DWDM Fundamentals

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Page 1: DWDM Fundamentals

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FUNDAMENTALS FUNDAMENTALS OF DWDMOF DWDM

Course Code:Course Code:

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Class Round-Robin Class Round-Robin IntroductionsIntroductions

• Participant IntroductionsParticipant Introductions– NameName– PositionPosition– Location (city)Location (city)– How long with Reliance Infocom?How long with Reliance Infocom?– How long in the Telecommunications How long in the Telecommunications

Industry?Industry?• IndiaIndia• InternationalInternational

– ExpectationsExpectations

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Course LogisticsCourse Logistics• PowerPoint PresentationPowerPoint Presentation

– Follow along with the trainerFollow along with the trainer• Student GuideStudent Guide

– Glossary of TerminologyGlossary of Terminology– Support informationSupport information

LogisticsLogistics• Breaks Breaks • ToiletsToilets• LunchLunch• Water and soft drinksWater and soft drinks• Mobile phonesMobile phones

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Learning Objectives -Learning Objectives -On successful completion of this course the participants would be able to:• Describe the key elements of Transport in a Ring topology• Identify the limitations of PDH transmission• Define the concept of Virtual Containers• Describe the process of mapping PDH payload into SDH frame• Describe the SDH multiplexing hierarchy• Identify the Lower and Higher order Path Overheads• Define the Regenerator section & Multiplexer section overheads• Identify the Protection mechanisms• Describe the Synchronisation process• Identify the various types of Optical Fibre• Describe the various losses in Optical Fibre• Describe the concept of Dense Wave Division Multiplexing• Identify the critical elements of DWDM• Describe the functioning of Optical ADM and Amplifiers

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Your QuestionsYour Questions

• The only dumb question is one that is The only dumb question is one that is notnot asked! asked!– Raise your hand!Raise your hand!– Ask on a break.Ask on a break.– Use Question Board.Use Question Board.

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Module 1Module 1

REVIEW OF REVIEW OF COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION

SYSTEMSSYSTEMS

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Why CommunicateCommunication is the means

to convey one’s needs, feelings, urgency, etc. or to

provide information to someone specific, to a group or to everyone in

general.

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• Verbal (speak, listen)• Written (mail, e-mail)• Body language (video!)• Sensory, ESP (!?)

Modes of Communication

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Mediums of Communication

• Post & Telegraph• Phone & Cell-Phone• Internet, e-mail• Voice-mail• Video Phone

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Model of Telecommunication

Acc

ess

Acc

ess

Switch Switch

Services

Transport

Signaling

Operation Support Systems

Access Access

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Module 2Module 2

MEDIA & TOPOLOGYMEDIA & TOPOLOGY

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Guided Media• Electrical• RF or W through Wave Guide• Optical through OFC

Un-guided Media• RF or W through free air• Optical through free air

Guided and Un-guided Media

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Copper cables (UTP, STP, Co-ax, …)• Simple and easy to use, least in cost• Bandwidth-distance limitation, Attenuation, Interference, …• Maintenance problems

Tran receivers: simple electronic driver/ receivers• Simple & easy to use, least in cost• Power Output & Sensitivity is a function of various factors

Guided Media: Electrical

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Optical Fiber Cable• Not so easy to use, costlier than copper cable• Very high Bandwidth, very low Attenuation, No Interference, …• Connecting is a high skill job• Maintenance problems

Tran receivers: complicated LASER driver/ receivers• Costly, difficult to maintain, hazardous• Power Output & Sensitivity has a wide range

Guided Media: Optical

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W/ RF Waveguides• Difficult to use, costliest• High Bandwidth, low Attenuation, …• Connecting is a high skill job• Maintenance problems• Impractical over long distances (telecommunication)

Tran receivers: complicated W/ RF driver/ receivers• Costly, difficult to maintain, hazardous• Power Output & Sensitivity have to be fine tuned

Guided Media: W and RF

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Air (media) & Frequency band (for separation)• Air is free (till now!) but Frequency bands are licensed (mostly)• Mostly Line-of-sight communication, but for low frequencies• Limited Bandwidth, Attenuation depend on several factors, …

Tran receivers: complicated W/ RF driver/ receivers• Costly, difficult to maintain, hazardous• Power Output & Sensitivity have to be fine tuned• Location and geography are factors• Maintenance problems

Un-Guided Media: W and RF

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Journey through the “Optical Tunnel”

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TOTAL INTERNAL REFRACTIONSnell’s Law: n1*sin1 = n2*sin 2

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So all you need is TIR!

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Transmitter - fundamentals of emission

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Emission by P-N junction

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Source composition

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Light Source comparison

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Transmit-Receive Overview

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Transmitter & Receiver Functions

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Transmitter Simple Block Diagram

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Modulations at the Transmitter

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Transmitter Basic Specifications

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Receiver Simple Block Diagram

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Receiver Basic Specifications

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LASER Temperature Compensation

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Receiver Noise-list

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Acceptance angle 1 is the maximum angle of incidence onto a fiber such that the refracted wave inside the fiber doesn’t cross the Critical angle (of TIR).

