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  • Design of Structural Steel Joints

    Dr. Klaus WeynandFeldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

    Prof. Jean-Pierre JaspartUniversity of Liège, Belgium

  • Design of Structural Steel Joints

    • Introduction

    • Integration of joints into structural design process

    • Moment resistant joints

    • Simple joints

    • Design tools

  • Design of Structural Steel Joints

    • Introduction• Integration of joints into

    structural design process

    • Moment resistant joints

    • Simple joints

    • Design tools

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    EN 1993 Part 1.8

    Chapter 1 – Introduction

    Chapter 2 – Basis of design

    Chapter 3 – Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins

    Chapter 4 – Welded connections

    Chapter 5 – Analysis, classification and modelling

    Chapter 6 – Structural joints connecting H or I sections

    Chapter 7 – Hollow section joints

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Design of simple joints

    ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)

    • Background information

    • Design guidelines

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    2 – Basis of design Partial safety coefficients

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    3 – Connections made mechanical fasteners

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    4 – Welded connections

  • Design of Structural Steel Joints

    • Introduction

    • Integration of joints into structural design process

    • Moment resistant joints

    • Simple joints

    • Design tools

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Actual joint response

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Actual joint response

    M

    M Rd

    S j,inicd

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Influence on the structural response

    • Displacements

    • Internal forces

    • Failure mode and failure load

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    M

    M

    ?

    ?

    ?

    M

    Characterization

    Modelling

    Classification

    Idealization

    Four successive steps for structural integration

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Characterization

    Search for a unified approach whatever the material

    M

    ?

    ?

    ?

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Various configurations (1)Continuity

    Beam-to-beam

    Column bases

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Various configurations (2)Joints in portal frames

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Various configurations (3)

    Connections and joints incomposite construction

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Various cross-section shapes (1)

    Hot-rolled and

    cold-formed

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Various cross-section shapes (2)

    Built-up profiles

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Various connection elements

    Splices

    Cleats

    End plates

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Economy

    Reduced fabrication, transportation and erection costs

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Specific design criteria

    Robustness

    Joints as key elements

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Characterization (1)

    Search for a unified approach

    M

    ?

    ?

    ?

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Characterization (2)

    Eurocode 3 – Part 1-8

    • Beam-to-beam joints, splices, beam-to-column joints and column

    bases:

    welded connections

    bolted connections (anchors for column bases)

    Background: COMPONENT METHOD

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Three steps

    First step

    Identification of the

    active components

    Second step:

    Response of the

    components

    Third step:

    “Assembly” of the

    components

    F F F

    E k1 E k2 E k3

    F1,RdF2,Rd

    F3,Rd

    column webin shear

    column webin tension

    column webin compression

    M

    Sj,ini

    Mj,Rd

    cd

    , ,minj Rd i RdM F z 2

    , 1j ini

    i

    E zS

    k

    Characterization (3) - component method

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Characterization (4) - component method

    EC3 Part 1-8 provides therefore:

    • a library of components

    • rules for the evaluation of the properties of the components

    (stiffness, resistance, deformation capacity)

    • rules for the evaluation of the possible component interactions

    • « assembly » rules for components

    Applicable for simple joint and moment resistant joint

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Characterization (4) – Hollow section jointsDifferent approach for lattice girder joints

    For many types of joint configurations:

    • Joints considered as a whole

    • Check of relevant failure modes

    • Scope of application to be checked

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    M

    M

    ?

    ?

    ?

    M

    Characterization

    Modelling

    Classification

    Idealization

    Four successive steps for structural integration

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Classification (1)

    Stiffness

    Sj,ini

    Pinned

    Semi-rigid

    RigidM j

    Boundaries for stiffness

    Joint initial stiffness

    Semi-rigid

    Rigid

    Pinned

    Classification boundariesInitial joint stiffness

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Classification (2)

    Resistance

    Mj,Rd

    Partial-strength

    Full-strength

    Pinned

    Mj

    Boundaries for strength

    Joint strength

    Full resistance

    Partial resistance

    Pinned

    Classification boundariesJoint resistance

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Classification (3)

    Ductility

    • Brittle

    • “Semi-ductile”

    • Ductile

    Mj

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    M

    M

    ?

    ?

    ?

    M

    Characterization

    Modelling

    Classification

    Idealization

    Four successive steps for structural integration

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Modelling

    JOINT

    MODELLING

    BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS

    MAJOR AXIS BENDING

    BEAM

    SPLICES

    COLUMN

    BASES

    SIMPLE

    SEMI-

    CONTINUOUS

    CONTINUOUS

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    M

    M

    ?

    ?

    ?

