Dessler Ch4

download Dessler Ch4

of 40

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)



Transcript of Dessler Ch4

  • After studying this chapter, you should be able to:Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is and how its used.Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis information, including interviews, questionnaires, and observation.Write job descriptions, including summaries and job functions, using the Internet and traditional methods.Write job specifications using the Internet as well as your judgment.Explain job analysis in a jobless world, including what it means and how its done in practice.

  • Types of Information Collected

  • Use of Job Analysis Information

  • FIGURE 41Uses of Job Analysis Information

  • FIGURE 42Process Chart for Analyzing a Jobs WorkflowSource: Compensation Management: Rewarding Performance by Richard J. Henderson. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

  • Steps in Job AnalysisSteps in doing a job analysis:Review relevant background information.Decide how youll use the information.Select representative positions.Actually analyze the job.Verify the job analysis information.Develop a job description and job specification.

  • Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The InterviewInformation SourcesIndividual employeesGroups of employeesSupervisors with knowledge of the jobAdvantagesQuick, direct way to find overlooked informationDisadvantagesDistorted informationInterview FormatsStructured (Checklist)Unstructured

  • FIGURE 43 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job DescriptionsNote: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents, or have them fill it out.Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, Business and Legal Reports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT 2004.

  • FIGURE 43 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions (contd)Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents, or have them fill it out.Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, Business and Legal Reports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT 2004.

  • Job Analysis: Interviewing GuidelinesThe job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best.Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee.Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open-ended questions and provides space for answers.Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence.After completing the interview, review and verify the data.

  • Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: QuestionnairesInformation SourceHave employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilitiesQuestionnaire FormatsStructured checklistsOpen-ended questions AdvantagesQuick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employeesDisadvantagesExpense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire

  • Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: ObservationInformation SourceObserving and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobsAdvantagesProvides first-hand informationReduces distortion of informationDisadvantagesTime consumingDifficulty in capturing entire job cycleOf little use if job involves a high level of mental activity

  • Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary/LogsInformation SourceWorkers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent on each activityAdvantagesProduces a more complete picture of the jobEmployee participationDisadvantagesDistortion of informationDepends upon employees to accurately recall their activities

  • FIGURE 44 Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use OnlineSource: A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

  • FIGURE 44 Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use Online (contd)Source: A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

  • FIGURE 44 Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use Online (contd)Source: A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

  • Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques

  • FIGURE 45 Portion of a Completed Page from the Position Analysis QuestionnaireSource: A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.The 194 PAQ elements are grouped into six dimensions. This exhibits 11 of the information input questions or elements. Other PAQ pages contain questions regarding mental processes, work output, relationships with others, job context, and other job characteristics.

  • TABLE 41Basic Department of Labor Worker FunctionsBasic ActivitiesNote: Determine employees job score on data, people, and things by observing his or her job and determining, for each of the three categories, which of the basic functions illustrates the persons job. 0 is high; 6, 8, and 7 are lows in each column.

    Data People Things 0 Synthesizing 0 Mentoring 0 Setting up 1 Coordinating 1 Negotiating 1 Precision working 2 Analyzing 2 Instructing 2 Operating/controlling 3 Compiling 3 Supervising 3 Driving/operating 4 Computing 4 Diverting 4 Manipulating 5 Copying 5 Persuading 5 Tending 6 Comparing 6 Speaking/signaling 6 Feeding/offbearing 7 Serving 7 Handling 8 Taking instructions/helping

  • FIGURE 46Sample Report Based on Department of Labor Job Analysis Technique

  • FIGURE 47 Selected O*NET General Work Activities

  • Writing Job Descriptions

  • FIGURE 48 Sample Job Description, Pearson Education

  • FIGURE 48 Sample Job Description, Pearson Education (contd)

  • FIGURE 49Marketing Manager Description from Standard Occupational ClassificationSource: AccessedAugust 17, 2007.

  • The Job DescriptionJob IdentificationJob titleFLSA status sectionPreparation datePreparerJob SummaryGeneral nature of the jobMajor functions/activitiesRelationships Reports to:Supervises:Works with: Outside the company:Responsibilities and DutiesMajor responsibilities and duties (essential functions)Decision-making authorityDirect supervisionBudgetary limitationsStandards of Performance and Working ConditionsWhat it takes to do the job successfully

  • Using the Internet for Writing Job DescriptionsStandard Occupational Classification (SOC)

    O*NET OnlineSource: O*Net is a trademark of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration. Reprinted by permission of O*Net.

  • TABLE 42SOC Major Groups of Jobs11-0000Management Occupations13-0000Business and Financial Operations Occupations15-0000Computer and Mathematical Occupations17-0000Architecture and Engineering Occupations19-0000Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations21-0000Community and Social Services Occupations23-0000Legal Occupations25-0000Education, Training, and Library Occupations27-0000Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations29-0000Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations31-0000Healthcare Support Occupations33-0000Protective Service Occupations35-0000Food Preparation and Serving-Related Occupations37-0000Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations39-0000Personal Care and Service Occupations41-0000Sales and Related Occupations43-0000Office and Administrative Support Occupations45-0000Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations47-0000Construction and Extraction Occupations49-0000Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations51-0000Production Occupations53-0000Transportation and Material Moving Occupations55-0000Military Specific OccupationsNote: Within these major groups are 96 minor groups, 449 broad occupations, and 821 detailed occupations.

  • Writing Job Specifications

  • FIGURE 410Preliminary JobDescriptionQuestionnaireSource: Reprinted from with the permission of the publisher, Business and Legal Reports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT 2004.

  • Writing Job Descriptions (contd)Step 1.Decide on a PlanStep 2.Develop an Organization ChartStep 3.Use a Job Analysis/Description QuestionnaireStep 4.Obtain Lists of Job Duties from O*NETStep 5.Compile the Jobs Human Requirements from O*NETStep 6.Complete Your Job Description

  • FIGURE 411Background Data for ExamplesExample of Job Title: Customer Service ClerkExample of Job Summary: Answers inquiries and gives directions to customers, authorizes cashing of customers checks, records and returns lost charge cards, sorts and reviews new credit applications, works at customer service desk in department store.Example of One Job Duty: Authorizes cashing of checks: authorizes cashing of personal or payroll checks (up to a specified amount) by customers desiring to make payment by check. Requests identificationsuch as drivers licensefrom customers and examines check to verify date, amount, signature, and endorsement. Initials check and sends customer to cashier.

  • Writing Job Specifications (contd)Steps in the Statistical ApproachAnalyze the job and decide how to measure job performance.Select personal traits that you believe should predict successful performance.Test candidates for these traits.Measure the candidates subsequent job performance.Statistically analyze the relationship between the human traits and job performance.

  • Job Analysis in a Jobless World

  • Job Analysis in a Jobless World (contd)

  • Competency-Based Job AnalysisCompetenciesDemonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job.Reasons for Competency-Based Job AnalysisTo support a high-performance work system.To create strategically-focused job descriptions.To support the performance management process in fostering,