1 = sin-1[( n12 - n22)]

Acceptance Angle

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Multi Mode Fiber

• Multiple wave-fronts enter and propagate through the core

• Different wave-fronts would take different time period to travel through the entire distance of the core.

• This is because different wave-fronts are traversing different distances.

• Net effect is that a sharp square pulse gets distorted and spread out

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Dispersion – eats your BW

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Number of Modes:

M = V2/2

Multi Mode Fiber

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Graded Index Fiber

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Graded Index Fiber – less dispersion

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Dispersions in MM & SM Fiber

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Single Mode Fiber

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Profiles of SM Fiber

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Energy Distribution in SM Fiber

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LED: Typical spectral width 75-125 nm LASER: Typical spectral width 2-5 nm

Chromatic Dispersion

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• Different frequency/ wavelength have different velocity of propagation

• A single pulse would have several wavelengths

• Each wavelength would travel at different speed

• Thereby causing Chromatic dispersion

Material Dispersion

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Polarisation

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Attenuation in Optical Fiber

A. Rayleigh Scattering

• Rayleigh scattering is caused by small variations in the density of glass as it cools.

• These variations are smaller than the wavelengths used and therefore act as scattering objects.

• Scattering affects short wavelengths more than long wavelengths and limits the use of wavelengths below 800 nm.

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Attenuation in Optical Fiber

B. Stimulated Raman Scattering

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)is an effect which transfers power from a signal at a shorter wavelength to a signal at a longer wavelength.

The process is caused by the interaction of signal light waves with vibrating molecules (optical phonons) within the silica fiber. Light is then scattered in all directions. This effect has its maximum for a wavelength difference between the two signals of about 100 nm (13.2 THz).

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Attenuation in Optical Fiber

C. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS)is a backscattering process causing loss of power.

With high power, the signal lightwaves induce periodic changes in the refractive index of the fiber.

This can be described as a virtual grating traveling away from the signal as an acoustic wave.

The signal itself is then scattered, but mostly reflected off this induced grating.

This effect occurs when only a few channels are transmitted.

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Attenuation in Optical Fiber

D. Absorption

• Caused by the intrinsic properties of the material itself, the impurities in the glass, and any atomic defects in the glass.

• These impurities absorb the optical energy, causing the light to become dimmer.

• Intrinsic absorption is an issue at longer wavelengths and increases dramatically above 1700 nm.

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Attenuation in Optical Fiber

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What’s Power in dbm termsIt’s simple to relate to attenuation if Power is also expressed in terms of db.

So if mW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log10(P/mW)

Where W is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log10(P/W)

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What’s the dbm & db mathematics

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Exercise 1: Attenuation in Optical Fiber

For the above please calculate the following:

1. Attenuation in dB =

2. Attenuation per km =

3. Pout in dBm =

Pout in dBm = 2 mW (i.e 3 dBm) – 9.03 dB = -6.97 dBm

Please check your calculations as per the results shown by the instructor.

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Optical Fiber Standards

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Optical Fiber Standards

Designs of single-mode fiber have evolved over several decades. The three principle types and their ITU-T specifications are:

• Non-dispersion-shifted fiber (NDSF), G.652 Minimum dispersion at 1310 nm

• Dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF), G.653 Minimum dispersion at 1550 nm

Non-linear amplification for various wavelengths

• Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF), G.655 Optimum dispersion at 1550 nm

Linear amplification for various wavelengths

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Optical Fiber Bandwidth

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Optical Fiber vs Copper Wire

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Bending Losses

Micro bendingDeformation of fiber axis (axial distortion)during cabling causes light to couple out of the fiber.

Macro bendingLoss due to excessive bending.

Fiber Bending radius < 3 mm

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Bending Losses

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Optical Fiber Specifications

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Optical Fiber Specifications

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Optical Fiber Specifications

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Optical Fiber Specifications

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Optical Fiber Specifications

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Optical Fiber Splicing

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Optical Fiber Splicing

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Optical Fiber Splicing

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Optical Fiber Splicing

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NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

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Exercise 2: Star vs Ring Topology Exercise 2: Star vs Ring Topology

Let’s consider a location with 16 Access nodes, equidistant from a Switch located at the center.

1. What would be the total distance of media in Star Topology:

2. What would be the total media distance in Ring Topology with two rings as shown:

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Exercise 2: Star vs Ring TopologyExercise 2: Star vs Ring Topology contd.contd.

In a similar location let’s consider 8 Access nodes with a Switch located at the center. Now:

1. What would be the total distance of media in Star Topology:

2. What would be the total media distance in Ring Topology with two rings as shown:

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Star vs Ring Topology Star vs Ring Topology

• Total media distance is not necessary more/ less for Star/ Ring topology.