    M

    Characterization

    Modelling

    Classification

    Idealization

    Four successive steps for structural integration

  • Design of Structural Steel Joints

    • Introduction

    • Integration of joints into structural design process

    • Moment resistant joints• Simple joints

    • Design tools

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    ExampleSingle sided beam-to-column joint configuration, bolted end-plate connection

    + +

    + +

    M

    V

    15

    3

    IPE220

    HEB140

    120

    60 10

    8030 30

    240

    4 M16 8.8

    140

    u=10p=60

    5

    w=

    To be evaluated:

    Design moment resistance , initial stiffness

    0

    1

    1,01,0

    M

    M

    Material: S 235

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    General data

    2 2 140 2 12 2 12 92wc c fc ch h t r mm

    2

    2 2

    4295,6 2 140 12 7 2 12 12 1307,6vc c c fc wc cA A b t t r

    mm

    80 70,8 0,8 12 26,9

    2 2

    fc

    c

    w tm r mm

    140 8030

    2 2

    cb we mm

    2 2

    ,

    0

    12 2350,25 0,25 8460 /

    1,0

    fc yc

    pl fc

    M

    t fm Nmm mm

    Column

    Equivalent T-stub in tension

    F /4t

    Ft

    F /4t

    F /4t

    F /4t

    m e

    leff

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    General data

    + +

    + +

    15

    3

    IPE220120

    60 10

    8030 30

    240

    4 M16 8.8

    140

    u=10p=60

    5

    w=

    z

    9,2220 10 60 165,4

    2 2

    fb

    b

    tz h u p mm

    6,

    ,

    0

    285.406 235 10 (classe 1 section) 67,07

    1,0

    pl yb yb

    c Rd

    M

    W fM kNm

    Lever arm

    Beam

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    General data

    2 2

    ,

    0

    15 2350,25 0,25 13.218 /

    1,0

    p yp

    pl p

    M

    t fm Nmm mm

    mp

    mp2

    80 5,90,8 2 0,8 2 3 33,66

    2 2

    wbp w

    w tm a mm

    2 0,8 2 60 10 9,2 0,8 2 5 35,14p fb fm p u t a mm

    140 8030

    2 2

    p

    p

    b we mm

    End plate

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    General data

    5,5

    1

    33,660,53

    33,66 30

    p

    p p

    m

    m e

    2

    2

    35,140,55

    33,66 30

    p

    p p

    m

    m e

    Alpha factor for effective lengths

    End plate

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    General data

    3

    ,

    0,9 0,9 800 157 1090,43

    1,25

    ub st Rd

    Mb

    f AF kN

    3

    ,

    0,6 0,6 800 157 10 (shear plane in thread) 60,3

    1.25

    ub sv Rd

    Mb

    f AF kN

    1

    0,5 12 15 10 14,8 2 4 47,42

    b fc p bolt nutL t t h h mm

    Bolts

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 1 – Column web in shear

    Vwp

    Vwp

    F

    M

    z

    F

    3,

    ,

    0

    0,9 0,9 1307,6 235 10159,7

    3 3 1,0

    vc y cw

    wc Rd

    M

    A fV kN

    Assumption : 1

    ,

    ,1

    159,7159,7

    1

    wc Rd

    Rd

    VF kN

    1

    0,38 0,38 1307,63,004

    1 165,4

    vcAk mmh

    Resistance

    Stiffness coefficient

    Transformation parameter

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 2 – Column web in compression

    , , min 2 2 2 5 ; 2 5

    min 9,2 2 5 2 2 15 5 12 12 ; 9,2 5 2 15 10 5 12 12 161,27

    eff c wc fb f p fc fb f p fcb t a t t s t a t u t s

    mm

    , ,Assumption : min 1,0; 1,7 / 1,0wc com Ed y wck f

    , , ,

    2

    161,27 92 2350,932 0,932 0,543 0,673 1,0

    210000 7 7

    eff c wc c y wc

    p

    wc

    b d f

    E t

    1 2 2

    , ,

    1 10,713

    1 1,3 161,27 7 1307,61 1,3 /eff c wc wc vcb t A

    3

    ,2 , , , 1/ 1 0,713 1 161,27 7 235 10 1,0 189,1Rd wc eff c wc wc y wc MF k b t f kN

    Resistance

    Reduction factors to account for compression stresses and instability

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 2 – Column web in compression

