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Overview of the common school movement in America

Transcript of Commom Schools2008

  • 1. The Common School 1830-1890

2. A Time of Unprecedented Change

  • Territorial expansion
  • Dramatic Population Growth
  • Civil War
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Social Reform

3. Jacksonian Democracy

  • The eraof the Common Man
  • Universal Manhood Suffrage
  • Local Control

4. A new Working Class

  • Immigration
  • Urbanization
  • Industrialization

5. Social Problems

  • Industrial revolution
    • Textile industry
      • Lowell Massachusetts
    • Immigration
      • Potato famine in Ireland
    • Gap between classes

6. Reform Movements

  • Abolition of slavery
    • Concord Mass.
    • Henry Ward Beecher

7. Reform Movements

  • Womens Suffrage
    • Susan B. Anthony
    • Lucretia Mott
    • The Grimke Sisters
    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton

8. Reform Movements

  • Temperance
    • WCTU

9. Reform Movements

  • Reform of Prisons
  • Mental Institutions
    • Dorothea Dix

10. Reform Movements

  • Was the Goal . . .
  • Social Justice?
  • Social Control?
  • Both?

11. The Common School Movement

  • New England Beginnings
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • Transcendentalism
    • Every human has a Spark of the Divine
    • We have a moral obligation to help others
    • Education is liberating

12. Monitorial (Lancasterian) System

  • Economical
    • 1 teacher and up to 300 students
  • Rote memorization
  • Considered suitable for workingclass children

13. Catherine Beecher and the Common School

  • Daughter of Henry Ward Beecher
  • Sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • Founded
    • Hartford Female Seminary
    • Western Institute for Women

14. Horace Mann and the Common School 15. Horace Mann

  • First state Secretary of Education in Massachusetts
  • He was a reformer.
    • Led the fight for:
      • Railroads
      • Insane asylums

16. Horace Mann

  • In 1837 he ended his law practice and became Massachusetts first Secretary of Education

17. Horace Mann

  • The state takes better care of its livestock that it does of its children.

18. Horace Mann

  • Common schools would serve all boys and girls and teach a common body of knowledge that would give each student an equal chance in life.
  • It is a free school system that knows no distinction of rich and poor. . . It throws open its doors and spreads the table of its bounty for all children of the state.

19. Horace Mann

  • Education then, beyond all other devices of human origin, is the equalizer of the conditions of men, the great balance wheel of the social machinery.

20. Henry Barnard and the Common School

  • First U. S. Commissioner of Education
  • His goal was for America to create:
    • Schools good enough for the best and cheap enough for the poorest.

21. Characteristics of the Common School

  • Funded by local property taxes
  • Available for all white children
  • No tuition charges
  • Governed by local school committees (boards)
  • Regulated by the States

22. Opposition to common schools

  • A system funded by state tax dollars
  • Irish Catholics
    • They were expected to attend schools that were anti-catholic

23. The Great School Debates

  • Bishop John Hughes
    • We will not send our children where they will be trained without religion, lose respect for their parents and the faith of their fathers and come out turning up their noses at the name of Catholic. . . In a word, give us our just proportion of the common school fund.

24. The Great School Debates

  • New York Herald
    • Once we admit that the Catholics have a right to a portion of the school fund, every other sect will have the same. . . We shall be convulsed with endless jarrings and quarrels about the distribution of it and little left for the public schools.

25. The Parochial School Movement 26. The Kalamazoo Case 27. Jigsaw Activity

  • Count off by 5 to form discussion groups
    • Discussion Group
      • 1s with 1s; 2s with 2s, etc.
      • Negotiate within your group so that each of you is responsible for one of the readings
      • Fifth annual report
      • Eighth annual report
      • Tenth annual report
      • Twelfth annual report (A)
      • Twelfth annual report (B)

28. Jigsaw Activity

  • Expert Group
    • Discuss your article in your group
      • What are the main ideas?
      • What will you teach in your Discussion Group?

29. Jigsaw Activity

  • Return to your discussion group
    • Teach the other members of your group about your article
      • Everyone take notes
    • What common themes did you notice?