment Agencys Waste Data Interrogator, figures of inert

    C,D & E waste treated in the county may be different to the figures received from

    operator returns. The Environment Agencys figure does not include figures at

    waste transfer stations that bulk up and transfer aggregate on to recycling

    facilities for processing. 36

    34

    Hertfordshire County Council annual waste survey 2016 provided by operators, and average figures from previous years where actual data was not obtained, 35

    Please note there may be a difference in the figures available from difference sources, including HCC operator data, Environment Agency data and other studies. 36 HCC, 2013, Authority Monitoring Report

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 23

    6.7 At the sub-regional level, the most recent study on secondary and recycled

    aggregate arisings was undertaken in 2005 by a contractor on behalf of DCLG.

    The figures for Hertfordshire featured in the report as a combined figure with

    Bedfordshire to show that these two authorities produced a combined 1,269,259

    tonnes of recycled aggregates. 37

    6.8 The adopted Waste Core Strategy and Development Management Policies

    document concludes that there is sufficient permitted capacity within the county

    for the disposal and treatment of this waste stream. 38

    Secondary and Recycled Aggregate Sources

    6.9 There are currently eleven sites with planning permission for the recovery of inert

    CD&E waste in Hertfordshire, as listed below. Some sites also process C&I

    waste. Figure 6 shows the location of these sites in the county.

    Table 9: Secondary and recycled aggregate sites

    SITE COMPANY STATUS

    5 Hunting Gate, Hitchin Winters Haulage Permanent

    Anstey Quarry The Anstey Quarry Company Ltd

    Temporarily permitted until June 2020

    Burnside, Hatfield Peter Brothers Ltd Permanent

    Cavendish Road Depot, Stevenage

    Stevenage Borough Council

    Permanent

    Codicote Quarry The Anstey Quarry Company Ltd

    Temporarily permitted until February 2042

    Harper Lane (Rail Loop) Tarmac Ltd Permanent

    Harper Lodge Farm, Radlett

    Ground Waste Recycling Ltd

    Permanent

    Birchall Lane, Cole Green, Welwyn Garden City

    BP Mitchell Ltd Permanent

    Jacks Hill Graveley Brycelands Removals Ltd Permanent

    Land adjacent to B197, north of Graveley

    Envirowaste (Inc) Ltd/Stevenage Skips

    Permanent

    Waverley Nursery, Wormley

    H. Dent & Sons Permanent

    37 DCLG, 2007, Survey of Arisings and Use of Alternatives to Primary Aggregates in England, 2005 Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste 38

    Waste Core Strategy and Development Management Policies Development Plan Document, p. 30, paragraphs 3.20 and 3.21.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 24

    Figure 5: Location of permitted sites in Hertfordshire for the production of recycled/secondary aggregates

    Expected Contribution to Supply

    6.10 In terms of relying on secondary and recycled aggregate and thereby reducing

    the need for extracting land won sand and gravel to meet the demand in

    Hertfordshire, precise data on this supply option needs to be available to factor

    this into mineral planning. This is not always available. The county council

    surveyed operators of known recycled and secondary aggregate sites and

    figures have been provided.

    6.11 In addition, there is the use of some inert material that is reprocessed on

    demolition sites and used in their redevelopment as groundworks and basic

    engineering fill. Whilst this is potentially a lower grade aggregate, its use can

    also offset the need for primary won extraction of sand and gravel. Again, the

    difficulty is obtaining reliable data to quantify how much of this material can be

    relied upon.

    6.12 Issues with data availability and reliability for secondary and recycled aggregates

    does not allow for a firm figure for local supply of this source of aggregate in

    Crown copyright and database rights 2017 Ordnance Survey 100019606

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 25

    Hertfordshire. It is considered reasonable to assume that as the economy

    recovers out of recession, volumes of secondary and recycled aggregates

    similar to those of recent years will continue to be available in the county. As

    such there should not be any significant effect on the demand for newly

    extracted land won sand and gravel.

