Harriet just enoughcomputerusersfamily

of 34 /34
1 of 27 Understanding “Just Enough” Computer Users: Motivation Style and Proficiency By Harriet King Masters Candidate in Computer Science December 2012 Dr. Chuck Wallace (CS) , Dr. Karla Kitalong (Humanities), Dr. Paul Ward (cognitive Psych), Dr. Robert Pastel (CS)

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Harriet just enoughcomputerusersfamily

  • 1 of 27

    Understanding Just Enough Computer Users:

    Motivation Style and Proficiency

    By Harriet King Masters Candidate in Computer Science

    December 2012 Dr. Chuck Wallace (CS) , Dr. Karla Kitalong

    (Humanities), Dr. Paul Ward (cognitive Psych), Dr. Robert Pastel (CS)

  • 2 of 27

    Why do some proficient daily computer users, stumble over the

    unfamiliar and others easily adapt?

    The Question

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Unfamiliar Task in familiar software &

    system AND routine task in unfamiliar software &

    system

  • 3 of 27

    What Is a Just Enough (JE) User?

    Daily computer user

    Competent

    Extrinsic Motivation

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Predominantly Externally regulated

    (driven by ends, external

    requirements or rules)

  • 4 of 27

    The Hypothesis

    We hypothesize that

    extrinsically motivated

    proficient daily computer users

    have difficulty with unfamiliar computer tasks and skill transfer, whereas

    intrinsically motivated daily users accomplish unfamiliar tasks readily.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Intrinsic (internal, interest, choice) have no problem

  • 5 of 27

    Who Cares?

    Software designers

    Human Computer Interactions (HCI)

    Software Users

    Stakeholders for computer literacy

    Lest we wish to change our fields name to student-computer interaction we should make effort to find more representative participants (Barkhuus and Rode 2012)

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    HCI is the main computer science

    field that my thesis falls under

    Stakeholders include government,

    education, industry who want productive

    workforce

    Instead of

    human

  • 6 of 27 Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Study Design Overview

    OUTPUT INVENTORY

    scores & statistics group descriptors OBSERVATIONS

    Coded & analyzed attitudes & actions

    Find people to study by giving motivation

    questionnaire

    Unfamiliar task in home

    system, routine task in

    unknown system

    Statistics! Write thesis!

  • 7 of 27

    Adapting Questions

    Precedent: (Shroff and Vogel 2009). Confirmed Inventory with two pilot studies.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Change this activity to using computers Questions from two sets of psych

    researchers, professionally validated

    32 questions, randomized, six factors measured

  • 8 of 27

    Who Took the Inventory? Everybody!

    Community Classmates Faculty Internet

    Ages 13 to 87 from FIVE continents 9 countries: USA, China, Turkey, Australia, Sweden, U.K.,

    South Africa, India, and France 130+ total completed questionnaire Used 66 for total respondents 16 participants observed (7 intrinsics, 9 extrinsics)

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    And family, thank you!

  • 9 of 27

    Inventory T Test Results

    Factor Different

    Age* NOT different

    Digital Native* NOT different

    Perceived Competence* NOT different

    Amotivation* Different

    External Regulation Different

    Interest/Enjoyment Different

    Perceived Choice Different

    Significant Differences in Inventory

    Scores, Age, & Digital Native * Asterisk indicates non parametric Mann-Whitney U test

    All other are Independent Samples T-test

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Important that extrinsics not different from intrinsics for age, grew up

    on computers, or competence

  • 10 of 27

    Not Significantly Different Age and Perceived Competence

    Mean Perceived Competence with error bars for standard deviation

    Mean Age with error bars for standard deviation

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    9 Extrinsics 7 Intrinsics0.00

    10.00

    20.00

    30.00

    40.00

    50.00

    60.00

    70.00

    80.00

    90.00

    55.6746.57

    Age

    9 Extrinsics 7 Intrinsics1.00

    2.00

    3.00

    4.00

    5.00

    6.00

    7.00

    3.70

    5.38

    Me

    an P

    erc

    eiv

    ed C

    om

    pe

    ten

    ce

    See how close the

    means are?

  • 11 of 27

    Participant Hesitation Wording uhhhh

    Im looking for a way to

    do...

    maybe if I go here

    whats this?

    I cant...

    ummm

    lets go back here

    [giggling]

    aaaaannnnnnnd

    I could try like..

    no I cant drag that..

    Ill look in here, no I just

    looked in there

    I think I can just... click on

    this here, and... that didnt

    work

    ok, that didnt work

    I looked at the bottom but

    theres nothing there

    I saw this click to ... but

    that isnt it

    hmmm

    contacts....contacts....

    contacts

    that doesn't look very

    promising

    [sigh]

    no, that's not it

    maybe this

    so, we're not doing that

    I wouldn't think it'd be

    under that

    I'm going to try right click

    again

    I forgot what you said to

    do

    this damn mouse

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Fun example of think aloud

  • 12 of 27

    For Prompting the Participant

    go ahead and tell me what youre seeing

    please tell me what youre thinking

    Are you trying to decide something, can you tell me about it?

    did that work?

    what seems odd about this?

    what are you thinking?

    youre giggling, youre sighingyou sound angry, what are you feeling?