• It should be examined on a case to case basis.

• In Star transmission remains point to point between each node.

• In Ring a Add-drop function/ technique is needed at each node.

• In Star link failure is isolated, in ring it needs to be overcome by protection technique.

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Payload Manager

Payload Manager

Ring Elements & Terminologies Ring Elements & Terminologies

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Module 3

DENSE WAVE DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

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Network scenario of near future!

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OPTICAL MULTIPLEXERS

SINGLE FIBER

WAVELENGTH MULTIPLEXING

MULTIPLE FIBER

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Evolution of DWDM

• It took about 2 decades to perfect the technique!

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DWDM Records!

• 1×40 G up to 65 km (Alcatel’98). PMD Limited.• 32× 5 G to 9300 km (1998)• 64× 5 G to 7200 km (Lucent’97)• 100×10 G to 400 km (Lucent’97)• 16×10 G to 6000 km (1998)• 132×20 G to 120 km (NEC’96)• 70×20 G to 600 km (NTT’97)• 1022 Wavelengths on one fiber (Lucent 99)

Ref: OFC’9x

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Dense Wave Division Multiplexing

• DWDM– Standard support 1000 colors of light, only 160 colors supported

today– Key players - Ciena, Cerent (Cisco), Lucent, Marconi, Nortel,

Siemens, Sycamore – Supports PoS – packet over Sonet to Wavelength– Supports LAMBDA routing

Attenuation

Wavelength 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6(m)

1.0 dB/KM

0.3

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Fiber OpticsFiber Optics• Serves as the transmission medium for most carrier’s “backbone” networkServes as the transmission medium for most carrier’s “backbone” network• Physically links every major metropolitan area in the United States, Physically links every major metropolitan area in the United States,

Canada, and the United KingdomCanada, and the United Kingdom• Now deployed in The Reliance NetworkNow deployed in The Reliance Network

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ITU-T WAVELENGTH GRID

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Single & Multi Longitudinal Mode LASER

Multi Longitudinal Mode (MLM) LASER

Single Longitudinal Mode (MLM) LASER

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Four Way Mixing

• Caused when multiple wavelengths travel in the same phase for long time

• New signals are generated at the same frequency spacing as original: f1,f2 2f2-f1, 2f1-f2

• Closer channels More FWM

• More power More FWM

• Less dispersion More time same phase More FWM

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Four Way Mixing

Dispersion Optimized Fiber:

• Non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZ-DSF)

4 ps/nm/km near 1530-1570nm band

• Avoids four-way mixing

Dispersion Compensating Fiber:

• Standard fiber has 17 ps/nm/km. DCF -100 ps/nm/km

• 100 km of standard fiber followed by 17 km of DCF zero dispersion

Standard Fiber Dispersion Compensating Fiber

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A Typical DWDM Link

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Typical DWDM Link spans

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Optical Fiber Coupling

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Monochromator

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Customized BandwidthCustomized Bandwidth

OC-48STM16

OC-3/STM1

OC-12/STM4 OC-

24/STM8

OC-N

Delhi

Bombay

Cal

Chennai

NagpurX-Connect

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WAVELENGTH MULTIPLEXING

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PUMP LASER

Band pass Filter

WDM Coupler

Erbium Doped

DM Coupler

Isolator

Input

Isolator

PUMP LASER980 or 1480 nm 980 or 1480 nm

ERBIUM DOPED FIBER AMPLIFIER (EDFA)

OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION

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OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION

1480 nm

1, 2, 3, n

1, 2, 3, n

Stable Sate

Unstable Sate

Meta-stable Sate

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1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Gai

n co

effici

ent(

m-1)

Wavelength(nm)

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Raman Amplifier

RFAs use the Raman effect – or Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) – to transfer power from the pump laser at a shorter wavelength to the optical signal.

It uses either the embedded fiber as the active medium (distributed Raman amplification), or a part of the fiber inside a structure (discrete Raman amplification).

The optical fiber is commonly counter pumped (pumped backwards) with a 600 mW laser which is most efficient with a wavelength difference of 100 nm (13.2 THz) to the signal.

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OPTera Long Haul 1600 Application

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Unidirectional two-fiber arrangements can support up to 80 wavelengths over both the C- and L-Bands.

This offering corresponds to up to 0.8 Tbps (or 800Gbps) aggregate traffic capacity at 10 Gbps.

OPTera LH Release 3 introduces the OPTera 1600G C-Band unidirectional application.

OPTera LH Release 3 supports up to 40 wavelengths in the C-Band (or 400 Gbps).

Unidirectional topology

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Unidirectional topology

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Unidirectional topology:80 wavelengths on each fiber

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Bi-directional single-fiber arrangements can support up to 160 wavelengths or 80 channels over both the C and L-Bands.

