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Chapter VIIIChapter VIIIChapter VIIIChapter VIIIChapter VIIIThe Myths Are Written DownThe Myths Are Written DownThe Myths Are Written DownThe Myths Are Written DownThe Myths Are Written Down
Asato ma sat gamaya. Domajo ma jo deer gamaya. Mrit yur ma um bru dum gamay.Om Shanti, Shanti, Shanti, Om.(Meaning: Lead us from the unreal to the real, from darkness unto light, from the fear ofdeath to the knowledge of immortality.) -- Sanskrit Chant
Language is one quantity, while writing is a different quantity. Two groups may have a similar language, but haveentirely different scripts. When investigating Berber script, one must keep in mind that letters that look the same asin another language, may have a different sound value. Conversely, letters that look different may turn out to havesimilar sounds; the letter (G) may sound like the letter (C) or the letter (K) or even be used as a (Q).
Two groups may have a similar script, but have entirely different languages. This is true for Chinese symbols.The many Chinese dialects cannot understand each other, but if Mandarins and Cantonese write their words downon paper, they are able to communicate.
Then we have the Rig Veda of India, and stories set down in Sanskrit in the Hindu Mahabharat. Sanskrit is avery fancy writing, while Cyrillic, Minoan, Cypriot, Linear A, and Linear B look more like seafarers’ jottings. Theroots of the Sanskrit language are still misty. Sanskrit uses the Devanagari alphabet of thirteen vowels and 34consonants. Every letter is a single syllable of each word. It is read from left to right. Arabic is read from right to left.Ancient Greek was read both ways, as a farmer plows a field. Mayan and Japanese are read up and down.
Some early Babylonian information was revealed by Oannes, the sea fish god or person, who instructed men onwritten language, science, building temples, making laws, and geometry, approximately 5000 years ago. This earlylanguage was set down in cuneiform writing, then in seafaring language, then in Hebrew. Eventually in some coun-tries in the Near East, Aramaic language was spoken and used with the Arabian alphabet.
Ancient writing is found all over the world. We need to inquire which form of writing appears to be the mostbasic or ancient. Triangles and crosses, arrows and counting sticks are certainly very primitive. Linear A and Minoanwere in use 1100 to 400BCE. The Bible comments on the durability of writing in Job 19:23-24, “My words gravenwith an iron pen and lead in the rock forever!”
Innovators or avatars climbed past the road block of fundamentalist religions to look for universal truths. Somemembers of humankind search for a god or gods or supernatural beings or “ground of being” or “force”. Whenpeople are generally so resistant to change, how does a new religious culture or language or laws or writing get a footin the door? (Discovering God, Rodney Stark, pp.44,46,48). The beginnings of Zoroastrianism are far back in history. Onetranslation of the name Zoroaster is living star. Another is fire from the star. Some blame the names of the seven-dayweek on Zoroaster’s idea of seven heavenly bodies. Zoroaster can be pictured with a mace (varva), a rod with a bull’shead, or a star-studded globe. The Babylonian name was Zarathushtra; the Persian, Zartosht. There may have beenmany culture heroes that arrived before Noah’s time, and they all blended into one holy person. They may have comeout of occult myths from legendary Mu. There were doubtless several personages that reflected the Zoroaster image,as there may have been several Quetzalcoatls. One of these individuals wrote the Gathas (in a script similar toSanskrit) about 6000BCE, which makes the Gathas the oldest known literature. Zoroaster is said to have composedand sung a song, The Virtue of Stone (Pen lithon timion). One of the Palestinian Nag Hammadi writings is said to befrom Zoroaster. Legends told about Zoroaster were also transferred onto to Jesus: Jesus was rejected in his home-town; he wrestled with the devil; he attended a wedding. It is reported that the Patriarch Jacob wrestled with God.Myths have a repetitive life of their own. The parables of Jesus are often his compassionate updating of earlier moreaggressive parables.
The carriers of the Secret Doctrine that antedate the Vedas may have been Aryans, Semites, or Chinese Turanians.Helena Blavatsky in Isis Unveiled brings back some of the occult philosophy of the Aryan race and the Book ofDzyan (or Chan). The Book of Dzyan is written in the sacred language of Senzar, and appears to have come out of theTibetan civilization. Civilizations and religions seem to have a rise and a decay. There are famines and wars andinspirational leaders. The old ways are transformed into the new. The cycle keeps repeating.