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Example of how qualitative ethnographic

    techniques enrich quantitative methods by getting more information

    about the participants

  • 13 of 27

    Rubric for Coding Observations

    CODE RULE

    Stumble [action] >= 20 seconds

    Fall [action] >= 1 minute

    Persist [action] >= 3 minutes

    Quit attitude towards a task

    Resist attitude towards a task

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Took 32 hours of recordings of 16 observed participants, turned it into 100 pages of

    transcripts, coded it with this rule set, then statistically analyzed it

  • 14 of 27

    Transcript Example

    time OLIVIA [action] quote (time on video) analysis stu

    mb

    le

    fall

    qu

    it

    resis

    t

    pers

    ist

    b 7:58

    e 9:08

    [while looking for spam, stumbles across trash 7:58 and says Ill empty the trash

    instead, I say go ahead] Participant: I have no idea how to do that. Its already IN the

    trash me: Look around. ...you can empty the trash. (8:10) Participant: Its already IN

    trash. Where do you empty trash to? Im thinking that I never empty my trash because

    theres no way to empty trash because its already trash. (8:25) me: no, there is a way

    to empty trash. Participant: Theres no trash emptying.

    [ask about her agitation] Participant: Im not agitated at all. Youre just wrong. Theres

    no trash emptying. [ask what shes feeling] Participant: I think its dumb that the trash

    doesnt have an empty. (8:40) me: It does actually

    Participant: I dont see it. If I click on something in my trash, all I can do is trash

    something in my trash, which is silly because its already in my trash (9:08) me: Ok,

    well come back to this. Lets look at your spam [so resistant that I stop this task on

    test. Never does trash]

    1 1

    1

    b 9:10

    e 9:45

    Participant: I dont know if I have spam (9:10) me: You do have spam. No. Really!?

    Im looking at all my folders and I do not have one called spam (9:20) me: Did you

    find more at the bottom? Theres a more. Oh look at that, theres spam. (9:45)

    1

    1

    b 9:50

    e 11:10

    [directed to delete all spam at once, (9:50), giving her hints] me: Its not that tricky, it

    has words and I can see them, Im looking at it right now (10:37) (11:10) found delete

    all messages now

    1 1

    b 11:20

    e 12:10

    [11:20 Go to address book] Participant: Im not fully sure where my address book is, I

    think I have to go to my calendar, then found contacts 12:10

    1

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Fun to see example

  • 15 of 27

    Occurrences for Each Code

    Asterisk indicates statistically significant difference for this code between extrinsic and intrinsic. Total occurrences with percent of

    total in parentheses.

    There was no significant difference between Unfamiliar Task compared to Near Skill Transfer for either intrinsics or extrinsics.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Stumble* Fall* Persist* Quit* Resist

    JE Users 91 (81%)

    56 (84%)

    15 (88%)

    9 (90%)

    13 (87%)

    Intrinsics 21 (19%)

    11 (16%)

    2 (12%)

    1 (10%)

    2 (13%)

    Most of the stumbles etc are

    extrinsics, statistics say the two groups

    are different

  • 16 of 27

    All Occurrences of Stumble & Fall

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    More

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    stumble fall

    Intrinsics on left and Extrinsics on right

    Intr

    insi

    cs

    Extr

    insi

    cs

    Left intrinsics had little trouble, right extrinsics

    stumbled

  • 17 of 27

    JE User vs. Intrinsic: Marsha & Rebecca

    Similar: 1. both Amotivation = 1.0 2. Both digital non-native 3. similar experience level 4. similar self rate and perceived competence 5. similar age 6. Appeared to cruise through unfamiliar tasks 7. Responsible community leaders 8. Professional women

    Different: 1. Performance 2. Different motivation styles

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Exter: 4.5 Int/En 2.57

    Exter: 4.0 Int/En 5.57

    2 completely similar people with different motivation style have different

    performance

  • 18 of 27

    Resist Only 5 out of 16 resisted 4 extrinsic & intrinsic Mike Olivia had 7 resists

    1. Cant empty trash 2. there is no spam 3. doesnt add to group but

    insists she did 4. says check mail button is

    broken 5. wont remove attachment, 6. says used wrong address but

    was sent folder issue 7. says did not spell a word

    correctly when did spell correctly

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    Lucy Mike* Miranda Marsha OliviaTo

    tal O

    ccu

    rren

    ces

    of

    Re

    sist

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Resist was the most entertaining

  • 19 of 27

    Another Type of Resist

    Marsha shares, I never use the google calendar. Im not telling them what Im doing every day. Forget that!

    Passionate?...I am. Im not MAD at them [MS Word], Im frustrated with them. theyre leaving out the average person. And maybe thats what open office is for. I dont know.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Instead of resist to a task, this is resist against

    The Man

  • 20 of 27

    Just Enough User Alice (1/9)

    I dont do ANYTHING that Im not taught. And that is a big

    drawback in my learning.