A future release of OPTera 1600G configured as bi-directional will employ up to 80 wavelengths in the C-Band with an additional 80 wavelengths in the L-Band when required. These channels are designed to co-propagate and counter-propagate in each band.

Bi-directional topology

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Bi-directional topology (future release):

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Module 4

RELIANCETRANSPORT NETWORK

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Reliance Fiber, SDH and WDM/DWDM

• The infrastructureThe infrastructure– FiberFiber

• G.652G.652– G.652 SSMF – Standard Single Mode FiberG.652 SSMF – Standard Single Mode Fiber– Reliance will use to support low data rates (below 80gbps) Reliance will use to support low data rates (below 80gbps)

• G.655G.655– G.655 NZDSF – Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted FiberG.655 NZDSF – Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber– Reliance will use for high traffic areasReliance will use for high traffic areas

» Can support 80gbps Can support 80gbps

– SDHSDH• BSHR – Bi-directional Self Healing RingBSHR – Bi-directional Self Healing Ring

– WDM/DWDMWDM/DWDM• WDM: 32 channels of 2.5gbps WDM: 32 channels of 2.5gbps • DWDM (Phase I) – 40 channels of 10gbpsDWDM (Phase I) – 40 channels of 10gbps• DWDM (Phase II) – 80 channels of 10gbpsDWDM (Phase II) – 80 channels of 10gbps• DWDM (Phase III) – 160 channels of 10gbpsDWDM (Phase III) – 160 channels of 10gbps

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B a d n a g a rA s h taT h a n d a l a

