Enlightenment Philosophy (Part I) and Enlightened Absolutism (Part II)

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Transcript of Enlightenment Philosophy (Part I) and Enlightened Absolutism (Part II)

  • Slide 1
  • Enlightenment Philosophy (Part I) and Enlightened Absolutism (Part II)
  • Slide 2
  • A Graphic Model of Enlightenment Philosophy KEY!- The Enlightenment = the application of the methods developed in the natural sciences (logic and reason) to the social sciences Fundamental Question Where does sovereignty come from and who should wield it? God? People- Social Contract Theory But what is the proper social contract? Conservative- Hobbes Absolute Monarchy- people are bad- Interregnum Moderates (majority!) Montesquieu and Voltaire Enlightened Absolutism- Perhaps some breaks are needed on Absolute Power Prevent Tyranny? Checks and Balances. Freedom of Speech. More Radical- Locke Constitutional Monarchy/Republic Natural Rights, Right of Revolution Out There Rousseau Direct Democracy? Noble Savage. General Will. Education
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  • Key Ideas of the Enlightenment No Divine Right Why not? Not based on ________________ Social Contract Theory Humans enter freely into a contract with each other to form a government in order to create order and protect their rights Natural Law Classical foundations Gravity- Newton . _____- philosophes
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  • Hobbes People are bad If people are good, why do we have locks on our doors? An absolute monarch is needed to save people from themselves Key work- Leviathan I. Conservative Philosophes
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  • Change will come through Enlightened Absolutism (well come back to this) Why maintain absolutist power? people are dumb they need a strong ruler A democracy would put the power in the hands of this mob (most reject democracy) However, that doesnt mean that a ruler shouldnt make changes to society Freedom of religion? Outlaw torture? Fair taxes, etc.? Also, the alternative is bloody revolution to remove monarchs that is no fun! II. Moderate Philosophes The majority of philosophes
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  • In this Enlightened Absolutism, how does society defend against tyranny? Montesquieu checks and balances Not in favor of full democracy (nobility, but not the mob!) checks king Voltaire freedom of speech reason will eventually triumph if it is unrestrained Censorship, particularly in France, results in satire and under the cloak bookselling Before the French Revolution in France, it was supposedly not hard to buy pornography about the royal family Examples of satire Persian Letters Culture is relative! Galileo- Dialogues on Two Chief Systems of the World
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  • Voltaires Wisdom (I) E E E Every man is guilty of all the good he didnt do. G G G God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. I I I If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. I I I It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. L L L Love truth and pardon error.
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  • Voltaires Wisdom (II) J J J Judge of a man by his questions rather than by his answers. M M M Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue that makes the difference. P P P Prejudice is opinion without judgment. T T T The way to become boring is to say everything. I I I I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.
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  • More Voltaire Candide Pokes fun at irrationality Spanish earthquake anecdote Auto da fe
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  • III. Some philosophes were bit more extreme Thus, democracy (Republic or Constitutional monarchy) John Locke People are basically good and will learn from and correct mistakes Natural Rights Inalienable rights conferred on all humans at birth Universal public Education (why?) Right of Rebellion
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  • More Locke John Locke- Tabula Rasa Babies are a blank slate. Their culture is not congenital, but learned. If I had been moved to Saudi Arabia when I was a month old, what religion would I be now?
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  • IV. Others Were Very Extreme Rousseau Hippie Favorite of Revolutionaries Society is the source of all problems- noble savage idea Ultimate personal freedom is needed Reason can be misleading emotion, spontaneity Education must be guided by those to be educated General Will should guide the government Will of the people, but the majority doesnt always know what this is Sometimes leaders need to guide the people Close to direct democracy Get rid of existing system completely Some have blamed him for Hitler/Mussolini How/why?