    F

    F k Ei i i

    , ,

    2

    0,7 0,7 161,27 78,589

    92

    eff c wc wc

    wc

    b tk mm

    h

    Stiffness coefficient

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 3 – Column web in tension

    , , min 2 ;4 1,25 min 2 26,9;4 26,9 1,25 30 145,10eff t wcb m m e mm

    1 2 2

    , ,

    1 10,749

    1 1,3 145,1 7 1307,61 1,3 /eff t wc wc vcb t A

    3

    ,3 , , , 0/ 0,749 145,1 7 235 10 1,0 178,7Rd eff t wc wc y wc MF b t f kN

    , ,

    3

    0,7 0,7 145,1 77,728

    92

    eff t wc wc

    wc

    b tk mm

    h

    Resistance

    Stiffness coefficient

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Equivalent T-stub in tension

    Component No 4 – Column flange in bendingComponent No 5 – End plate in bending

    F /4t

    Ft

    F /4t

    F /4t

    F /4t

    m e

    leff

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    T-stub – Effective length

    Distinction between circular and non-circular yield line patterns

    Circular patterns Non-circular patterns

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    T-stub – Effective length

    Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

    Group 1+2 Group 2+3 Group 1+2+3

    Row 1

    Row 2

    Row 3

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    T-stub – Effective length

    Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

    Row 3

    ,3 ,3, ,3, ;( )Rd Rd indiv Rd groupF min F F

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Bolt rows consideredIn this example: only bolt row 1 is considered for tension forces

    + +

    + +

    M

    V

    15

    3

    IPE220

    HEB140

    120

    60 10

    8030 30

    240

    4 M16 8.8

    140

    u=10p=60

    5

    w=

    Row 1

    Row 2

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 4 – Column flange in bending

    , , , , 145,1 (see column web in tension)eff t fc eff t wcl b mm

    min ;1,25 ; / 2 min 30;1,25 26,9;30 30pn e m b w mm

    Resistance

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    3, , , , 3

    , , 2

    2 2 2 145,1 8460 2 90,4 10 3010 138,5

    26,9 30

    eff t fc pl fc t Rd

    fc Rd t

    l m B nF kN

    m n

    , , 3 ,2 2 90,43 180,9fc Rd t t RdF B kN

    Mode 1 - Complete yielding of the flange

    Mode 2 - Bolt failure with yielding of the flange

    Mode 3 - Bolt failure

    Component No 4 – Column flange in bending

    , , , 3

    , , 1

    4 4 145,1 846010 182,5

    26,9

    eff t fc pl fc

    fc Rd t

    l mF kN

    m

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 4 – Column flange in bending

    ,4 , , 1 , , 2 , , 3min ; ; 138,5Rd fc Rd t fc Rd t fc Rd tF F F F kN

    3 3, ,

    4 3 3

    0,9 0,9 145,1 1211,59

    26,9

    eff fc t fcl tk mm

    m

    Resistance

    Stiffness coefficient

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 5 – End plate in bending

    , , min 2 ; min 2 33,66; 5,5 33,66 185eff t p p pl m m mm

    min ;1,25 ; min 30;1,25 33,66;30 30p p pn e m e mm

    , , , 3

    , ,1

    4 4 185 13.218Mode 1: 10 291

    33,66

    eff t p pl p

    ep Rd

    p

    l mF kN

    m

    3, , , , 3

    , ,2

    2 2 2 185 13.218 2 90,43 10 30Mode 2: 10 162,1

    33,66 30

    eff p t pl p t Rd p

    ep Rd

    p p

    l m B nF kN

    m n

    ,5 , ,1 , ,2 , ,3min ; ; 162,1Rd ep Rd ep Rd ep RdF F F F kN

    Resistance

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 5 – End plate in bending

    3 3, ,

    5 3 3

    0,9 0,9 185,0 1514,73

    33,66

    eff t p p

    p

    l tk mm

    m

    Stiffness coefficient

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 7 – Beam flange and web in compression

    ,7 , 367,07

    / 318,2210,8 10

    Rd c Rd b fbF M h t kN

    7k

    Resistance

    Stiffness coefficient

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 8 – Beam web in tension

    , , , , 185eff t wb eff t pb l mm

    3

    ,8 , , 0/ 185 5,9 235 10 1,0 256,5Rd eff t wb wb yb MF b t f kN

    8k

    Resistance

    Stiffness coefficient

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Component No 10 – Bolts in tension

    ,10 ,2 2 90,43 180,9Rd t RdF B kN

    10

    1571,6 1,6 5,30

    47,4

    s

    b

    Ak mm

    L

    Mode 3 in T-stubs for components:

    • “column flange in bending”

    • “end plate in bending”