The Harappan civilization in southwest India was invaded by Aryans. These Indo-Aryan invaders either came orwent through Margiana of Turkmenistan, where they left behind remnants of a Bronze Age irrigation system in the
vicinity of Mary (or Merv) in the Murgab River delta about 2200-1700BCE. Mehrgarh is one of the earliest sites inPakistan. (March/April Archaeology, pp.41-47,p.62). Inscriptions uncovered there foreshadow Chinese inscriptions used2500 years later in Xinjiang. The Indo-Iranian invaders or Oxus civilization also had roots in Bactria which is inpresent day northern Afghanistan. The Mary area is a well preserved center on the Ancient Great Silk Road with a 40meter high mausoleum. Those colonizers had horses. Did they bring them on boats from the west, or did they trainand develop local horses? Horses were probably a good means of transportation for the Silk Road. Horses have beengood friends to humans for many years. Horse and camel remains on butchering tools have been found in Colorado,dated to 13,000 years ago.
Multitudinous tribes and civilizations have moved around the earth covering many time periods. The Oxuscivilization from presentday Afghanistan may have brought the Vedas to India. Veda means knowledge in Sanskrit.The Vedas contained ritual lore sketched on birch bark or palm leaves, earlier than 1500BCE. Tree bark and leaveswere also used for preserving important writings in Central America.
Afghanistan (or Bactria) and Iraq (or Mesopotamia) have been tribal locations for countless centuries. Sumer inIraq is pre-dated by Jericho near the Dead Sea and Catal-Huyuk, a town in Turkey at 6500BCE. Roads are builtwithout walls to facilitate the interaction of knowledge. Jericho was “walled” in 1200BCE. At 1000BCE came theevent of male priests, warfare, and iron weapons. As areas such as Iran and the Sahara became worn out fromfarming and suffered from desertification, those searching for safe places to live, migrated to places that had waterresources. Population movement in Iraq was in the Uruk Period (3800BCE); in the Jemdat Nasr Period (3200-2900BCE); in the early dynasties (2900-2370BCE); in the Agade and Ur III Period (2000BCE). There are myths thataccompany many of these tribal movements. Many of these myths get intertwined with each other. One tribe willborrow myths from another location. The God Dumuzi in Mesopotamia held sway after the flood, but was still partof the tales about mythical leadership. (See Sumerian Mythology by Christopher Siren.)
Nabateans invented the North Arabic script. They had a spice route in the Negev desert. In 312BCE they success-fully defended their city of Petra against Alexander’s troops. Twenty four syllabic symbols in Egyptian hieroglyph-ics were modified to fit the Canaanite tongue in the Hyksos period. Carthage was a part of Canaanite Society, but itslanguage was Punic. Punic may refer to the Phoenicians or to the biblical Put and Lud.
Where did the people on Crete originate? The Minoan civilization palace at Cnossus in Crete was a pentagon,which is a fairly complicated structure. Minos served for 9 years as elected ruler on Crete which was a fairly compli-cated government. With the expansion on Crete circa 2300BCE, the people had numbers and writing from an un-known Asian language, with Minoan words ending in “inth” like Corinth, hyacinth, labyrinth, or ending in “assa”like Thalassa (sea). Could this be Sanskrit approaching from India? Cretan goddesses were associated with thesymbols of snakes, birds, pillars, trees, and the double ax. Linear A writing was found at Miletus in western Turkeyand also on pottery on the Island of Crete. Could it be that at some time the eruption of Thera caused Minoans andCretans to go to North America, a land far away, known about because of venturesome traders? (Imagining Atlantis,Richard Ellis, pp.116,136.) From1800-1650BCE there was linear A at Phaistos, and also earthquakes. The Phaistos Disk,a clay disk composed of 241 impressions made from 41 stamps, was discovered in the palace in Minoan Crete atPhaistos. (See Glyphbreaker by Stephen Roger Fischer.) Disturbances occurred on Crete about 1500BCE with a change inwriting to Linear B. In 1430BCE Cnossus was sacked and the Mycenaeans took over from southern Greece. Therewas an age of decay of Minoan Crete society (1439-1150BCE). Troy had been destroyed by the Hittites about1900BCE (second city on the site). Troy was destroyed by an earthquake about 1365BCE (sixth city on the site).Troy was destroyed by the Greeks and Mycenaeans about 1184BCE. (The Evolution of Civilizations, C. Quigley, p.250-265).