Z a la k i

Sangavi

MhasveChik hali

Khamgaon Murtijapur

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O s m a n a b a d

Sa n g a m n e r

K o p a r a g on

R at n a g ir i

D h e n k a n a l

G u rd a s p u r

P a th a n k o t

A ra k k o n a m

M e tt ur d a m

B e rh a m p ur

G a n d h id h a m

K a r im n a g a r

P e d d a p a ll e

B hi m a v a r a m

S h e r ta l la i

H o s h ia rp u r

Ma l e rk o tl a

B i ka n e r

O o t a c am u n d

K a p ur th a l a

P a n d h ar p u r

N a ra i n g a rh

a d

Sa n g a m n e r

K o p a r a g on

R at n a g ir i

D h e n k a n a l

G u rd a s p u r

P a th a n k o t

A ra k k o n a m

M e tt ur d a m

B e rh a m p ur

G a n d h id h a m

K a r im n a g a r

P e d d a p a ll e

B hi m a v a r a m

S h e r ta l la i

H o s h ia rp u r

Ma l e rk o tl a

B i ka n e r

O o t a c am u n d

K a p ur th a l a

P a n d h ar p u r

N a ra i n g a rh

Ha z u rn a g a r

P e d d a p u ra m

T h o d u pu z h a

K a n a k a p u ra

M a n n a r g u d i

Wa n a p a r th y

B a t la g u n d u

P a r a m a k u d i

C h h a c h h ra u

H ima t n a g a r

J a l la n d h a r

S r ik a k u la m

S ah a r a n p u r

C o im b a t o re

J a m s he d p u r

C h ha t r a pu r

K h a mb h a li a

H in d u p u r a m

S a n g a re d d y

R a m a n n a p e t

Ha z u rn a g a r

P e d d a p u ra m

T h o d u pu z h a

K a n a k a p u ra

M a n n a r g u d i

Wa n a p a r th y

B a t la g u n d u

P a r a m a k u d i

C h h a c h h ra u

H ima t n a g a r

J a l la n d h a r

S r ik a k u la m

S ah a r a n p u r

C o im b a t o re

J a m s he d p u r

C h ha t r a pu r

K h a mb h a li a

H in d u p u r a m

S a n g a re d d y

R a m a n n a p e t

A n a k a p al le

P er u n d u r a i

K o v il p a tt i

T in d i va n a m

N e d u m a n d a d

T ir u p a th u r

P a n d a v p u r a

D h a n m a n da l

A n k l e s h w a r

B a r dd h a m a n

M e d a r me t la

A u ra n g a b a d

T h i ru v a l la

De v a k o tt ai

Gu d i y a th a m

C h an d i g a rh

M ir y a lg u d a

K o t h a g ud e m

A m a l a p u ra m

M a nc h e r ia l

A n a k a p al le

P er u n d u r a i

K o v il p a tt i

T in d i va n a m

N e d u m a n d a d

T ir u p a th u r

P a n d a v p u r a

D h a n m a n da l

A n k l e s h w a r

B a r dd h a m a n

M e d a r me t la

A u ra n g a b a d

T h i ru v a l la

De v a k o tt ai

Gu d i y a th a m

C h an d i g a rh

M ir y a lg u d a

K o t h a g ud e m

A m a l a p u ra m

M a nc h e r ia l

Sh o r a n m p u r

C h h in d w a r a

C h a n d ra p u r

P e r a mb a lu r

T ir u pa t tu r

V il lu p u r a m

K ri s h n a g ar

A h m e d n a g a r

T e ll ic h e rr y

B ul a n d s h a hr

Dh a r m a v a r a m

Ch a ll a p al le

R a ib a re i ll y

N a r s a ra o p e t

T ir u ve l lo r e

P a tt u k o tt a i

T i ru n e l v el i

C h i k o di

P u d u k ko t ta i

B a h

Sh o r a n m p u r

C h h in d w a r a

C h a n d ra p u r

P e r a mb a lu r

T ir u pa t tu r

V il lu p u r a m

K ri s h n a g ar

A h m e d n a g a r

T e ll ic h e rr y

B ul a n d s h a hr

Dh a r m a v a r a m

Ch a ll a p al le

R a ib a re i ll y

N a r s a ra o p e t

T ir u ve l lo r e

P a tt u k o tt a i

T i ru n e l v el i

C h i k o di

P u d u k ko t ta i

B a h a d u r g a rh

T a ra n T a r a n

Ma v e li k ka r a

N e la m a n g a la

M a n g al a g ir i

C h id a mb a r a m

K r is h n a g ir i

C h a n n a pa t n a

N a wa n s h a h a r

V a n iy a m b a d i

D h a r a ma p u ri

K u z h i th u ra i

S h ri Ra m p u r

K u r u k s h e tr a

R a ja h m u n d ryJ a g g a yy a p e t

D ro n a c h a la m

P o n d ic h e rr y

S ri n i

a d u r g a rh

T a ra n T a r a n

Ma v e li k ka r a

N e la m a n g a la

M a n g al a g ir i

C h id a mb a r a m

K r is h n a g ir i

C h a n n a pa t n a

N a wa n s h a h a r

V a n iy a m b a d i

D h a r a ma p u ri

K u z h i th u ra i

S h ri Ra m p u r

K u r u k s h e tr a

R a ja h m u n d ryJ a g g a yy a p e t

D ro n a c h a la m

P o n d ic h e rr y

S ri n iv a s p u rC h ik m a g a lu r

C h it ra d u r g a

T a lip a r a m b a

K u n n a mk u l a m

Dh a r a m p u r a m

T iru c h e n d u r

Ka l lk u r ic h i

R a ja p a la y a m

M u v a tt u p uz h a

N a g a p a tt in a m

T ir u c h e n g o d e

C h ik b a ll ap u r

O d d a n ch a t r am

B i ha r S h a ri f

M a d u r an t a k a m

V iz ia n a g a r a m

G an d h i N a g

v a s p u rC h ik m a g a lu r

C h it ra d u r g a

T a lip a r a m b a

K u n n a mk u l a m

Dh a r a m p u r a m

T iru c h e n d u r

Ka l lk u r ic h i

R a ja p a la y a m

M u v a tt u p uz h a

N a g a p a tt in a m

T ir u c h e n g o d e

C h ik b a ll ap u r

O d d a n ch a t r am

B i ha r S h a ri f

M a d u r an t a k a m

V iz ia n a g a r a m

G an d h i N a g a r

S h a hj a h a n p u r

V ir u d h u n ag a r

I ri n ja la k u d a

Go w r ib id a n u r

B a s a va k a ly a n

C h en g a l p a tt u

M a h a b u b n a g a r

A m b e r

K a n c h e e p u r a m

T h ir u m a n g la m

B h u b a n e sh w a r

Ja g a p u r Ro a d

Ja g a p u r T o w n

K h a d ak w as a l a

K a n j ir a p al ly

R a jg u r u n a g a r

A m b as a m u d ra m

I

a r

S h a hj a h a n p u r

V ir u d h u n ag a r

I ri n ja la k u d a

Go w r ib id a n u r

B a s a va k a ly a n

C h en g a l p a tt u

M a h a b u b n a g a r

A m b e r

K a n c h e e p u r a m

T h ir u m a n g la m

B h u b a n e sh w a r

Ja g a p u r Ro a d

Ja g a p u r T o w n

K h a d ak w as a l a

K a n j ir a p al ly

R a jg u r u n a g a r

A m b as a m u d ra m

I ch a l ka r a n ji

S ri G a n g a n a g a r

A r u pp u k k o tt a i

V i ru d h a c h a la m

R ib a g (K u d c h i )

V a d a k k a n c h e ry

P a th a n a m th it ta

S h ir o l

M i rz a p u r -I

J a n s a th

Ra m a c h a n d ra p u r a m

R a js a m a n d

M u z a f fa r N a g a

D o db a l la p u r

Ma y il a d u th u r a i

H u kk e r i

C h an d a u l i

M e h m d a b a

ch a l ka r a n ji

S ri G a n g a n a g a r

A r u pp u k k o tt a i

V i ru d h a c h a la m

R ib a g (K u d c h i )