    Resistance

    Stiffness coefficient

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Mj,Rd

    Design moment resistance

    ,min 138,5 (Column flange in bending)Rd Rd iF F kN

    3

    , 138,5 165,4 10 22,91j Rd RdM F z kNm

    , , ,

    215,27

    3j el Rd j RdM M kNm

    Design plastic moment resistance

    Relevant component

    Design elastic moment resistance

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Stiffness

    Sj,ini

    2 62

    ,

    210000 165,4 10/ 1 6234 /

    1 1 1 1 1 1

    3,004 8,589 7,728 11,59 14,73 5,30

    j ini i

    i

    S E h k kNm rad

    , / 2 3117 /j j iniS S kNm rad

    Initial stiffness

    Secant stiffness

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Design moment-rotation characteristic

    M

    Sj,ini

    Sj,ini

    SjS

    j= /

    Ersatzsteifigkeit:

    M j,Rd

    2/3Mj,Rd

    Secant stiffness

  • Design of Structural Steel Joints

    • Introduction

    • Integration of joints into structural design process

    • Moment resistant joints

    • Simple joints• Design tools

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Nominally pinned joints

    Braced frame

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Nominally pinned joints

    V 0 M = 0

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Design of simple joints

    ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)

    • Background information

    • Design guidelines

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Classification and modelling of joints

    Limits for classification of joints by stiffness

    Nominally pinned

    Semi-rigid

    RigidMj

    Initial stiffness of the joint

    Sj,ini

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Classification and modelling of joints

    Sj,ini

    Limits for classification of joints by stiffness

    Nominally pinned

    Semi-rigid

    RigidMj

    Initial stiffness of the joint

    “Semi-rigid” joints :

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Classification and modelling of joints

    As an alternative to a semi-continuous modelling (semi-rigid joints), is it safe to

    model the joints as nominally pinned whilst they are actually semi-rigid?

    Semi-rigid Sj,ini > 0,5EIb/Lb

    Partial strength Mj,Rd > 0,25 Mfull-strength

    Nominally pinned Sj,ini = 0

    Nominally pinned Mj,Rd = 0??

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Classification and modelling of joints

    Yes, …under the reservation the joint has:

    • a sufficient rotation capacity

    = capacity to “rotate”

    • a sufficient ductility

    = capacity to follow the actual

    loading path in a ductile way

    VRd

    V

    M

    Yielding criterionMRd

    Supposed

    loading path

    Actual loading

    path

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Supplementary design requirement

    Sufficient resistance to «catenary effects» so as to provide required structural

    robustness

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Example: Partial depth end-plate

    Components

    • Bolts in shear

    • End-plate in bearing

    • End-plate in shear (gross section)

    • End-plate in shear (net section)

    • End-plate in shear block

    • End-plate in bending

    • Beam web in shear

    • Welds in shear

    • Column flange in bearing

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Partial depth end-plate

    Strength requirement

    • Use of “component method” for the assessment of VRd

    Assessment of the strength of all the constitutive components of the joint

    +

    “Assembly” of these components

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Partial depth end-plate

    Rotation capacity requirement

    Bending moment

    Rotationavail

    Contact between supported beam and supporting element

    Compression force

    Bendingmoment

    Bolts in tension

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Partial depth end-plate

    Rotation capacity requirement

    hp

    he

    tp

    hbdb

    avail

    p bh d

    p

    avail

    e

    t

    h

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Partial depth end-plate

    Ductility requirement

    • Prevent premature fracture of the bolts

    • Prevent premature fracture of the welds

    under unavoidable bending moment in the joint

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Partial depth end-plate

    Ductility requirements

    • Prevent premature collapse of the bolts

    2,8yp

    p ub

    fd

    t f

    2,8ycf

    p ub

    fd

    t f for the supporting column

    d and fub : diameter and tensile strength of bolts

    for the end-plate

    Yielding of end-plate prior to tensile fracture of bolts

  • Design of Structural Steel Joints

    • Introduction

    • Integration of joints into structural design process

    • Moment resistant joints

    • Simple joints

    • Design tools

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Practical design tools

    • Tables of standardized joints

    • Dedicated software

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Worked Example Configuration Beam IPE 500 Column HEA 340 End plate connection

    Design assumption Rigid joint

    Frame analysisMEd = 220 kNm

    CoP software used for this example: http://cop.fw-ing.com

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Design resistance: MRd = 196 kNm < 220 kNmClassification: Semi-rigidFailure mode: Column web in compression

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Failure mode:End plate in bending

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Failure mode:Column web panel in shear

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Failure mode:Column web panel in shear

  • Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

    Failure mode:Column web panel in shear

  • Design of Structural Steel Joints

    Dr. Klaus WeynandFeldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

    Prof. Jean-Pierre JaspartUniversity of Liège, Belgium