Looking at the Italian coastline, the Etruscans were dominant from 968BCE to 41BCE ending with a fire inbeseiged Perugia. Etruscans had blood-offerings (were killed) by related Etruscans. Blood offerings were practiced(before Abraham), by the Philistines, and also by the early natives of Central America. Some think that humansacrifice, or a gift of blood energy, was performed to ensure that the sun would continue to come up each morningand spread its energy upon the earth. An important Etruscan law giver was Tages. There were twelve books ofdoctrines. Etruscans were practitioners in reading the future from animal innards and the flight of birds. There was adiscovery in Cumae (southern Italy) of a large drinking cup, a scyphus, “with partial sentences composed of wordsseparated by dots similar to those found in other Etruscan inscriptions”. (The Etruscans, Agnes Carr Vaughn, pp.45-49,134,135.)The Etruscan Trinity was Tinia, Uni, and Menrva. Etruscans had strange funereal pillars, and writing on tombs (Figure8.2). Rasenna was their ancient name. The Greeks called them Tyrrheni or Tyrseni which may be related to Tyre, orT’arseni which may be related to R’asenna. Herodotos, Greek historian of 5th century BCE felt that the Tyrrheni
came from Lydia in Asia Minor (Anatolia, Turkey) as it is known today). Dionysius of Halicarnassus (under Agustus)said the Etruscans had always lived in Central Italy as Rasenna. Their laws and gods were not Lydian. Germanscholar Niebuhr felt they came from the north over the eastern Alps. Mayani of the University of Paris comparedAlbanian and Etruscan languages and felt Etruscans came from the Danube Basin. Etruscan writing is read from theright to the left. South of the Mediterranean, the writing is usually done from right to left. North of the Mediterra-nean, writing is usually done from left to right. Some writing was done on turtle shells.
Russell Burrows stumbled onto a mysterious cave on the Little Wabash River near Olney, Illinois. Among themany artifacts he claimed to have found, was a golden sarcophagus. The writing on these artifacts appeared to be acombination of Etruscan and Latin. Many persons screamed “fake”, and the discouraged Burrows dynamited thecave about 1989. About ten years later it turned out that water had leaked in and damaged what was left of the cave.Local Native American legends remembered that long ago, there had been visiting royalty in the area. It has beensurmised that a Mauritanian Prince Ptolemaeus (1BCE to 40AD), the son of Cleopatra Selene and Juba II, fled fromthe Romans to the safety of North America when there was a political upheaval. They may have heard of the travelagenda of another famous personage, Hannibal of Carthage, in 146BCE.
There is a similarity between the Shang Dynasty 1700BCE of China and Olmecs in Meso-America 1200BCE.Both had writing and a reliable calendar. (Ancient American Inscriptions, McGlone, etc. p.20,21). Inscriptions are hard to dateand hard to translate. Some authorities are willing to yell out, FAKE, rather than to attempt a translation. There arecertain steps to follow to sleuth out inscriptions: Some rocks can be age-tested. Transcription must be as accurate aspossible; give letter forms and sound values; decide language being used; read sound values in that language; consultwith specialists about nuances. Several translators may come up with widely opposing translations.
Rochester Creek petroglyph pictured a rainbow! The Rochester site in Utah has both Egyptian and Amerindianbackground, and may have a BCE date. This petroglyph may commemorate the rainbow that was set in the sky afterthe flood, to assure people that there would never be such a flood again. (Ancient American Inscriptions, McGlone, Leonard,Guthrie, pp.65,123,245,252,267.) The rainbow is also spoken of as a symbol of loving community.
Tifinagh script appears to be Nordic in origin, carried to Africa by the Norse. With the limited knowledge oftribal travels, we could equally say it is a North American script carried to Norway and Africa by Native Americancopper traders. Where did the Celts acquire their myths and writing signs? Some of the English stories about Arthurcame out of India. Algonquian Cree Syllabary has similarities with ancient Basque writing. There was use of some-thing like the Cree Syllabary by many tribal peoples, but 17th century missionaries helped to suppress it in theirdesire to use their own language. The Davenport Stone from a mound on Cook farm in Iowa has an ancient May Daytype ceremony depicted with writing. Syllabary values similar to Basque also occur in early alphabets in Assyria andArabia. (Ancient American Inscriptions, McGlone, etc. pp.197-203,235,303,305,317.)