V a d a k k a n c h e ry

P a th a n a m th it ta

S h ir o l

M i rz a p u r -I

J a n s a th

Ra m a c h a n d ra p u r a m

R a js a m a n d

M u z a f fa r N a g a

D o db a l la p u r

Ma y il a d u th u r a i

H u kk e r i

C h an d a u l i

M e h m d a b a d

Te k k a li

B a n g a l or e

K a r un a g a p a l ly

V is a k h a p a tn a m

A h me d a b a d

S r ik a la h a s th i

S r ip e r um p u d u r

K o v vu r

B an d a r ( M a c h ili p a tn a m )

S u re n d r a n ag a r

G a d a g -b e ti g e r

P e r in th a l m a n n

T h ir u ra i p oo n d i

T ir u v a n na m a la

G o b ic h e tt ip a la y a m

S a n k a ra n K o i

d

Te k k a li

B a n g a l or e

K a r un a g a p a l ly

V is a k h a p a tn a m

A h me d a b a d

S r ik a la h a s th i

S r ip e r um p u d u r

K o v vu r

B an d a r ( M a c h ili p a tn a m )

S u re n d r a n ag a r

G a d a g -b e ti g e r

P e r in th a l m a n n

T h ir u ra i p oo n d i

T ir u v a n na m a la

G o b ic h e tt ip a la y a m

S a n k a ra n K o il

R a m a n a th p u r a m

M e tt u p p a la y a m

S a ty a m a n g a l a m

Gi rw a (U da i p u r)

Ch h a ta ( K o s ik a )

B a s s e in ( V a s a i)

T h e n i

Go o ty ( Gu n t a ka l )

T h ir u v a n a n th a p u r am

F a t e h p ur - I

J a n g a re d d i gu d e m

Gh a tk e s h w a r ( H y d E a st )

S h a m s h a b a d ( H y d W e s t)

N a rs a p u r (P a

l

R a m a n a th p u r a m

M e tt u p p a la y a m

S a ty a m a n g a l a m

Gi rw a (U da i p u r)

Ch h a ta ( K o s ik a )

B a s s e in ( V a s a i)

T h e n i

Go o ty ( Gu n t a ka l )

T h ir u v a n a n th a p u r am

F a t e h p ur - I

J a n g a re d d i gu d e m

Gh a tk e s h w a r ( H y d E a st )

S h a m s h a b a d ( H y d W e s t)

N a rs a p u r (P a l a k o llu )

R o o r ke e - II (H a rd w ar )

D u rg

H a ss a n

C a nn a n o r e

D a rb h a n g a

P a li

Mu z a ff a rp u r

H o sk o t e

D h r o l

L im bd a

B a g o d a ra

S a y la

A m a r n a g a r

B h a d t h a r

A lin a

X ( B a rw a la )

B h a c h a u

S h i k ar p u r

Ma n d a p e ta

Od h a n

Ig a tp u r i

S h i ru r

K a le

X

X

X

K u t ti p p u ra m

T ir

l a k o llu )

R o o r ke e - II (H a rd w ar )

D u rg

H a ss a n

C a nn a n o r e

D a rb h a n g a

P a li

Mu z a ff a rp u r

H o sk o t e

D h r o l

L im bd a

B a g o d a ra

S a y la

A m a r n a g a r

B h a d t h a r

A lin a

X ( B a rw a la )

B h a c h a u

S h i k ar p u r

Ma n d a p e ta

Od h a n

Ig a tp u r i

S h i ru r

K a le

X

X

X

K u t ti p p u ra m

T iru b u v a n am

K o l lid a m

Ku m b a k o n am

H a zi g a r

G h a ts i la

A k b ar p u r

B a g o d a r

U rw a M or e

T a m a r

H a rn a u t

D in a raDu r g a w a ti

S a in i

Y a m u n a n a g a r

G a rh

S a n ri y a

B a lu a n a

A r in i E s ta t e

H o s a A g r a h a ra

U d ev a

V e l lu r

B a ilh o n g a l

N a r g u n d

Y e l a v ig i

B a s a p u rHa r p a n

u b u v a n am

K o l lid a m

Ku m b a k o n am

H a zi g a r

G h a ts i la

A k b ar p u r

B a g o d a r

U rw a M or e

T a m a r

H a rn a u t

D in a raDu r g a w a ti

S a in i

Y a m u n a n a g a r

G a rh

S a n ri y a

B a lu a n a

A r in i E s ta t e

H o s a A g r a h a ra

U d ev a

V e l lu r

B a ilh o n g a l

N a r g u n d

Y e l a v ig i

B a s a p u rHa r p a n

a h al li

D h e k u n a

N a ya B a ra d w a r

K u d o p a li

R a ir ak h o l

S a m b a l p u r

B i la s p u r

R a ig a rh

A n u g u l

B a mh a n iU ra i da b r i

Wa r o ra

B a d n a g a rA s h taT h a n d a l a

Z a la k i

Sangavi

MhasveChik hali

Khamgaon Murtijapur

Delhi

Kolkata

Chennai

HyderabadMumbai

Ahmedabad

Jaipur

Nagpur

Bhopal

Vishakhapatnam

Vijayawada

Ernakulum

Krishna

Allahabad

Lucknow

Pune

SuratJamnagar

Bangalore

Reliance Optical Network - National

National Backbone

•11 rings, 80K Km OFC

• 18 out of 21 circles

• 20 Gbps bandwidth used

• 230 Tbps Capacity!