    6.13 In a similar way, a small amount of marine dredged sand and gravel as detailed

    in table 4 and paragraph 5.5 is imported for use in the county. It is considered

    reasonable to assume that this supply of sand and gravel will continue to be

    used in the county at a similar volume in future years and therefore there should

    not be a significant effect on the amount of newly extracted sand and gravel

    required. As stated in table 4 and paragraph 5.7, hard rock is supplied from other

    counties as Hertfordshire does not have any of this resource. As the economy

    grows it is assumed that as this aggregate is already within the supply chain it is

    considered reasonable to assume that the proportions of market demand

    currently being met from these sources will continue to be met.

    7 FUTURE AGGREGATES SUPPLY AND DEMAND

    Supply

    7.1 As shown in the calculations of sand and gravel landbanks in table 4, using the

    EEAWP sub-regional apportionment of 1.39mtpa (8.5 years), the 10 year rolling

    average sales (10.2 years) or the 3 year average sales figures (9.8 years), the

    county does not have sufficient permitted reserves to fulfil the requirement for a

    15 year Minerals Local Plan period, nor the additional planning for 7 years at the

    end of the plan period which equates to needing aggregate for a 22 year period.

    As such the county council will seek to address this by allocating sufficient land

    for extraction in the review of the Minerals Local Plan.

    7.2 The County Council has permitted two sand and gravel planning applications,

    subject to S106 agreements, at committee on 25 January 2017 and 22 March

    2017 (Land at Hatfield Aerodrome and Furzefield, Hatfield Quarry). However, as

    the S106 agreements require signing, decision notices have not been issued for

    these applications to date. In total these sites could provide 8.45 million tonnes.

    7.3 A comparison of the sub-regional apportionment with the shortfall is shown

    below:

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 26

    Table10: Requirement for sand and gravel in Hertfordshire over the plan period of 15 years 2016 to 2031

    7.4 Historically the nationally prescribed regional apportionment figure for mineral

    provision was sub divided proportionally between authorities within the Region

    under the Managed Aggregates Supply System which was in operation at the

    time. This approach to calculating apportionments has now changed with the

    introduction of new national guidelines in the NPPF and the NPPG. The NPPG

    states in paragraph 060 (Reference ID: 27-060-20140306) that the MASS

    requires mineral planning authorities which have adequate resources of

    aggregates to make an appropriate contribution to national as well as local

    supply, while making due allowance for the need to control any environmental

    damage to an acceptable level.

    7.5 The NPPF seeks to plan for a steady and adequate supply of aggregates by

    preparing an annual Local Aggregate Assessment which should be based on a

    rolling average of 10 years data and other relevant local information, and an

    assessment of all supply options (including marine dredged, secondary and

    recycled sources);. In addition, the NPPG states in paragraph 064 (Reference

    ID: 27-064-20140306) that Mineral Planning Authorities should also look at

    average sales over the last three years in particular to identify the general trend

    of demand as part of the consideration of whether it might be appropriate to

    increase supply.

    7.6 Whilst the average rolling 10 years sales could be one way of calculating

    provision, needing to be reported within the LAA, the NPPF also states that there

    is still heavy emphasis on the role of Aggregate Working Parties. The

    Government continues to encourage MPAs to be members of Aggregate

    Working Parties in addition to aggregate industry representatives. The East of

    England AWP is continuing in its capacity as it was when working under the

    regional planning system, and has collective sign up by authorities that it is

    10 year

    average

    sales (2007-

    2016) (Mt)

    EEAWP

    apportionment

    2009 (Mt)

    Annual provision 1.15 1.39

    Total Plan Requirement:

    Annual provision x standard plan period (15

    years)

    Annual provision x standard plan period + 7

    years to maintain landbank at the end of the

    Plan (22 years).

    17.25

    25.30

    20.85

    30.58

    Permitted Reserves (2016)

    Minus this figure 11.75 11.75

    Shortfall (standard 15 years)

    Shortfall (planned 22 years)

    5.5

    13.55

    9.1

    18.83

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 27

    appropriate for all MPAs in the East of England to continue to work with the 2009

    EEAWP sub-regional apportionment figure for the foreseeable future.