Barry Fell who was knowledgeable about early writing, says Cypriot characters were used in Portugal and theCanaries until the 3rd century BCE, and continued in America as the Mamalohikan script of the Algonkian elite(Figure 8.1). Arawak artifacts excavated in Peurto Rico in 1880 carry Cypro-Minoan signs; they used Tavino language.Susquehanna stones from Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, have similar writing. Comalcalco, Mexico, Tabasco State,and other Mexico temple mounds constructed of fired brick were inscribed with Neo-Punic. Bricks of the Mochica ofPeru have Tifinagh or Numidian marks of 300BCE to 300AD (Fell). (Ancient American Inscriptions, McGlone,etc.pp.308,309,313,314.) The Iberian/Punic alphabet could have arisen in any of these places in the Middle East or inNorth America in places like Iowa, Massachusetts, or coastal areas.
There are conflicting written words and conflicting legends. The legendary Joshua from Palestine didn’t seem tohave writing ability until he or his followers arrived in Wales.Wales is quite a jump from Israel, but Welsh mythscontain a Joshua hero. The Welsh writing may have come from North America or North Africa or from acrossEurope. In Joshua 3:9, we read that “God will drive out the Hittites, the Canaanites, the Amorites, the Jebusites, etc.See also Deuteronomy 7. Joshua 13:8 says that Moses assigned the territory. Moses led people from Egypt, andJoshua led the people in Israel. Joshua helped divide up the land. The Book of Joshua 21:43-45 gives the rulingking’s promise of land in the name of God written down on Babylonian cuneiform tablets. Be aware that the nameJoshua=Jesus=Hesus=Hu, and that in Welsh mythical stories, Hu the Mighty or Hu Gardarn Hyscion came from thevicinity of Constantinople. The Cimry, or Cimmaron, came with Hu sometime before Brutus of Troy went to Britain(which Brutus did in 1149BCE), giving his name to Britain. (<http://hope-of-Israel.org/aztec.htm> or hope~of~Israel>) Mythi-cal leaders get transferred by verbal legends told by travelers.
The Smithsonian of June 2003, page 44, and Jake, believe that Uruk was the birthplace of the written word,
about 3200BCE. The fame of Uruk, one scribe wrote, “like the rainbow, reaches up to the sky as the new moonstanding in the heavens.” A ziggurat to the sky god Anu towered over the city. There is a connection with theworship of the sky god and Newgrange, Boyne County, Ireland. A person named Uriel evidently possessed wisdomabout heavenly bodies, and incorporated this information in the buildings at Stonehenge and Newgrange. Ur, Uruk,and Uriel refer to the knowledge of the heavenly bodies. (Uriel’s Machine: Uncovering the secrets of Stonehenge, ChristopherKnight, Robert Lomas Books). Early peoples saw shapes in the stars. Some early signs came from the constellations thatmen imagined. People wrote down their star symbols and their constellation drawings. We can see why the sun andmoon symbols are what they are. If there were an advanced community going by the name of Atlantis, they probablyhad a writing system. Phelicia believes the temple-building people in the Americas understood the movements ofthe planets. If a disaster hit Atlantis, they would have taken their writing system with them to wherever they couldfind refuge, such as Greece or Egypt or Turkey or South America or China. Egypt credits its hieroglyphic writingsystem to a legendary figure named Thoth. The Etruscans came from some place with a pre-Cypriot script. If adisaster hit Atlantis, would those fleeing Atlantis have taken the winds and the currents to arrive at the mouth of theMediterranean? Would they have found refuge in Portugal or the Spanish highlands or the Italian coastline? CouldLatin be an offshoot of Atlantian language and writing? Egyptian hieroglyphics may have grown out of NativeAmerican pictographs. Pictographs can be carbon dated by a process called plasma chemical oxidation.
