Enhancing Climate Resilience of Water Sources in Bhutan · PDF file Project/Program Title:...

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  • Enhancing Climate Resilience of Water Sources in Bhutan

    Bhutan | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

    22 June 2018

  • Please submit the completed form to [email protected], using the following name convention in the subject line and file name: “CN-[Accredited Entity or Country]-YYYYMMDD”

    Project/Program Title: Enhancing Climate Resilience of Water Sources in Bhutan

    Country(ies): BHUTAN

    National Designated Authority(ies) (NDA):

    Gross National Happiness Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan

    Executing Entities:

    Accredited Entity(ies) (AE):

    National Environment Commission (NEC) in partnership with Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoAF), National Centre for Hydrology & Meteorology (NCHM), Ministry of Health, Ministry of Works and Human Settlement (MoWHS), and Local Government.


    Date of first submission/ version number: [2018-06-22] [V.1]

    Date of current submission/ version number [2018-06-22] [V.1]

    mailto:[email protected]

  • Simplified Approval Process CONCEPT NOTE Template V.1 GREEN CLIMATE FUND | PAGE 1 OF 4

    A. Project / Programme Information (max. 1 page) A.1. Project or programme ☒ Project

    ☐ Programme A.2. Public or private sector

    ☒ Public sector ☐ Private sector

    A.3. Indicate the result areas for the project/programme

    Mitigation: Reduced emissions from:

    ☐ Energy access and power generation

    ☐ Low emission transport

    ☐ Buildings, cities and industries and appliances

    ☐ Forestry and land use Adaptation: Increased resilience of:

    ☒ Most vulnerable people and communities

    ☒ Health and well-being, and food and water security

    ☒ Infrastructure and built environment

    ☒ Ecosystem and ecosystem services

    A.4. Estimated mitigation impact (tCO2eq over lifespan)

    A.5. Estimated adaptation impact (number of direct beneficiaries and % of population)

    5 of 20 Districts in Bhutan. Maximum of 25% of population < 175,000

    A.6. Indicative total project cost (GCF + co-finance)

    Amount: USD 19m

    A.7. Indicative GCF funding requested (max 10M)

    Amount: USD 10 million

    A.8. Mark the type of financial instrument requested for the GCF funding

    ☒ Grant ☐ Loan ☐ Guarantee Other: specify___________________

    A.9. Estimated duration of project/ programme:

    a) disbursement period: 2018- 2023 b) repayment period, if applicable: N/A

    A.10. Estimated project/ Programme lifespan

    10 years, if sinking fund approach adopted.

    A.11. Is funding from the Project Preparation Facility needed?

    Yes ☐ No ☒

    A.12. Confirm overall ESS category is minimum to no risk1

    ☒ C or I-3

    A.13. Provide rational for the ESS categorization (100 words)

    The main focus of the project is the revival and protection of water sources under the impacts of climate change. Small scale infrastructure development is not expected to have negative consequences. There are three cases where there could be minor social or environmental impacts:

    • Disputed ownership of sources (all water resources are vested in the State safeguard mechanisms which are included in the Water Act of Bhutan, 2011 and the Water Regulation of Bhutan, 2014): and

    • Land access issues for small scale water supply infrastructure (normal negotiation procedures and alternatives apply as described in the Water Regulation of Bhutan, 2014).

    A.14. Has the CN been shared with the NDA? Yes ☒ No ☐ A.15. Confidentiality

    2 ☐ Confidential ☒ Not confidential

    A.16. Project/Programme rationale, objectives and approach of programme/project (max 100 words)

    Brief summary of the problem statement and climate rationale, objective and selected implementation approach, including the executing entity(ies) and other implementing partners, including who will be implementing the measures to manage the environmental and social risks. Across the Himalaya, spring and other local water sources are drying up, seasonally or completely, often attributable to rising temperatures, reduced spring and winter precipitation and declining snow cover area. In Bhutan, further climate change will likely impact water availability to rural and urban communities, whose residences are typically high above the major rivers and streams. The project objectives are to:

    1 Refer to the SAP ESS Guidelines 2 Concept notes (or sections of) not marked as confidential may be published in accordance with the Information Disclosure Policy (Decision B.12/35) and the Review of the Initial Proposal Approval Process (Decision B.17/18).