    7.7 In addition, when planning for mineral provision the NPPF provides the option for

    MPAs to factor in other relevant information. This therefore provides the scope

    for MPAs to assess other influences on the demand for aggregates. This links

    with the localism agenda whereby authorities are given the opportunity to factor

    in local issues that may influence the need for minerals in their area. However,

    determining what other relevant information consists of is a matter for the MPA

    to decide. For Hertfordshire it is considered that an assessment of the state of

    the local economy, will provide data that can be used to determine the purpose

    and timing that minerals will be required for development, which can be fed into

    the review of the MLP.

    7.8 The county council needs to consider the potential constraints on the ability to

    supply aggregate from different sources. The use of marine aggregate is minimal

    due to Hertfordshire being land locked. If it were to become a source that it

    utilised more readily in the future, this will require transportation from and

    reliance upon other mineral planning authority areas and therefore is not as

    sustainable a source. The market would need to require this material and

    negotiation would need to take place with other mineral planning authorities. It

    appears that there is now an established market for secondary and recycled

    aggregates to be used in development projects and as a result the available

    material is being recycled. How far this can be expanded upon is an option to

    explore but is dependent upon the construction and demolition material being

    available in the first instance to recycle. In terms of practical limitations on the

    supply of land won aggregate from Hertfordshire, this may be impacted upon by

    the development being proposed in the ten district/borough councils within the

    county to deliver their Local Plan visions with increased housing provision.

    Negotiations will continue to be had with districts/boroughs. Another

    consideration is the adequacy of the transportation network to move material

    around the county. The highway network is heavily used within the county and

    therefore the movement of additional mineral from sites needs careful

    consideration. In addition, over half of Hertfordshire is covered by Green Belt, as

    a result this policy needs to be fully considered.

    7.9 From these potential constraints described above, we can conclude that DtC

    meetings with other authorities is essential, mineral sterilisation, transportation,

    Green Belt and secondary and recycled aggregates all need to continue to be

    included within the review of the Minerals Local Plan.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 28

    Potential Future Supply from Preferred Areas

    7.10 The adopted Minerals Local Plan 2002-2016, adopted in 2007 contains 3

    Preferred Areas:

    o PA1 BAE o PA2 Rickneys; & o PA3 Coursers Road (Tyttenhanger)

    7.11 Of these sites, all three of them have come forward for extraction. Extraction of

    sand and gravel was permitted at Coursers Road, Tyttenhanger and is currently

    taking place. The figures for reserves are included within Table 1 above.

    Planning permission has lapsed for extraction of sand and gravel at Rickneys.

    The site had been mothballed and the operator is not currently extracting from

    this site. There is no plant and machinery at the site. A planning application was

    refused on Land at Ware Park which covers the southern part of Preferred Area

    2 adjacent to Rickneys quarry. Applications at BAE, Hatfield and Furzefield,

    Hatfield have been permitted at committee, subject to the signing of S106 legal

    agreements. Consequently decision notices have not been issued to date. The

    figure for the sites with outstanding S106 agreements is not included in table 1.

    7.12 As stated within the adopted Minerals Local Plan, estimated resources at BAE

    Preferred Area 1 is 8 million tonnes of sand and gravel and the remainder of the

    Preferred Area 2 site which is 5-6 million tonnes as stated within the Minerals

    Local Plan. Therefore should there be a supply of mineral from these sites in the

    future it could assist with meeting the sand and gravel requirements to be

    planned for in the county. The unworked Preferred Area sites will be considered

    alongside the site selection criteria within the site selection methodology for the

    review of the Minerals Local Plan which is taking place.

    Demand

    7.13 District and borough councils in Hertfordshire will plan for objectively assessed

    needs. Development will require aggregate materials for the construction of

    dwellings and associated infrastructure such as employment, roads, schools and

    retail. This includes both the need for land won aggregates and secondary and

    recycled aggregates.

