Enhancing Resilience in the Horn of Africa

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    1314 DECEMBER 2011 | WASHINGTON, DC

    IFPRI A member of the CGIAR Consortium

    Derek Headey and Adam Kennedy

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    INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE2033 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006-1002 USATel.: +1 202-862-5600 Skype: ifprihomeofficeFax: +1 202-467-4439 Email: [email protected]

    www.ifpri.org

    Copyright 2012 Interna onal Food Policy Research Ins tute. For permission to republish, contact [email protected] .

    The views expressed herein do not necessarily re ect the policies or opinions of the cosponsoring or suppor ngorganiza ons of the conference.

    ISBN 978- 0-89629-797-5

    DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896297977

    ABOUT USAIDSince 1961, USAID has been the principal U.S. agency to extend assistance to countriesrecovering from disaster, trying to escape poverty, and engaging in democra c reforms.U.S. foreign assistance has always had the twofold purpose of furthering Americasinterests while improving lives in the developing world. The Agency carries out U.S.foreign policy by promo ng human progress at the same me it expands stable, free so -cie es, creates markets and trade partners for the United States, and fosters good willabroad. Spending less than one-half of 1 percent of the federal budget, USAID works in

    over 100 countries to: promote economic prosperity; strengthen democracy and goodgovernance; improve global health, food security, environmental sustainability andeduca on; help socie es prevent and recover from con icts; and provide humanitarianassistance in the wake of natural and man-made disasters.

    ABOUT IFPRIThe Interna onal Food Policy Research Ins tute (IFPRI) was established in 1975 toiden fy and analyze alterna ve na onal and interna onal strategies and policies formee ng food needs of the developing world on a sustainable basis, with par cularemphasis on low-income countries and on the poorer groups in those countries. Whilethe research e ort is geared to the precise objec ve of contribu ng to the reduc on

    of hunger and malnutri on, the factors involved are many and wide-ranging, requiringanalysis of underlying processes and extending beyond a narrowly de ned food sector.The Ins tutes research program re ects worldwide collabora on with governmentsand private and public ins tu ons interested in increasing food produc on andimproving the equity of its distribu on. Research results are disseminated topolicymakers, opinion formers, administrators, policy analysts, researchers, and othersconcerned with na onal and interna onal food and agricultural policy.

    IFPRI is a member of the CGIAR Consor um.

    mailto:[email protected]://www.ifpri.org/mailto:[email protected]:[email protected]://www.ifpri.org/mailto:[email protected]
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    Derek Headey and Adam Kennedy

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    CONTENTSLETTER FROM USAID ADMINISTRATOR RAJIV SHAHINTRODUCTIONLIVELIHOODS IN THE HORN OF AFRICA: CONTEXTRESILIENCE 101: DEFINING AND FRAMING RESILIENCE

    Building Resilience through the Productive Sa ety Net ProgrammeTHE IMPLICATIONS OF RESILIENCE

    EXPLORING THE EVIDENCE BASE IN FIVE DOMAINSEconomic Growth and Trans ormationNatural Resource ManagementHealth and NutritionSocial DimensionGovernance, Institutions, and Building Peace

    MOVING THE AGENDA FORWARDREFERENCESPLENARY SESSION NOTES

    Resilience 101Arid and Marginal Lands Recovery Consortium (ARC) Program in KenyaDisaster Risk Reduction/Hyogo Framework Pastoralist Livelihood Initiative in EthiopiaKeynote AddressThe Nairobi Strategy: Enhanced Partnership to Eradicate Drought EmergenciesConsensus Building and the Productive Sa ety Net ProgrammeThe Links between Resilience, Confict, and Food SecuritySome Lessons rom Ethiopias PSNPThe Value Chain ModelDFIDs New Resilience AgendaEarly Lessons rom the Graduation ModelMoving Forward in the Horn

    BREAKOUT SESSION NOTESDAY 1: BREAKOUT SESSIONS BY SECTOR

    Natural ResourcesSocial FactorsHealth and NutritionGovernance and InstitutionsEconomics

    DAY 2: MIXED GROUP BREAKOUT SESSIONSStrategies and Policies to Build Resilience

    WORKSHOP AGENDA

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    Dear Partners,

    In 2011, the Horn of Africa faced the worst drought in 60 years, leading to emergency food insecurity levels in Kenya and Ethiopia andfamine in Somalia. At the height of the drought, more than 13 million people across the region required humanitarian assistance, and morethan 700,000 refugees ed Somalia.