    I know enough to get what I want, most of the time. And it

    definitely is not a pleasure for me to try to figure out things on

    my own. N-O-T AT A-L-L Maybe everyone thinks they are a Just

    Enough user.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Cool example

  • 21 of 27

    Just Enough User Lucy (3/9)

    Why would I Google it? I wouldnt, because its a bunch of

    teenagers who cant spell right, who dont use punctuation, all

    lower case.

    I am fine using the computer only for what I need. I think they

    are ruining the world quite frankly, and am slightly proud I find

    them somewhat repulsive machines.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Cool example

  • 22 of 27

    Just Enough User Walter (8/9)

    You are confronting an unbelievably unfamiliar system, with all the

    scariness of being surrounded by REAL fully paid, fully trained, card

    carrying life member geeks I got spooked by the surroundings. I got

    intimidated by my high level of geekitude surroundings.

    People do get on without a computer at all, so perhaps No

    Computer (or The Computer They Make You Use At Work) is the true

    Just Enough Computer.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Cool example

  • 23 of 27

    Future Work

    So much data!

    Bigger sample

    Just Enough term?

    Gender, socioeconomic status, years of experience, aversion to change?

    Separating work and play in motivation study

    Less frequent users?

    What if a consequence element?

    Hand held computers?

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    Re-analyze for digital literacy, misunderstanding of novice, aging, and more

    Find out percent of population that is this or that

    External motivation more common with infrequent computer users?

    Probably unethical, oh well.

  • 24 of 27

    CONCLUSIONS Guess which one

    is intrinsic?

  • 25 of 27

    Statistical Results

    Confirmed competency of JE users

    Extrinsic proficient daily users stumble, fall, persist and quit significantly more than intrinsics

    AND it is not explained by age, perceived competence, or being digital native

    JE users account for over 80% of performance difficulties in our study

    Just Enough users exist in all age groups and experience levels (18% in our sample)

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    They are competent, they do fail, they do exist, they are not

    an insignificant number, its not

    their age or growing up on computers.

  • 26 of 27

    Observed Phenomena

    Impossible to differentiate JE user from any other competent user, until faced with the unfamiliar

    Just Enough users shed competencies as they become unnecessary

    Wide range of attitudes and experience related to exploring and performance

    Sense of not belonging

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    They look like anyone else, there are Just

    Enough in all experience levels. Are you one?

  • 27 of 27

    Thank you!

    A Haiku Just Enough is cool till unfamiliar and new safe routine un-do.

    Intrinsic novice, 87 years old

  • 28 of 27

    Just Enough User Lilly (2/9)

    When asked during the test about her feelings, Lilly shares, ohhh, why am I so stupid? How can I not know how to do this? I dread asking one of my kids because they have no patience.

    I really want computers to be as unobtrusive in my daily life as can be. Just Enough term sounds a bit lazy.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    A few more examples because theyre interesting

  • 29 of 27

    Just Enough User Marsha (4/9)

    Marsha says, I like to sign out, because then they, THEORETICALLY, arent watching me, but you know they are because advertisements for something I just looked at turn up on the *weirdest* pages.

    My feelings are that I would like to be more than that [JE user]. I would consider a "just enough" user to be one who uses only email, or only cruises the web for news, or only uses one application.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    A few more examples because theyre interesting

  • 30 of 27

    Just Enough User Mary Ann (5/9)

    When Im at work, Im so busy, that I dont have time to play around... I always have to do things in the fastest way possible, which doesnt allow exploration.

    My feelings are that I would like to be more than that. I do not want to be a "dinosaur. I sometimes can do a little more than just enough if I get up my courage to try."

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    A few more examples because theyre interesting

  • 31 of 27

    Just Enough User Miranda (6/9)

    It seems stupid and why should I waste my time staring at the computer.

    My feelings are, why would I spend any more time at the computer? I'd rather read a book or take a walk. Just enough is a perfect name.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    A few more examples because theyre interesting

  • 32 of 27

    Just Enough User Molly (7/9)

    This all is stupid. This is ridiculous. I dont know why anyone uses computers. I dont really care. I can basically do anything I need to do and I have [IT worker] and if I cant do anything I just call [IT worker] and cry.

    The term "Just Enough" is kind. I don't feel judged or "less than" (stupid).

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    A few more examples because theyre interesting

  • 33 of 27

    Just Enough User Olivia (8/9)

    [it] is really annoying not to be able to find these things that youre CLAIMING its on here. And its like, how are you supposed to know where it is.....[Im] irritated.

    Very proud that I can do it enuf [sic]. People should make more things easy for us.

    Introduction Study Design Motivation Observations Future Work Conclusions

    A few more examples because theyre interesting

  • 34 of 27

    Just Enough Users, a poem

    Just enough is satisficing, works out fine till new and strange. Computer changes make life messy, then its struggle stumble quit. Those interest people cruise along, probably nothing ever wrong. Curse you easy flexing user. Why cant I just find my cursor? Just Enough left me so helpless, when the web changed all my favorites. I just want to stay so lazy, stay low interest, stay low effort. OK sometimes then I stumble. Just Enough was not effective. Who to blame and who to curse? Designers! They must be the worst.

    Conclusion

    Would not be a Harriet project

    without a poem. Enjoy!