    Population Projections

    7.14 The latest estimate of the usual resident population of Hertfordshire is 1,176,700

    as at 30/6/16. 39 This is an increase of 10,40040 in the last year. Using the Office of

    National Statistics published data of the 2014-based subnational population

    projections for England, population projections for Hertfordshire suggest an

    39

    ONS mid-2015 population estimates, as reported in Hertfordshires Local Information System (www.hertslis.org) 40

    Calculated from mid-2015 estimate in previous LAA

    http://www.hertslis.org/

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 29

    increase of approximately 276,400 (23.93%) in population over the 25 year

    period from 2014 to 2039. 41

    Housing completions and forecast

    7.15 The Spatial Planning and Economy Unit at Hertfordshire County Council

    annually surveys the county to check on the permitted housing developments

    that have been started and completed. Information obtained for 2016 (financial

    year) shows42:

    o There were 4,626 housing completions. This figure is higher than that of previous years.

    o There were 5,351 housing starts. This figure is higher than that of previous years.

    o Compared with last year there has been an increase in completions by approximately 700 residential dwellings. This year has seen a rise in dwelling commitments of approximately 1900 extra dwellings since last year. Most commitments recorded have planning permission but have not yet been implemented.

    7.16 The Hertfordshire Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEP) growth deal is planning

    for housing provision of 16,500 new homes and 11,000 jobs by 2024/25.43

    7.17 The following table shows a summary of the housing projections that each

    District/Borough Councils have decided will need to be constructed based on

    each authority areas objectively assessed housing needs:

    Table 11: Planned housing requirements at the district/borough councils

    41

    ONS mid-2014 population estimates, as reported in Hertfordshires Local Information System (www.hertslis.org) 42

    Spatial Planning and Economy Unit, September 2017 43

    https://www.hertfordshirelep.com/invest-in-herts/about-herts/

    District/Borough Council

    Planned housing requirement Source of housing figure

    Broxbourne (7,700 homes until 2031) This works out to be just over 513 per annum

    Duty to Cooperate meeting 16/6/17

    Dacorum 430 per annum (10,750 from 2006-2031)

    Core Strategy 2006-2031 adopted 25/9/2013 & Duty to Cooperate meeting 10/5/17

    East Herts 745 per annum (16,400 from 2011-2033)

    Duty to Cooperate meeting 17/5/17

    Hertsmere (4,177 from 2012-2027) This works out to be 278 per annum

    Site Allocations and Development Management Policies adopted November 2016 & Duty to Cooperate meeting 15/5/17

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 30

    Key Planned Infrastructure Requirements

    7.18 The requirement for minerals will increase in the event of the development of

    major infrastructure within Hertfordshire or in the surrounding areas. The council

    is mindful of other planned development that will be required to support

    additional housing growth in and around the county. Whilst mineral miles will be

    a consideration in the supply of minerals, specific quality of mineral may be

    required for schemes that is not readily available in the immediate vicinity of the

    project. As such Hertfordshire may be required to provide minerals to

    development schemes in neighbouring authority areas. Other significant

    schemes will be required to accommodate growth and will be monitored

    annually.

    7.19 The certainty of some projects is unknown as is the timing for their delivery

    therefore it is difficult to programme this requirement into the supply of material

    for such projects. The known major development schemes and those that are

    being planned in and around Hertfordshire that may require minerals to be

    supplied are as follows:

    Potential schemes across Hertfordshire:

    o A120 bypass Little Hadham; o A602 improvements Stevenage to Ware; o A1(M) improvements; & o Croxley Rail Link (Metropolitan Line Extension MLX.

    North Herts (15,950 from 2011-2031) This works out to be 798 per annum

    Porposed Submission Local Plan 2011-2031, October 2016

    St Albans (9,000 from 2011-2031) This works out to be 450 per annum

    Duty to Cooperate meeting 5/5/17

    Stevenage 380 per annum (7,600 from 2011-2031)

    Duty to Cooperate meeting 15/5/17

    Three Rivers 180 per annum (4,500 by 2025/26)

    Core Strategy 2011-2026 adopted 17/10/2011 & Duty to Cooperate meeting 9/6/17

    Watford 260 per annum (6,500 from 2006-2031)

    Core Strategy 2006-2031 adopted 30/1/2013 & Duty to Cooperate meeting 9/6/17

    Welwyn Hatfield (12,000 from 2013-2032) This works out to be 498 per annum 2013-14 to 2021/22 and 752 per annum from 2022/23 to 2031/32