There are many samples of early writing found in the United States. Early Sites Research Society has catalogedscripts from Dighton Rock, Massachusetts. The Dighton Rock writing has four possibilities (1)Portugese (2) Norseor Viking (3)Phoenician (4)Native American or All of the above. Other samples are Bat Creek with Cherokee Syllabary;Newark, Ohio’s Decalogue Stone; Grave Creek Tablet at Moundsville, West Virginia; Kensington Stone, Minnesota(which is like 14th century Sweden script of the Bohuslan region); Los Lunas Stone in New Mexico with the TenCommandments in an ancient alphabet with a 107BCE eclipse petroglyph nearby. The Los Lunas Decalogue stoneuses the Tetragrammaton in 3 places; its age is 500 to 2000 years old. This same style writing has been seen in theLake Superior area. (Ancient American Inscriptions, McGlone, Leonard, Guthrie, Gillespie, Whittall etc. 1993.) Cyrus Gordon trans-lated the Phoenician writing on the Pariba Stone in Brazil as reporting that Tyrians from Ezion-Geber around Africa,were blown by storm to Brazil.
The Los Lunas Stone in New Mexico with the Ten Commandments Stone nearby, triggers an exciting train ofthought; first, the writing, and secondly, what is written. The writing has been called Early Hebrew. Other examplesof that same type of writing have been found on Crete, in the Lake Superior area, in Ecuador, and with the Basques.You might call this type of writing Seafarer Script. The Early Hebrew is an outgrowth of the writing that was used bytraders around the world, as represented by the Kittim, the Tribe of Dan, the Phoenicians, and others.
Another part of the problem has to do with the “Ten Commandments”. The mythical story is that Moses came upwith the Ten Commandments while guiding his unruly tribes through the wilderness. They were carved by God ontwo tablets of stone. However, shortly before the tablets in the wilderness, a Babylonian monarch had similar lawscarved on a great rock in three different languages, so that everyone under his rule could know what the rules were.Where did the Babylonian king get his rules? Could they have come from the Seafarers who had to have effectiverules in order to do a good job of trading? Where did the rules originate? The original place may have been Los Lunasin the State of New Mexico, but it is more likely that when the first city was built, the city fathers and mothers neededwise regulations to keep their citizens under control. The Ten Commandments can be easily revised to fit differentcommunity situations. We must not think of them as belonging exclusively to Jews or Christians. Perhaps they wereformulated as early as the Zoroastrian beliefs.
Consider the Golden Rule. It has been acknowledged that the Golden Rule exists in all the great religions of theworld. When we go against the Golden Rule, we will surely end up in an economic downspin. Examples of theGolden Rule are, from sponsoring link, <http://www.scarboromissions.ca/> .....
Baha’i Faith: “Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee, and say not that which thoudoest not.” “Blessed is he who preferreth his brother before himself.”Baha’u’llah: “And if thine eyes be turned towards justice, choose thou for thy neighbour that which thou choosestfor thyself.” (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf).Brahmanism: “This is the sum of Dharma [duty]: Do naught unto others which would cause you pain if done toyou”. (Mahabharata, 5:1517).Buddhism: “...a state that is not pleasing or delightful to me, how could I inflict that upon another?” (Samyutta Nikaya
v. 353). “Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.” (Udana-Varga 5:18).Christianity: “Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this isthe law and the prophets.” (Matthew 7:12, King James Version).Confucianism: “Do not do to others what you do not want them to do to you.” (Analects 15:23). “Try your best to treatothers as you would wish to be treated yourself, and you will find that this is the shortest way to benevolence.”(Mencius VII.A.4).Ancient Egyptian: “Do for one who may do for you, that you may cause him thus to do.” (The Tale of the EloquentPeasant, 109 - 110 Translated by R.B. Parkinson).Hinduism: “This is the sum of duty: do not do to others what would cause pain if done to you.” (Mahabharata 5:1517).Humanism: “(5) Humanists acknowledge human interdependence, the need for mutual respect and the kinship of allhumanity.” “(11) Humanists affirm that individual and social problems can only be resolved by means of humanreason, intelligent effort, critical thinking joined with compassion and a spirit of empathy for all living beings.”“Don’t do things you wouldn’t want to have done to you.” (British Humanist Society).Islam: “None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.” (Number 13 of ImamAl-Nawawi’s Forty Hadiths).Jainism: “Therefore, neither does he [a sage] cause violence to others nor does he make others do so.” (Acarangasutra5.101-2). “In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should regard all creatures as we regard our own self.”