    At the same me, many communi es showed resilience in the face of these harsh condi ons, demonstra ng e ec ve coping strategies thatreduced the economic impact of the drought and enabled them to maintain a su cient degree of food security, health, and well-being.

    It is in this context that the United States Agency for Interna onal Development (USAID) hosted a workshop tled, Enhancing Resilience inthe Horn of Africa: An Evidence Based Workshop on Strategies for Success. The workshop, held December 1314, 2011, at the MadisonHotel in Washington, DC, was co-hosted by USAIDs Bureau for Democracy, Con ict and Humanitarian Assistance, Bureau for Food Security,Bureau for Africa, and Bureau for Policy, Planning, and Learning. It was facilitated by USAIDs O ce of Food for Peace-funded TOPS program,as well as the Interna onal Food Policy Research Ins tute.

    Providing a pla orm for learning, the workshop iden ed successful strategies, enabling condi ons, and policies for strengthening resil -ience, as well as approaches that have been less successful. The workshop was principally designed to ini ate a dialogue among donors,private voluntary organiza ons, researchers and academics, and the private sector on evidence-based strategies for enhancing resilience inthe Horn of Africa. The dialogue centered on several key issues:

    What is meant by resilience and resilience programming? What are successful strategies and enabling condi ons that can help build resilience, and what lessons can be learned from previous

    e orts? What value does resilience programming have in mi ga ng the e ects of shocks, speeding recovery from them, and building path -

    ways out of poverty? What are the linkages between resilience and economic growth?

    More than 180 par cipants with diverse backgrounds and disciplines, including agriculture, livestock, nutri on, con ict, gender, governance,economics, and health, par cipated in the workshop. The format consisted of formal presenta ons and more informal roundtable and ple -

    nary discussions to maximize par cipa on and draw from the groups broad base of knowledge. All material from the workshop, includingvideos and Power Points of the plenaries, are available at the workshop: h p://agrilinks.kdid.org/library/enhancing-resilience-horn-africa-evidence-based-workshop-strategies-success-agenda.

    This workshop is part of our Agencys larger e ort to help countries and communi es withstand increasingly frequent and severe environ -mental shocks. USAID recently launched a planning process to more e ec vely link our humanitarian assistance and development programsto enhance resilience in the Horn of Africa and elsewhere. In addi on, we are suppor ng a newly established consor um of research ins tu

    ons, interna onal organiza ons, and nongovernmental partners to provide analy cal support for country and regional level programming,including the development of the common program framework for ending drought emergencies in the Horn of Africa.

    In support of the resilience agenda for the Horn of Africa, USAID, together with the African Union, the Intergovernmental Authority onDevelopment, and a number of other development partners, co-hosted a Joint Ministerial and High-Level Development Partners Mee ngon Drought Resilience in the Horn of Africa. The mee ng took place on April 4, 2012, in Nairobi, Kenya, and demonstrated commitment tocountry-led, regional level programming on ending drought emergencies in the Horn of Africa. It resulted in the forma on of a new partner -shipthe Global Alliance for Ac on for Drought Resilience and Growthto strengthen coordina on within the development community,spur economic growth, build new partnerships with the private sector, and reduce food insecurity. The role of the alliance will be nalizedwith development partners over the coming months.

    Across USAID, we are examining our policies and opera ons to see how we can more e ec vely build resilience, a key Agency priority. It isour hope that these workshop proceedings, which combine research ndings with discussion points from the December workshop sessions,will contribute to the growing body of evidence on strategies for enhancing resilience in the Horn of Africa and help to focus collec ve ef -forts on the resilience agenda. We look forward to con nuing to work with our partners and nding new ways to collaborate.

    Sincerely,

    Rajiv Shah

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    The arid and semi-arid lowlands(ASALs) of Djibou , Ethiopia, Kenya,and Somalia are geographically, lin -guis cally, and economically very dis nctfrom the highland areas of these coun -tries. While the highland economies arelargely dominated by se led crop produc