Ebola Virus Disease Update

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Ebola Virus Disease Update. Eric L. Jerome, MD, FASN, FACP AMHE Foundation. A deadly Disease. Solon, the sage of Athens, argued that one couldn't judge a person's happiness until one knew the manner of his death. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ebola Virus Disease Update

  • A deadly DiseaseSolon, the sage of Athens, argued that one couldn't judge a person's happiness until one knew the manner of his death. The Greeks recognized that we're all destined to die and that the best we can hope for is a death that benefits our family or humanity.

    NEJM -9/25/2014- Josh Mugele

  • EVDThe Ebola outbreak that is ravaging West Africa. More than 400 health care workers in West Africa have been infected with Ebola during the current outbreak, and 233 had died as of 10/8. More than 8,900 people in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone have contracted Ebola since March, according to the World Health Organization, making this the biggest outbreak on record. More than 4,400 people have died.

  • Ebola cases in health care workers in West AfricaSource: WHO

    416 InfectedBlue

    233Deaths( red)Health Workers infected and Mortality

  • Numbers of Confirmed and Probable Ebola Cases Reported Weekly from Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia from December 23, 2013, to August 11, 2014.Briand S et al. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1180-1183.

  • Districts Affected by Ebola Virus Disease in Three Countries in Africa.WHO Ebola Response Team. N Engl J Med 2014. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1411100

  • Public Health CrisisPublic health interventions including characterizing the outbreak epidemiology, contact tracing, social mobilization, and public education are essential steps in stopping Ebola and will ultimately save many more lives than can be saved by individual patient care. The high mortality associated with Ebola, however, threatens the ability to perform many of these tasks.NEJM 9/2014 Lamontagne F

  • Structure of Ebolavirus.Feldmann H. N Engl J Med 2014. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1405314

  • FiloviridaeEbola is caused by infection with a virus of the family of Filoviridae genus Ebolavirus. There are five identified Ebola virus species, four of which are known to cause disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Ta Forest virus (Ta Forest ebolavirus, formerly Cte dIvoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans.

  • TransmissionThe Ebola virus infects cells by attaching itself to the cell receptor, punching into the cell membrane and injecting a viral RNA in the cytoplasm. The RNA instructs the nucleus DNA to make viral copies using the cell machinery. The new copies of the Ebola virus are released into the blood stream to infect other cells. The virus can be found in all body fluids and skin.

  • Ebola Virus Disease Fatal cases were associated with severe abnormalities of liver and kidney function, marked CD8 lymphocytopenia and elevated plasma levels of several cytokines and chemokines (IL-1, IL-1RA, IL-6, MCP-1, MCSF and MIP-1). Higher levels of sCD40L were seen in patients who survived compared with those who died. (sCD40L is a member of the TNF superfamily that has prothrombotic and pro-inflammatory activities.)

  • Ebola Virus DiseaseIn transgenic mice, I-B-mediated blockade of NF-B-activation had no effect on the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma or in the four target organs, but biomarkers of endothelial activation (ICAM-1,VCAM-1) in these organs were reduced. As a result, multi-organ failure did not develop and survival improved. Thus, blockade of NF-B activation preserved endothelial barrier integrity, demonstrating that endothelial cells were the targets, not necessarily the origin, of sepsis-induced inflammation.

  • Clinical symptomes EVD presents much as many other viral infections do, with nonspecific signs such as fever, asthenia, body aches but a rash. After a few days, however, the predominant clinical syndrome is a severe gastrointestinal illness with vomiting, hematemesis and diarrhea. Volume depletion with a range of metabolic disorders ensues, and hypovolemic shock ultimately occurs.

  • Ebola Virus Disease Evidence of endothelial activation (elevated levels of sICAM) was observed in those with hemorrhagic disease, and abnormal elevations in biomarkers of coagulopathy (thrombomodulin, Ddimer) were seen in those who died.These observations of endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy confirm the findings of other studies of clinical EVD and experimental Ebola virus infection of non-human primates . Moreover, similar findings are seen in experimental and human sepsis .

  • Diagnosis /TreatmentBlood test to detect the Virus ( Elisa, Western blot)

    No treatment available

    In US Zmapp a cocktail of Antibodies

  • TransfusionsWHO issued new interim guidance on "Use of convalescent whole blood or plasma collected from patients recovered from Ebola virus disease for transfusion during outbreaks". The document is addressed to national health authorities and blood transfusion services.

  • Fluid Ressucitation is Key Intravenous catheters, fluids, and electrolyte replacement are readily available but thus far are being used much too sparingly. When patients can no longer drink, placement of an intravenous catheter and delivery of appropriate replacement solutions are required, but we have seen many critically ill patients die without adequate intravenous fluid resuscitation

  • RecoveryRecovery from Ebola depends on good supportive care and the patients immune response. People who recover from Ebola infection develop antibodies that last for at least 10 years, possibly longer. Do not know people who recover are immune for life or if they can become infected with a different species of Ebola. Some people who have recovered from Ebola have developed long-term complications, such as joint and vision problems.

  • International AidsMedecins Sans FrontieresChinese Field HospitalsUS Military- CDCFrench active in GuineePartners in HealthCuban Doctors are in fieldsRussian and British group

  • For more Info

    Centers for Disease Control and Preventionwww.cdc.gov/vhf/ebolaCDC latest advice focus on PPEWith no skin exposure

    *Numbers of Confirmed and Probable Ebola Cases Reported Weekly from Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia from December 23, 2013, to August 11, 2014.Data are from the WHO.*Figure 1. Districts Affected by Ebola Virus Disease in Three Countries in Africa.The map shows the districts that have been affected by Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Gray circles indicate the total numbers of confirmed and probable Ebola cases reported in each affected district, and red circles the number reported during the 21 days leading up to September 14, 2014.*Structure of Ebolavirus.Shown is an ebolavirus particle and its characteristic filamentous shape. The negative-strand RNA genome is found in the center of particles in an encapsidated form as the nucleocapsid, together with the polymerase complex. Embedded in the virus membrane are trimeric glycoprotein spikes. Beneath the membrane is the matrix protein, which facilitates morphogenesis and budding of virus particles. The image is based on Protein Data Bank identifiers 3CSY and 1ES6 (www.rcsb.org) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank identifier EMD-2043 (www.emdatabank.org).The abbreviation ssRNA denotes single-stranded RNA.*