(Lord Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara) “A man should wander about treating all creatures as he himself would be treated.”(Sutrakritanga 1.11.33).Judaism: “...thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” (Leviticus 19:18). “What is hateful to you, do not to your fellowman. This is the law: all the rest is commentary.” (Talmud, Shabbat 31a) “And what you hate, do not do to any one.”(Tobit 4:15).Native American Spirituality: “Respect for all life is the foundation.” (The Great Law of Peace).“All things are our relatives; what we do to everything, we do to ourselves. All is really One.” (Black Elk).“Do not wrong or hate your neighbor. For it is not he who you wrong, but yourself.” (Pima proverb).Roman Pagan Religion: “The law imprinted on the hearts of all men is to love the members of society as themselves.”Shinto: “The heart of the person before you is a mirror. See there your own form; ...” “Be charitable to all beings;love is the representative of God.” (Ko-ji-ki Hachiman Kasuga).Sikhism: “Compassion, mercy, and religion are the support of the entire world.” (Japji Sahib), “Don’t create enmitywith anyone as God is within everyone.” (Guru Arjan Devji 259).Taoism: “Regard your neighbor’s gain as your own gain, and your neighbor’s loss as your own loss.” (T’ai Shang KanYing P’ien).Unitarian: “The inherent worth and dignity of every person ... Justice, equity and compassion in human relations....The goal of world community with peace, liberty, and justice for all. ... We affirm and promote respect for theinterdependent web of all existence of which we are a part.” (Unitarian principles).Wicca: “An it harm no one, do what thou wilt.”Yoruba: (Nigeria): “One going to take a pointed stick to pinch a baby bird should first try it on himself to feel how ithurts.”Zoroastrianism: “That nature alone is good which refrains from doing unto another whatsoever is not good foritself.” (Dadistan-i-Dinik 94:5) “Whatever is disagreeable to yourself do not do unto others.” (Shayast-na-Shayast 13:29).
We often think of Jesus as being the originator of the Golden Rule, but consider the following quotes from Socratesand Plato 500 years earlier:Socrates: “Do not do to others that which would anger you if others did it to you.” (Greece; 5th century BCE).Plato: “May I do to others as I would that they should do unto me.” (Greece; 4th century BCE).
How do we know that the sayings of the Golden Rule don’t go back through Atlantis? The Queen of Mu may havebeen the first to proclaim the Golden Rule to her fellow citizens. The Rule could have come out of Africa with homosapiens. Because the earth was born of the Good Spirit, the Rule may be interpenetrating throughout all the earth.Perhaps it was unspoken, but followed even among the animals. We must show concern for all that exists in order totruly exist ourselves.
Some samples of early writing are briefly mentioned below. With writing on rocks, ancient markings existmixed in with older and younger graffiti. Where the Nemaha and Missouri Rivers intersect, there is modern graffiti
all around sun hieroglyphs, showing a need for preservation and protection of early sites (Figure 8.2). In Canada, theaged rock writing is fading away. You can see an ‘o’ and an up-side-down triangle (Figure 8.3). The AlgonquianSyllabary was used by the Cree tribe in Canada. It is similar to the Basque syllabary in Spain. (Bronze Age America,Barry Fell, p.148). NEARA Journal Volume 38, Number 1 has an explanation of the Iowa Davenport stele by CharlesHerberger. The picture on the slate represents the alternate churning of the cosmic pillar (Figure 8.4). The pillar restson the back of the cosmic turtle. The little figures are pulling ropes that turn the pillar this way and then that way,like a May Pole. The figures on the left are benevolent, while those on the left are not so kindly. The Davenportcalendar stele was found by Reverend M. Gass in a burial mound in Iowa in 1874. Its inscription is in three lan-guages, (according to Barry Fell in America BCE, page 261). The Native Americans were not illiterate. The Algonquiansranged from the coastal Atlantic south as far as Kentucky and North Carolina, north as far as Maine and NovaScotia, and as far west as the Rockies. There were 50 tribal dialects. I am sure they were clever enough to makemeaningful signs and symbols and trading calculations. They were able to sign land sales, which turned out to be abig mistake. They thought they were selling hunting rights, not real estate. Father Eugene Vitromile in 1866 relatedthat Wabanaki Indians of northern New England used hieroglyphics that were inscribed vertically and horizontallyin either direction (Fell, America BCE page 259).