    Draft Local Plan Submittion Document, August 2016

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 31

    Proposed large development schemes within the county recently considered planning

    applications44:

    o Tudor Nurseries, Goffs Oak (Broxbourne) 360 dwellings and retail; o Land north and south of Andrews Lane and South of Peakes Way,

    Cheshunt (Broxbourne) 380 dwellings, care home, primary school and local centre;

    o Cheshunt Football Club (Broxbourne) stadium &186 dwellings; o Spencers Park Phase 2, Maylands (Dacorum) 600 dwellings; o Maylands Gateway, Hemel Hempstead (Dacorum) commercial; o Land at West Hemel Hempstead (Dacorum) 1,100 homes, primary

    school and community facilities; o Land off Luynes Rise, West of Buntingford (East Herts) 400 dwellings

    and new A10 junction; o Gilston Area, Scoping Opinion (East Herts) up to 10,000 dwellings; o Bircherley Green Shopping Centre, Hertford (East Herts) mixed use,

    retail, hotel & residential; o International University Site (Hertsmere) 100 apartments; o Land West of Royston (North Herts) 279 dwellings; o Land north of Highover Farm to Stotfold Road, Hitchin (North Herts)

    700 dwellings, local centre & school; o Burloes Cottages, Royston, Screening Opinion (North Herts) 325

    dwellings; o Land East of Cockernhoe (North Herts) 1400 dwellings and second

    parcel of 660 dwellings; o Avenue 1 Letchworth Employment Area (North Herts) retail; o BRE, Garston (St Albans) 100 dwellings; o HSBC site (St Albans) 200 dwellings; o Land at Maxwell Road, Stevenage (Stevenage) 128 dwellings; o Park Place, Town Centre, Stevenage (Stevenage) 202 dwellings; o Land at Fairways Farm, Garston (Three Rivers) 100 dwellings; o Symbio Point, Wolsey Business Park, Watford (Three Rivers) 643

    dwellings o Wolsey Business Park, Rickmansworth (Three Rivers) 120 dwellings; o Former Gas Holder Site, Lower High Street, Watford (Watford) 92

    apartments & food store; o Land East of Ascot Road, Watford (Watford) 485 dwellings, retail and

    community floorspace; o Hannay House, Watford (Watford) 154 dwellings, commercial and

    retail; o Land North East of Welwyn Garden City, scoping opinion (Welwyn

    Hatfield) 650 dwellings; & o 1-9 Town Centre, Hatfield (Welwyn Hatfield) 70 dwellings & retail.

    Other development potentially affecting Hertfordshire

    o HS2 development; o Crossrail 2.

    44

    Duty to Cooperate meetings with District/Borough Councils 2016 and responses to weekly list applications

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 32

    8 CONCLUSION

    8.1 Planning for mineral provision must be seen in the context of the wider economy

    and the governments growth agenda. In light of the current economic recession

    which began in 2007, average sales of sand and gravel are likely to be skewed.

    Whilst there may be less of a need for minerals in the short term, mineral

    planning is concerned with longer term provision. We would not want for there to

    be an under supply that could restrict future development and hinder future

    economic growth which is currently being planned for at Local Planning Authority

    level. As such it is not considered to be a viable approach to simply plan for

    mineral provision on the average of the last 10 years of sales.

    8.2 Whilst the option of using the 3 year average sales to plan for minerals may

    identify a local influence that requires either more or less minerals to be

    extracted, this is only a short term requirement. Data from the last 3 years (2014-

    2016) shows average sales of sand and gravel in Hertfordshire at 1.20 mtpa

    which is 0.05mtpa higher than the 10 year average sales. There were fluctuating

    sand and gravel sales in the last 10 years with a marginal increase in the last

    three years and no general trend that has occurred. The use of the 3 year

    average sales data provides an indication but does not provide a clear direction

    for the 15 year MLP.

    8.3 The rolling 10 year sales average may be a better indicator of the need for

    minerals by using a reasonable time span to judge the need for minerals in the

    county. However this level of mineral provision is below the last 3 years sales

    given that it has spanned the period of recession in latter years and a continuous

    decline in sales until 2005 in the lead up to the recession. It can be seen in

    Figure 2, when looking at the sales figures over the last 10 years that there is a

    possibility of a rise in sales just as easily as a decline. To this end, paragraph 14

    of the NPPF refers to maintaining sufficient flexibility to adapt to rapid change.

