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  • 1. FLOOR FINISHES By: Zafar Mehdi

2. FLOOR Structural component made to provide a level surface . It is a horizontal sanitary surface that supports the occupants of a building, furniture and equipment. STRUCTURE OF A FLOOR. The floor is divided into three components Sub base Base concrete Floor finish 3. Cleanliness- The flooring should be capable of being cleaned easily, and it should be non-absorbent. Resistance- Should have effective resistance against absorption of oil, grease etc. Durability - The flooring should have sufficient resistance to wear, temperature changes, disintegration with time and decay. Tiles, marble, terrazzo, concrete, mosaic etc. are considered to be of best types. SELECTION OF FLOORING MATERIAL 4. Hardness- It should be sufficiently hard to resist indentation marks, imprints etc. likely to be caused by shifting of furniture, equipments etc. Maintenance - Flooring material should require least maintenance, repairs can be done easily. Tiles, marble, terrazzo, concrete etc. require less maintenance. SELECTION OF FLOORING MATERIAL 5. TYPES OF FLOORING STONE --- MARBLE, GRANITE, KOTA TILE (CERAMIC, VETRIFIED) TERRAZZO FLOORING BRICK ON EDGE FLOORING CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING TIMBER WOODEN BOARDSAND BLOCKS. PVC SHEETS FLOORING 6. STONE FLOORING There are following types of stone flooring 1-marble flooring 2-granite flooring 3-kota stone flooring Marble flooring Marble flooring is commonly is provided in places of worship and in public buildings having rich specification. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF MARBLE WHITE MARBLE 8. Green marble Pink marble makrana Black marble COLOURED MARBLE 9. The size of marble slabs to be used in flooring depends upon the pattern to be used. The slab for normal works are square or rectangular in shape and their thickness varies from 20 mm to 40mm. The flooring is laid on prepared sub grade of concrete or on RCC floor slab. Before laying of flooring, the sub grad4e in cleaned wetted and mopped properly. Then a layer of bedding mortar which can be 1:4 cement mortar(1 cement:4 coarse sand) or lime mortar is spread in average thickness of about 20mm under the area of each slab. The marble slab is laid on the top of the bedding mortar, pressed and tapped with wooden mallet. LAYING OF MARBLE FLOORING 10. Finishing of marble flooring 11. GRANITE FLOORING Granite has fine grains and it is harder than marble 12. TYPES OF GRANITE There are mainly three types of granite- GREEN GRANITE RED GRANITE BLACK GRANITE 13. KOTA STONE FLOORING Kota stone is commanly 25 to 40 mm thick. It should be hard, sound,dense and homogenious in texture. it is done to obtain smooth surface. 14. LAYING Same as that of marble Except that the edge of slab to be jointed shuold be buttered with grey cement. 15. Tiled Floors 16. Tiled Floors The usefulness of tiles as a flooring material is due to Their pleasant appearance. It eliminates the possibility of cracks. Quick execution of flooring Constructed from square, hexagonal or other shapes Made of clay ( pottery), cement concrete or terrazzo. Available in different sizes and thicknesses. Commonly used in residential houses, offices, schools, hospitals and other public buildings, for floor to be laid quickly. 17. BASE FOR TILE FLOORING Flooring may be laid on reasonably rigid base. Surface of the base shall be rough to form suitable key with bedding mortar. The base, about 35 to 50 mm below the level of the finished floor, to be properly graded and free from lose earth, dirt, dust and lumps. 18. LAYING OF TILES Laying of Bedding Mortar- For pre-finished ceramic tiles the bedding mortar used for this has the cement and coarse sand ration of 1:4 For glazed earthenware tile -the bedding mortar used for this has the cement and coarse sand ration of 1:3 Quantity of water should be such that it gives the motar sufficient amount of plasticity and also makes the mortar workable. Average thickness of bedding mortar = 20 mm Thickness under the tile = not less than 10 mm. Allowed to harden for 12 to 24 hours. Before laying the tiles, neat cement slurry is spread over the bedding mortar 19. Preparing the bed for laying the tile 20. LAYING OF TILES Tiles are laid flat, gently pressed into the bedding mortar with the help of wooden mallet. Before laying the tiles, thin paste of cement is applied on their sides, over the entire perimeter surface Next day Joints between adjacent tiles are cleaned of loose mortar etc. to a depth of 5 mm, using wire brush Then grouted with cement slurry of the tile colour. The slurry is also applied over the flooring. Then curing is done for seven days In Vitrified ceramic tiles wetting of the back surface before laying is adequate. In Glazed earthenware tiles - tiles are soaked in water for an hour before laying. 