    http://www.greenclimate.fund/documents/20182/184476/GCF_B.12_32_-_Decisions_of_the_Board___Twelfth_Meeting_of_the_Board__8_10_March_2016.pdf/020edfa1-53b2-4abf-af78-fccf5628db2a http://www.greenclimate.fund/documents/20182/751020/GCF_B.17_18_-_Review_of_the_initial_proposal_approval_process.pdf/559e7b1c-7f34-44dd-9eff-8fa235714312

  • Simplified Approval Process CONCEPT NOTE Template V.1 GREEN CLIMATE FUND | PAGE 2 OF 4

    • identify and assess declining spring-sheds, sources and catchments; • implement recharge measures to ensure climate-proofed water supply.

    The project will be implemented by the NEC in partnership with the GNHC, MoAF (Watershed Management Division), MoH, MoWHS, NCHM and local governments. Oversight and risk management will be undertaken by the NEC. --------- GNHC: Gross National Happiness Commission NEC: National Environment Commission MoAF: Ministry of Agriculture and Forests MoH: Ministry of Health MoWHS: Ministry of Works and Human Settlement

    B. Project / Programme details (max. 3 pages) B.1. Context and Baseline (max. 1 page) Describe as relevant the climate vulnerabilities and impacts, GHG emissions profile, and mitigation and adaptation needs that the prospective intervention is envisaged to address. Bhutan is a net carbon sink with a sequestration of 6.3 million tons of per year, thanks to extensive forest cover (~60% of land area), most of which falls under a network of protected areas, covering around 51% of the country. A recently successful GCF awardee “Bhutan for Life” targets the sequestration of an additional 35.1 million tons of CO2 equivalent over its 14-year life. • Regional GCM and RCM modelling indicate a rise in mean temperatures of between

  • Simplified Approval Process CONCEPT NOTE Template V.1 GREEN CLIMATE FUND | PAGE 3 OF 4

    • Climate change assessment in Bhutan is challenging, due to the small size, dissected and extreme topography, and limited spatial and temporal coverage of climatic and hydrological data (1992 to date). Although NCHM has strong capabilities in flood warning, forecasting and weather forecasting, it needs strengthening in climate modelling, scenario analysis and all aspects of catchment hydrology.

    • There are on-going challenges in coordinating the efforts and impacts of the different agencies responsible for water related services in Bhutan. The Water Resources Coordination Unit (NEC) is seriously understaffed (6 people) and the establishment of a larger, coordinating body (a National Water Authority) is under consideration.

    • Target per capita water consumption is relatively high with 45 litres/day in rural areas (urban – no data), but actual availability is lower as most rivers are in valley bottoms and settlements are located on hill tops and slopes. Thus, rural communities are dependent on small, localised and vulnerable sources and access to water is a major constraint.

    • Water is important for the country as it generates one-quarter of the government revenue from sale of electricity; it aligns with its green economy policy. However, the government is yet to build the necessities for water management in terms of reliable data generation and sharing, HR and institution capacity, coordination mechanism among stakeholders, need to look at water management from source to users and the conveyance in-between.

    • In some parts of Bhutan, it is expected that there is a lack of community awareness about some or all of the following: climate change, drying springs, restorative measures and the corollary value of demand management.

    B.2. Project / Programme description (max. 1 page) Describe the expected set of components and activities to address the above barriers identified that will lead to the expected outcomes. Activity 1 Assessment, revival and climate proofing of small and medium water sources for water supply and sanitation 1. Identifying remediable sources: inevitably investigation is required since hydrogeology and climate are the key factors

    governing the recharge of spring and other small sources (lakes, ponds and streams). Investigation of spring sources is not a preparatory activity, or water supply business as usual, but an essential action that is needed to allow proven technologies to be upscaled effectively. This is because a springshed is defined by hydrogeology and may encompass two or more river/stream catchments. The location of effective recharge areas and spring lines depends on the connectivity, and dip and strike of geological layers. • Survey, inventory and mapping (nationwide preferable); • Establishment of simple baseline flow monitoring at representative sources