    8.4 Planning for mineral provision at the lowest of levels will not allow for any

    economic recovery out from recession. Paragraph 145 of the NPPF also states

    that the AWP figures should still be taken into consideration for the purposes of

    calculating future demand and supply of aggregates. Whilst it is recognised that

    secondary and recycled aggregates may reduce demand for land won provision

    of sand and gravel, the local data is not considered sufficiently reliable to

    properly take account of this and adjust the land won provision requirement that

    has been debated by EEAWP members and based on a sound and thorough

    assessment of national need. The small amount of marine aggregates is not

    significant to adjust the apportionment figure either.

    8.5 As such the council considers it sensible to plan in line with the EEAWP

    agreement and continue to plan for the sub-regional apportionment level to

    provide for flexibility to maintain supply when the economy recovers. This will

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 33

    ensure that an adequate and steady supply of aggregate is achieved over the

    longer term.

    8.6 This LAA and subsequent annual updates will inform the Minerals Local Plan

    review and continue to monitor the supply and demand for aggregates. In

    addition, the Minerals Local Plan will include monitoring targets and indicators to

    ensure that monitoring of the delivery of sites and use of the policies takes place.

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 34

    References

    BGS, 2016, United Kingdom Minerals Yearbook 2015, Minerals and Waste Programme Open Report OR/16/021

    BGS & ODPM, 2003, Technical report CR/03/075/N, Mineral Resource Information in Support of National, Regional and Local Planning: Hertfordshire and Northwest London Boroughs;

    BGS, 2008, Aggregates supply in England, Issues for Planning;

    DCLG & ONS, March 2016, Annual Mineral Raised Inquiry (AMRI) Mineral extraction in Great Britain 2014, Business Monitor PA1007

    https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/mineral-extraction-in-great-britain-2014

    DCLG & BGS, 2011 (second edition), Collation of the results of the 2009 aggregate minerals survey for England and Wales;

    DCLG & BGS, Aggregate Mineral Survey AM2014 source of primary aggregates by sub-region percent categories

    DCLG, 2009, National and regional guidelines for aggregates provision in England 2005-2020;

    DCLG, 2007, Survey of Arisings and Use of Alternatives to Primary Aggregates in

    England, 2005 Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste;

    EoEAWP, East of England Aggregates Annual Monitoring Report 2016

    East of England Aggregates Working Party Survey MPA Collation Form 2011;

    HCC, Hertfordshire Authority Monitoring Report 2016;

    HCC, Hertfordshire Minerals Local Plan Review 2002-2016, adopted 2007;

    HCC Site Monitoring Reports, Spatial Planning and Economy Unit;

    Hertfordshire Environmental Forum, 2006, Biodiversity Action Plan for Hertfordshire, www.hef.org.uk

    Hertfordshire Partnership, A Biodiversity Action Plan for Hertfordshire, March 2006.

    http://www.hertslis.org/env/qualityoflife/

    Mineral Produced in the UK in 2010 -

    http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/statistics/downloads/MineralsProducedInTheUnited

    Kingdom.pdf

    National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) (in particular paragraphs 145-146)

    National Planning Practice Guidance (NPPG) (in particular paragraphs 060-071

    http://www.hef.org.uk/http://www.hertslis.org/env/qualityoflife/http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/statistics/downloads/MineralsProducedInTheUnitedKingdom.pdfhttp://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/statistics/downloads/MineralsProducedInTheUnitedKingdom.pdf

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 35

    Practice Guidance on the production and use of Local Aggregate Assessments, Living Document (May 2017), Planning Officers Society and Minerals Products Association http://www.mineralproducts.org/documents/LAA_Guidance.pdf

    http://www.mineralproducts.org/documents/LAA_Guidance.pdf

  • Local Aggregate Assessment 2017 36

    Further Information

    This document has been produced by the Spatial Planning and Economy Unit,

    Hertfordshire County Council.

    Should you have any questions in relation to this document please email

    [email protected]

    mailto:[email protected]