Page 105: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 108

Reliance Optical Network - International

International Submarine Cable (Flag Telecom)• 22 Countries, 44 PoP’s, 180 Carriers connected world over• 42,000 km route length• India - Presently: 15 STM-1’s, Mar. ’05: 39 STM-1’s

SA NY LN, PR, FR

AL JD, TH, MU HK

SG TY

Page 106: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 109

5

SDH Backbone Rings

Allahabad

Ambala

Kolkata

Mumbai

Hyderabad

Bhubaneshwar

Vijaywada

ChennaiBangalore

Ernakulum

Ahmedabad Bhopal

Trivendrum

Jallandhar

Coimbatore

Delhi

3A1A

4

Nagpur

1B

1C

3B

3C

6

Pune

7 2

Total of 22 DXAdd/Drop Locations

Surat

Lucknow

Madurai

Jaipur

Jamnagar

10G ADM

10G SDH Ring

2.5G SDH Ring

2.5G ADM

Page 107: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 110

The Core Backbone Network

J

BA

D

J DX – Digital Cross-connect

LH – Optical Amplifier

OM4200 – SDH ADM

AXE10 – ILT Switch

OM4100, TN1X/1C – SDH ADM

Express Ring (DWDM)

Collector Ring (SDH)

Access Ring (SDH)

Page 108: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 111

Standard OPTera 1600G shelf configurations

Standard shelf configurations supported in OPTera LH Release 3 are as follows:

C-Band Dual Amplifier followed by Booster18 C-Band. This configuration provides a single Mid Stage Access point (Single MSA).

C-Band Dual Amplifier followed by Booster21 C-Band (Single MSA).

Page 109: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 112

OPTera LH Release 3 supports the extension shelf 2 with the following restrictions:

All slots must be equipped with NTCA49AA filler circuit packs.

The system provides no alarming for the second extension shelf.

A future OPTera LH software release will fully support the second extension shelf for L-Band applications.

Extension shelf 2 Equipping rules

Page 110: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 113

Single MSA in C-Band supporting up to 30 wavelengths for each group (limited OADM)

Page 111: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 114

Single MSA in C-Band supporting up to 40 wavelengths for each group (limited OADM/DSCM)

Page 112: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 115

Dual MSA in C-Band supporting up to 40 wavelengths for each group (full OADM/DSCM)

Page 113: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 116

DWDM passive bay

The DWDM passive bay can store passive components such as Mux and Demux couplers, OADM filters, and DSCMs.

This bay supports Mux, Demux, DSCMs at Terminal or ADM sites. At Line amplifier sites, the bay supports DSCMs and OADM filters as required.

Page 114: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 117

OPTera 1600G DWDM passive bay

Page 115: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 118

The DWDM passive bay has a 24-module capacity.

The DWDM passive bay contains six shelves that can each house up to four modules.

The top two shelves house DSCMs and DCMs, if required.

One shelf can house two Mux and two Demux couplers. Since each coupler consists of 10 ports (10 channels), each shelf can support 40 wavelengths: 20 wavelengths Mux and 20 wavelengths Demux.

Page 116: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 119

This deals with the multiplexer (Mux) and demultiplexer (Demux) couplers that are required for the OPTera 1600G Amplifier application.

OPTera 1600G requires a new architecture for passive Mux and Demux modules to enable unidirectional amplifier configurations.

The C-Band wavelength plan is mapped into 2 grids:

C-Band Grid 1, and

C-Band Grid 2.

Grid 1 is based on 100-GHz ITU-T wavelength plan. Grid 2 is also based on a 100-GHz spacing with a 50-GHz offset from Grid 1. In a typical unidirectional application, the Mux and Demux would be based on the same grid.

OPTera 1600G DWDM filter Architecture

Page 117: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 120

Up to four modules (Mux or Demux) are interconnected in cascade to support up to 40 wavelengths, plus 1 spare, in each wavelength grid.

Each module carries 10 wavelengths except for the first module that contains the spare wavelength.

Future releases of OPTera 1600G will introduce two additional grids to support L-Band applications.

Page 118: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 121

Each Demux module can support up to 10 wavelengths and contains a miniature variable optical attenuator (mVOA) for each wavelength.