21. Cutting of the Tile 22. Fixing of the tile after the laying of tile 23. VITRIFIED TILES Pre polished tiles having glazed surface. Made up of same or homogenous material Made of White burning clay, specially suited to the verifications process. Has special qualities like compaction, hardness, strength and ultra low water absorption 24. VITRIFIED TILES MANUFACTURE White burning clay is fired at 1200 degree Celsius in 111.3m kiln. This firing yields a tile that confirms all the parameters. Clay is then mixed with high grade, pure white burning minerals. Base concrete in a ratio of 1:8:16 or 1:6:12. and the cement and sand ration1:4 or 1:5 Tiles laid with the help of wet cement paste Gap between the tiles grouted by powder mixture. 25. VITRIFIED TILES SIZES 290 by 290mm - Rs 45 per sq. ft. 400 by 400 mm - Rs 70 per sq. ft. 596 by 596 mm - Rs 75 per sq. ft. THICKNESS 8mm or 10 mm 26. VITRIFIED TILES MERITS Scratch resistant. Fire proof. More durable. Easy maintenance. Less slippery. More glossy and is widely used in commercial purposes DEMERITS Non stain resistant. Costlier 27. CERAMIC TILE Ceramic tiles are not homogeneous tiles. Flooring made of these tiles as a basic material, is known as ceramic tile flooring. MATERIALS Clay Sand Crushed stone 28. CERAMIC TILE FLOORING DEMERITS OF CERAMIC TILE Cannot be used in heavy traffic. Does not last for long time. MERITS Water resistant 29. CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING TILES These are available as (a) Plain cement and plain coloured tiles for general purpose (b) Terrazzo tiles with chips of varying sizes, and (c) Heavy duty plain cement / coloured tiles. SIZE: These are available in three sizes: 200x200x20 mm 250x250x22 mm 300x300x25 mm 30. Chequered tiles Laying of footpath Prep. of base CHEQUERED CEMENT CONCRETE TILES 31. CHEQUERED CEMENT CONCRETE TILES SIZES: Available in three sizes 200x200X22 mm, 250x250X22 mm, and 300x300x25 mm. RANGE OF DIMENSIONS: Shall not exceed I mm on length and breadth and 3 mm on thickness 32. CHEQUERED CEMENT CONCRETE TILES USED IN Footpaths Entrance Staircase of Public Buildings Foot Dyer Bridges Passages Driveways, etc. MANUFACTURE mixture of cement, natural aggregates, and colouring materials as required, by pressure process. Subjected to a pressure of not less than 140 kg/cm2 33. CHEQUERED CEMENT CONCRETE TILES TILE CHARACTERISTICS The center to center distance of chequers shall not be less than 5 mm and not more than 50 mm. The grooves shall be uniform and straight. The depth of grooves not be less than 3 mm. The edges of the tiles may be rounded. 34. COMPARISON OF CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF TILES Item CC ceramic tiles Vitrified tiles Common sizes 250x250, 300x300, 375x375, 400x400, 600x600, 600x400, 300x300, 450x450, 300x300 600x600, 600x400, 300x300, 450x450, 300x300 Thickness ( mm ) 20-25 8-10 Weight ( Kg/Sq M) 40-50 16-22 Water absorption (in%) 5-10 0-5 35. Mosaic Flooring is made up of marble chips laid on thin layer of concrete topping. Widely used in school, residential buildings, hospitals, offices and other public buildings. Terrazzo Is the specially prepared concrete surface containing cement and marble chips in proportion to 1:12 to 1:2 Terrazo and Mossaic flooring 36. MOSAIC FLOORING MATERIALS White cement or grey cement. Marble chips, size varies from 3mm to 6mm. Tint of color as desired PREPARATION The sub base is prepared in ratio 1:6:12. It is 3 inch deep A 30mm deep plain cement concrete is laid in the ratio of 1:2:4. 37. MOSAIC FLOORING The finishing layer is of cement and marble dust mixed with marble chips. Cement and marble dust are mixed in ratio of 5:l cement and marble dust with marble chips, mixed in ratio of 1:2. Then grinding finishes the floor. 38. Mosaic flooring 39. SECTION OF MOSAIC FLOORING Mosaic flooring Cement sand mortar Lime concrete 40. TERRAZZO FLOORING 41. The area is divided in to suitable panels of predetermined size and shape Strips are jointed to base concrete with help of cement mortar Thickness of strip may be 4 to 6 mm. Surface of base concrete is cleaned and wetted and then base concrete is laid in alternate panels. The surface is then cured for 7 days. It is then scrubbed and cleaned thoroughly and cement grout is applied again. After 6 days curing, final grinding is done with carborundom stone of 320-grid size. Then it is washed with dilute oxalic solution and finally the floor is polished with the machine 42. Stone chips Marble chips 43. Marble chips and cement Glass strip Cement concrete(1:2:4) Lime concrete Mortar screed SECTION THROUGH TERRAZO FLOORING 44. Colour Pigment to be used Proportion of Pigment Proportion of Cement Proportion of White Cement Red Red oxide of Iron One Unit 60ml 15-20% - Black Carbon Black One Unit 60ml 25-40% - Pink Red Oxide One Unit 60ml - 10% The propotion of terrago mix depends on the size of marble chips. But is generally taken 1:2 to 1:3 i.e. one part of cement to two or three pats of marble chips by volume. The total thickness of terrazo flooring is about 20mm. 4