  • Slide 13
  • Enlightened Absolutism (Part II)
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  • Unrepentant Louis XV (France) Weakened by the rise of Parlement during his regency Courts of nobles/bourgeois Had the power of remonstration At first Louis XV was weak against this group He had to back off attempted tax increases Finally, Louis XV, who is pleasure loving, hands off power to Maupeou, who crushes the Parlements Louis XVI Wants to be loved Backs off Maupeous harsh stances towards Parlements, bourgeois, and nobles
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  • Somewhat Enlightened (Some Change) Reasoned reform, but guided by monarchs More rational bureaucracy, tax collection, courts, laws, punishments for crimes, etc. Religious toleration of all Christians Often done (cynically) to maintain power in European political climate Examples Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, Maria Theresa
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  • Frederick the Great Frederick the Great- Basics Interesting childhood v adulthood I am the Servant of the State Should remind you of? Prussia becomes a dominant European power after eating up Silesia and parts of Poland Frederick the Great- Enlightened aspects freedom of the press (personal friends with Voltaire), religious toleration, honest bureaucracy Limitations? serfdom remains no
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  • Catherine the Great Basics Complicated coup detat Great success in completing Peter the Greats foreign policy Gobbled up a big chunk of Poland Got land on the Black Sea by fighting Ottoman Turks Enlightened Policies Cultural westernization as opposed to Peter the Greats military westernization Encyclopedia, humane treatment of criminals, some freedom of press and religion, new law codes (rational) Backs off of Enlightenment in the face of a peasant (cossack-led) rebellion my true allies are the nobles No end to serfdom
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  • Maria Theresa Maria Theresa (Austria) Modernizes mainly to become strong enough to resist Prussia Rational govt is more efficient Attacked papal influence despite her own devout faith
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  • Silesia - 1772 - 1793 - 1795
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  • Russian Expansionism in the Late 18c
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  • Very (too?) Radical Additional Reforms Religious toleration even of non-Christians Freed serfs Taxation of nobles Attacks and humbles the Catholic Church Joseph II His people (ironically?) hated these reforms Too much too fast His successor (Leopold II) had to undo all of these reforms
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  • Joseph II of Austria (r. 1765-1790) 1741 - 1790. His mother was Maria Theresa.
  • Slide 23
  • Hansen AP Euro Lecture Outline Part I. Enlightenment Philosophy and Enlightened Absolutists Key Ideas of the Enlightenment No _______________________ Why not? Not based on ________________ Social Contract Theory Humans enter freely into a ___________________________ to form a government in order to _________ and protect their rights Natural Law Classical foundations Gravity- Newton . _____- philosophes I. Conservative Philosophe Hobbes People are _______ If people are good, why do we have _______________? An absolute monarch is needed to _________________ _____________________________ Key work- _____________________ II. Moderate Philosoph _______ Enlightenment Philosoph were moderates Change will come through ________________________ (well come back to this) Why maintain absolutist power? people are _______ they need ___________________ A democracy would put the power in the hands ______________ (most reject _____________) However, that doesnt mean that a ruler shouldnt make changes to society Freedom of ___________? __________________? Fair taxes, etc.? Also, the alternative is ______________________ to remove monarchs that ________________! In this Enlightened Absolutism, how does society ___________ tyranny? Montesquieu ______________________________________ Not in favor of full democracy (_________, but not the ____________!) checks king Voltaire freedom of speech reason will eventually triumph if _____________________________________ Censorship, particularly in France, resulted in satire and ______ _______________________________ bookselling Before the French Revolution in France, it was supposedly not hard to ______________ about the royal family Examples of satire Persian Letters ____________________! Galileo- Dialogues on Two Chief Systems of the World More Voltaire Candide Pokes fun at ____________________ Spanish earthquake anecdote - _________________ __________________________________________ Auto da fe III. Some Philosophes were a bit more extreme Thus, _____________ (Republic or Constitutional monarchy) John Locke People are basically _____________and will learn from and ______________________________ Natural Rights ___________________ conferred on all humans at birth Universal public Education (why?- _____________ ___________________________________) Right of _______________ Tabula Rasa Babies are a __________________. Their culture is not congenital, but learned. If I had been moved to Saudi Arabia when I was _________________, what _____________would I b