Module 1 (first module of the four interconnected modules) includes a monitor port and a spare wavelength port.

Two patchcords (A and B) as shown are used to interconnect the modules.

Demux Modules

Page 119: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 122

Standard DWDM passive bay layout - Terminal applications

Page 120: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 123

OPTera Long Haul 1600 passive bay – Line/ OADM applications

Page 121: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 124

Recommended interconnection for Demux modules

Page 122: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 125

Mux modules

Each Mux module can support up to 10 wavelengths. Module 1 (first module of the four interconnected modules) includes a monitor port and spare wavelength port. The Mux modules are a mirror image of the Demux modules. Two patchcords (A and B) are used to interconnect the modules.

Page 123: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 126

Recommended interconnection for Mux modules

Page 124: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 127

The wavelength upgrade plans for OPTera 1600G C-Band are shown in (Grid 1) and (Grid 2). The tables specify the channel wavelength-to-DWDM Mux/Demux module mapping.

Engineering rules for module deployment sequence

For all fiber types, the engineering rules for DWDM Mux/Demux module deployment sequence are:

Deploy Module 1 until all the capacity is exhausted for all fiber types.

Deploy Module 2 next for all fiber types except certain types of NZ-SF fiber.

Deploy Module 3 next for all fiber types.

Finally, deploy Module 4 for all fiber types except TrueWaveTM Classic.

Wavelength Plans

Page 125: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 128

For OADM applications, choose the wavelengths according to 1-channel, 2-channel, or Band OADM drop recommendations. OADM modules will be introduced in 1-channel, 2-channel, or multichannel band drop.

Channels designated to support express or OADM channels need to be correctly assigned to either express or OADM applications.

As a result, careful planning of wavelengths before deployment is required.

For example, if all wavelengths from Module 1 are to be deployed as express channels, the wavelengths on that module must remain as express wavelengths.

In case an OADM is required at a later date, the OADM wavelengths from modules 2, 3, or 4 must be used for providing that the OADM wavelengths

OADM applications

Page 126: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 129

C-Band Grid 1 wavelength plan

Page 127: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 130

C-Band Grid 1 wavelength plan

Page 128: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 131

Coupler

Page 129: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 132

Applications supported

The following applications are supported on the Repeater NE:

• Wavelength Translator

• Dense regenerator

• Wavelength Combiner

• Optical dedicated protection ring (ODPR)

• MOR Plus amplifier

Page 130: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 133

Previous Applications

Page 131: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 134

Product Architecture

Page 132: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 135

Flexible full-fill Repeater NE

Page 133: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 136

Optera 1600G Amplifier applications

Page 134: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 137

Optera 1600G Amplifier applications

Page 135: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 138

Interworking with OPTera Long Haul 1600

Page 136: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 139

Dense regenerator application in a network

Note: The client-facing equipment's TFEC setting must be turned off for correct interoperability with other vendors.

Page 137: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 140

Wavelength Translator

Note: The client-facing equipment's forward error correction setting must be turned off for correct interoperability with other vendors.

Page 138: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 141

Wavelength TranslatorSectionalization of faults for the Repeater network element

Page 139: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 142

Wavelength Combiner

Page 140: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 143

Wavelength Combiner

Page 141: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 144

Wavelength Combiner

Page 142: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 145

Wavelength Combiner

Sectionalization of faults for a Wavelength Combiner application

Page 143: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 146

Wavelength Combiner

Note: The Wavelength Combiner circuit pack groups at both terminalsmust be originally equipped with the same type of T/R circuit packs,either TriFEC-capable or non-TriFEC. Failure in following this rulewill probably cause a "Protection scheme mismatch" or "Channel IDmismatch" alarm to be raised on the subtending OC-48 or TN-16Xequipment and cause subsequent protection path failures.

Page 144: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 147

Optical Dedicated Protection Ring (ODPR)

Page 145: DWDM Fundamentals

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 148

Optical Switch Module (OSM)

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Proprietary & Confidential Slide 149

Optical Dedicated Protection Ring (ODPR)

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Proprietary & Confidential Slide 150

Optical Dedicated Protection Ring (ODPR)

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Proprietary & Confidential Slide 151

Standards

• ITU:G.681 Functional characteristics of interoffice and long-haul line systems using optical amplifiers including optical multiplexing

G.692 Optical Interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers (Oct 98): 50 and 100 GHz spacing centered at 193.1 THz (1553.5 nm)

G.872 Architecture for Optical Transport Networks, 1999

• ANSI T1X1.5: http://www.t1.org/t1x1/_x1-grid.htm

• IETF: MPLS over DWDM

• Optical Interoperability Forum (OIF): www.oiforum.comStarted April 1998 by CISCO, Ciena, ...Now over 128 members

Working groups on Architecture, Physical and Link Layer, OAM&P

Signaling protocols for rapid provisioning and restoration