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  • 1. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Global Edition 12eChapter 4Job AnalysisPart 2 Recruitment and PlacementPowerPoint Presentation by Charlie CookCopyright 2011 Pearson EducationGARY DESSLER The University of West Alabama

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES1. Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is and how its used.2. Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis information, including interviews, questionnaires, and observation.3. Write job descriptions, including summaries and job functions, using the Internet and traditional methods.4. Write a job specification.5. Explain job analysis in a worker-empowered world, including what it means and how its done in practice.Copyright 2011 Pearson Education42 3. WHERE WE ARE NOWCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 43 4. The Basics of Job Analysis: Terms Job Analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirementsof a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job Description A list of a jobs duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships,working conditions, and supervisory responsibilitiesoneproduct of a job analysis. Job Specifications A list of a jobs human requirements, that is, the requisiteeducation, skills, personality, and so onanother product of ajob analysis.Copyright 2011 Pearson Education44 5. Types of Information CollectedWork activities Human HumanrequirementsbehaviorsInformation Collected Via Job Analysis Machines, tools, Job equipment, andcontext work aids PerformancestandardsCopyright 2011 Pearson Education45 6. Uses of Job Analysis Information Recruitment and selectionEEO complianceCompensationInformation Collected via Job Analysis Discovering Performanceunassigned duties appraisal TrainingCopyright 2011 Pearson Education46 7. FIGURE 41 Uses of Job Analysis Information Job analysis Job descriptionand specification RecruitingPerformance Job evaluationTrainingand selection appraisalwage and salary requirementsdecisions decisions (compensation)Copyright 2011 Pearson Education47 8. Steps in Job Analysis Steps in doing a job analysis: 1 Decide how youll use the information. 2 Review relevant background information. 3 Select representative positions. 4 Actually analyze the job. 5 Verify the job analysis information. 6 Develop a job description and job specification.Copyright 2011 Pearson Education48 9. FIGURE 42 Process Chart for Analyzing a Jobs WorkflowCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 49 10. Collecting Job Analysis Information Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information InterviewsQuestionnaires ObservationsDiaries/LogsCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 410 11. Job Analysis: Interviewing Guidelines The job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best. Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee. Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open-ended questions and provides space for answers. Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. After completing the interview, review and verify the data.Copyright 2011 Pearson Education411 12. Methods for Collecting Job AnalysisInformation: The Interview Information Sources Interview Formats Individual employees Structured (Checklist) Groups of employees Unstructured Supervisors withknowledge of the job Advantages Quick, direct way to findoverlooked information Disadvantage Distorted informationCopyright 2011 Pearson Education412 13. Methods for Collecting Job AnalysisInformation: Questionnaires Information Source Advantages Have employees fill out Quick and efficient wayquestionnaires to describe to gather informationtheir job-related duties and from large numbers ofresponsibilities employees Questionnaire Formats Disadvantages Structured checklists Expense and time Open-ended questionsconsumed in preparing and testing the questionnaireCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 413 14. FIGURE 43 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job DescriptionsNote: Use aquestionnaire likethis to interview jobincumbents, or havethem fill it out.Copyright 2011 Pearson Education 414 15. FIGURE 43 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions (contd)Copyright 2011 Pearson Education415 16. FIGURE 44 Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use OnlineCopyright 2011 Pearson Education416 17. FIGURE 44 Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use Online (contd)Copyright 2011 Pearson Education 417 18. Methods for Collecting Job AnalysisInformation: Observation Information Source Advantages Observing and noting the Provides first-handphysical activities of informationemployees as they go Reduces distortionabout their jobs byof informationmanagers. Disadvantages Time consuming Reactivity response distorts employee behavior Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activityCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 418 19. Methods for Collecting Job AnalysisInformation: Participant Diaries/Logs Information Source Advantages Workers keep a Produces a more completechronological diary or logpicture of the jobof what they do and the Employee participationtime spent on each activity Disadvantages Distortion of information Depends upon employeesto accurately recall theiractivitiesCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 419 20. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques Quantitative JobAnalysis Department ofPosition Analysis Functional JobLabor (DOL) Questionnaire Analysis ProcedureCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 420 21. FIGURE 45 Portion of a Completed Page from the Position Analysis QuestionnaireThe 194 PAQ elements aregrouped into six dimensions.This exhibit lists 11 of theinformation input questionsor elements. Other PAQpages contain questionsregarding mental processes,work output, relationshipswith others, job context, andother job characteristics.Copyright 2011 Pearson Education 421 22. TABLE 41Basic Department of Labor Worker FunctionsCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 422 23. FIGURE 46 Sample Report Based on Department of Labor Job Analysis TechniqueCopyright 2011 Pearson Education423 24. Internet-Based Job Analysis Advantages Collects information in a standardized format from geographically dispersed employees Requires less time than face-to-face interviews Collects information with minimal intervention or guidanceCopyright 2011 Pearson Education424 25. FIGURE 47 Selected O*NET General Work Activities CategoriesCopyright 2011 Pearson Education425 26. Writing Job Descriptions Jobidentification JobJobspecificationssummarySections of a Typical Job Working DescriptionResponsibilities andconditionsduties Standards of Authority of performance the incumbentCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 426 27. The Job Description Job Identification Responsibilities and Duties Job title Major responsibilities and FLSA status sectionduties (essential functions) Preparation date Decision-making authority Preparer Direct supervision Budgetary limitations Job Summary General nature of the job Standards of Performance Major functions/activities and Working Conditions What it takes to do the job Relationshipssuccessfully Reports to: Supervises: Works with: Outside the company:Copyright 2011 Pearson Education 427 28. FIGURE 48 Sample Job Description, Pearson EducationCopyright 2011 Pearson Education428 29. FIGURE 48 Sample Job Description, Pearson Education (contd)Copyright 2011 Pearson Education 429 30. FIGURE 49 Marketing Manager Description fromStandard Occupational ClassificationCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 430 31. Using the Internet for Writing Job DescriptionsCopyright 2011 Pearson Education431 32. TABLE 42SOC Major Groups of JobsCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 432 33. Writing Job Descriptions (contd) Step 1. Decide on a Plan Step 2. Develop an Organization Chart Step 3. Use a Simplified Job Analysis Questionnaire Step 4. Obtain List of Job Duties from O*NET Step 5. Compile the Jobs Human Requirements from O*NET Step 6. Finalize the Job DescriptionCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 433 34. FIGURE 410 Preliminary Job Description QuestionnaireCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 434 35. Using O*Net for Writing Job DescriptionsCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 435 36. Using O*Net for Writing Job Descriptions (contd)Copyright 2011 Pearson Education 436 37. Using O*Net for Writing Job Descriptions (contd)Copyright 2011 Pearson Education 437 38. Writing Job SpecificationsWhat human traits and experience are required to do this job well?Job specifications Job specifications Job specificationsfor trained versusbased on statisticalbased on judgment untrained personnelanalysisCopyright 2011 Pearson Education 438 39. Writing Job Specifications (contd) Steps in the Statistical Approach 1. Analyze the job and decide how to measure jobperformance. 2. Select personal traits that you believe shouldpredict successful performance. 3. Test candidates for these traits. 4. Measure the candidates subsequent jobperformance. 5. Statistically analyze the relationship between thehuman traits and job performance.Copyright 2011 Pearson Education 439 40. Job Analysis in a Worker-Empowered World Job Design: From Specializedto Enriched JobsJob JobJobEnlargement Rotation EnrichmentCopyright 2011 Pearson Education440 41. Other Changes at Work Changing the Organization and Its StructureFlattening theUsing self-managed Reengineering organization work teams business processesCopyright 2011 Pearson Education441 42. Competency-Based Job Analysis Competencies Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enableperformance of a job. Reasons for Competency-Based Job Analysis To support a high-performance work system (HPWS). To create strategically-focused job descriptions. To support the performance management process infostering, measuring, and rewarding:General competenciesLeadership competenciesTechni