CHAPTER 18 Eighteenth Century –War and Change. What is Enlightened Absolutism?

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Transcript of CHAPTER 18 Eighteenth Century –War and Change. What is Enlightened Absolutism?

  • Slide 1
  • CHAPTER 18 Eighteenth Century War and Change
  • Slide 2
  • What is Enlightened Absolutism?
  • Slide 3
  • France SSaw an economic revival as Enlightenment grew LLouis XIV left France with enormous debts LLouis XV was lazy and weak MMore inclined to spend time with Madame de Pompadour LLouis XVI (XVs grandson) married Marie Antoinette NNot capable of fixing economy MMarie denied as a wife and falls into court intrigues
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  • Great Britain St George, EnglandSt Andrew, Scotland Great Britain St Patrick, Ireland United Kingdom 1802
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  • Great Britain 11714- Queen Anne, last Stuart ruler, died CCrown offered to Protestant rulers of German state of Hanover GGeorge I (1714-1727) Didnt speak English GGeorge II (1727-1760) Had no familiarity with British system, chief ministers handled Parliament William Pitt the Elder (PM) won Canada & India during 7 Years War GGeorge III (1760-1820) Occasional bouts of insanity, replaced PM William Pitt the Elder and angered the People and the Parliament after losing Americas
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  • Decline of the Dutch Economic Decline Infighting between regents and the House of Orange Burghers calling themselves Patriots- wanted democratic reforms Prussian troops came to protect the monarchs
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  • Prussia- rise of army and bureaucracy Frederick William I (1713-1740) General Directory Supervised military, police, financial affairs Code: obedience, honor and service to the king Closely supervised by Frederick William Strict class stratification Nobility & landed aristocracy Junkers Still had large estates with serfs Junkers had monopoly on officer corps of army
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  • Prussia- rise of army and bureaucracy AArmy 4 th largest behind France, Russia, Austria Nobility as officers created a close bond between two Prussia was an army with a country FFrederick II the Great (1740- 1786) Best educated & cultured monarch Invited Voltaire to live at his court Single code of laws for territories No torture Limited freedom of speech, press, religion Enlarged military further and used it!
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  • Catherine the Great GGerman princess BBelieved in philosophes but knew she would alienate the nobility if she implemented reforms like Joseph II SStrengthened the landholding class at expense of serfs
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  • Poland 1772-1795 Polish king elected by nobles thus restricting his power Instead of fighting with each other, Austria, Russia & Prussia divided Poland After the heroic but failed Rebellion under Thaddeus Kosciuszko
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  • Austria & the Habsburgs Maria Theresa 10 surviving children Divided Austria and Bohemian lands into ten provinces, subdivided into districts Administered by royal officers making more centralized government Enlarged military
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  • Austria & Habsburgs Joseph II Driven by reason Abolished serfdom, gave serfs hereditary rights, outlawed death penalty, equality before law EVERYONE found issue with reforms Alienated nobility & church Serfs couldnt understand new laws here lies Joseph II, who was unfortunate in everything he undertook Successors undid everything he accomplished
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  • Prussia, Austria, Russia, Britain, and France dominate - in what area were they most likely to compete for land and power?
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  • War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
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  • Maria Theresa allied with Great Britain France took Madras in India from British, Brits took French forts in America Peace Treaty of Aix- la-Chapelle returned all land but Silesia
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  • Seven Years War (1756-1763)
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  • 7 Years War
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  • War in Europe BBritish & Prussians vs. Austrians, Russians, French FFrederick the Great able to defeat Austria, Russia, France BBut he was gradually worn down from surrounding powers TTsarina Elizabeth of Russia died, Peter III admired Frederick the Great and withdrew, ending the war PPeace of Hubertusburg 1763 AAll occupied territories returned AAustria recognized they lost Silesia
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  • War in India Great War for the Empire Robert Clive (1725- 1774) won the battle for the Madras Treaty of Paris, 1763 French withdrew and India remained under the British
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  • French and Indian War TTwo areas of contention WWaterways of Gulf of Saint Lawrence Forts of Louisbourg, Great Lakes, Lake Champlain OOhio River Valley FFrench moved South from Quebec, North from Louisiana along Mississippi, cutting of British expansion EEngland felt they must destroy French colonial empire if they will grow cconcentrated on American theatre
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  • FFrench had greater numbers BBritish won decisive naval battles TTreaty of Paris (1763) FFrance ceded Canada and lands East of Mississippi SSpain (Frances ally) gave up Florida FFrance gave Louisiana to Spain
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  • Points for participation European Life Seminar
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  • How did armies change between 1740-1780? French 190,000 300,000 Prussian 83,000 200,000 Austrian 108,000 282,000 Russian 130,000 290,000
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  • What was the composition of the armies? Officers from landed aristocracy Middle class not allowed in higher ranks Rank-and-file soldiers came from lower classes Because peasants were needed in fields, many hired soldiers from Switzerland and Germany England didnt have a standing army Britain and Dutch built up navies
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  • Why didnt bigger armies lead to more war? Europe was less driven by ideology like during religious period Ideological wars are more violent and destructive Armies depended on tax money so monarchs were loathe to spend that investment Costliness of war and technology created barriers
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  • How did child-rearing change? Childhood began to be viewed as a phase of human development Children dressed in more comfortable cloths Primogeniture- treating son better came under attack Toys specifically for children appeared Changes limited to nobility Infanticide and abandonment common in lower classes
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  • How did agriculture change? New plants replaced leaving fields fallow Alfalfa, turnips, clover return nitrogen Jethro Tull invented a seed planter in rows Potatoes and corn Potato staple of the poor Large landowners enclosed old open fields Led to demise of village farming, small farmers became tenant farmers
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  • How did finance change? Public and private banks and acceptance of paper notes made expansion of credit possible Bank of England (1694) made loans banknotes issued giving credit Government bonds paying interest created notion of national debt outside of monarchy We can now raise more for militaries
  • Slide 31
  • How did Industry Change? Cottage Industry- textiles were produced by putting out or domestic system where rural workers would work raw materials in their home Cotton from slave labor increased production and led to innovation Trade increased with new world