Some examples of early writing from around the world might include The Bat Creek inscription. It was foundwith wooden ear spools and some copper artifacts that were made from metals that included a leaded yellow brassalloy (27% zinc and 3.3% lead). This combination of metals was used in the Middle East only between 45BCE and200AD. The writing on the small stone tablet at Bat Creek was first stated to be Cherokee, but some authoritiesbelieved that the Cherokees had no writing until 1700AD when a northern European visitor to the Americas helpedto set down the Cherokee alphabet. This person was recording ancient information, not creating a new and originalalphabet. Believing that Cherokee writing did not exist, the writing experts said the Bat Creek Stone was Paleo-Hebrew. A Paleo-Hebrew translation is “A Comet (or star) for the Jews – Year 1 (or 6)”. The year may refer to thelength of their exile. Bat Creek flows into the Little Tennessee River. There was another ‘A’ and a frontwards ‘E’ onthe Bourne Stone, Massachusetts, which is in a museum at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This was a hearth stone at afireplace in Cape Cod. A child asked the grownups what the writing meant. They had never noticed the writing. Thewriting has a similarity to that found by members of the New England Antiquities Research Association (NEARA)in the Catskills in New York State. The Grave Creek Mound in West Virginia was supposedly constructed by theAdena Tribe 2000 years ago. The Grave Creek Stone is a small oval sandstone with Celt-Iberic characters.
In 30BCE Egypt became a Roman Province. Roman emperors built huge ships and transported at least 50obelisks from Egypt to Rome. When the Roman Empire fell, so did many of the obelisks. Some people get a chargeout of destroying ancient or modern statuary. Witness the pulling down of the statue of Sadam Hussein. Somearchaeologically minded popes, such as Sixtus V (1585-90) re-erected some of the obelisks and exorcised them forChristian usage. These four faced stone columns, often of red granite, were put up to honor the Sun God Ra.Obelisks were built in the Egyptian city of Junu (the biblical On) which the Greeks called Heliopolis (meaning Cityof the Sun), and the Hebrews called Beth-shemesh (House of the Sun). The lines of writing on the obelisks are readin the direction in which the birds are facing.
The Aztec calendar or giant sun-stone was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. It is oneof the Meso-american calendars, sharing the basic structure of calendars from throughout ancient Mesoamerica.This calendar is recorded as a carving on the Aztec Calendar Stone currently found in the National Museum ofAnthropology and History located within Chapultepec Park, Mexico City. The calendar consisted of a 365 daycalendar cycle and a 260 day ritual cycle. These two cycles together formed a 52 year century, sometimes called theCalendar Round. The calendar year began with the springtime appearance of the Pleiades star cluster in the eastimmediately before the dawn light.
Another round artifact is the Phaistos Disc from Crete which is 16 centimeters in diameter. Ancient measurementsvary in different countries. A sample of measurements from Crete are: 1,000 Minoan feet=366 megalithic yards.One megalithic second of arc=366 megalithic yards. The circumference of the earth is split into 366 degrees. Themegalithic yard as explained by Alexander Thom, was a standard unit of length throughout western Europe andequaled 2 feet, 8.64 inches or 82.966 centimeters. A ‘short yard’ or vara in use in Mexico, Peru, and Spain equaled32.5 inches. The gaz used in ancient India and Babylon was about 33 inches.
The Moabite or Mesha Stone in Jordan is a piece of polished black basalt about 3000 years old with an inscriptionabout King Mesha, a Moabite king. When it was discovered, the Royal Museum of Berlin offered to buy it, as the
inscription was identified as Phoenician. When the local people realized it was valuable and were ordered to turn itin to the Damascus authorities, they burned it, rather than comply. In its heated state, they doused it with cold water,and it fractured. They then sold the various pieces. In 1873 the pieces were reassembled and the stone is on exhibitionin the Louvre Museum, Paris. Measurements are 44 inches high, 28 inches wide, and 14 inches thick.
There is also a remarkable inscribed Tablet from the Crespi Collection of Cuenca, Ecuador (Figure 8.5). “Thesesymbols are enclosed by square lines called tocapu giving them a similarity to an Egyptian cartouche. (America’sAncient Stone Relics by Dexter & Martin, p.175). There is a 2100 year old Babylonian cuneiform tablet registering thepassing of Halley’s Comet. (From advertisement of The Mystery of Time by National Geographic.) There is a bone box orossuary, inscribed with ‘James son of Joseph, brother of Jesus’ from the Talpiot tomb site. There is a tombsite in theTalpiot section of Jerusalem that some claim to have been the final resting place of the physical body of Jesus Christ,of his mother Mary, of his brother James, and of his friend, Mary Magdalene. If Mary Magdalene is in the sametomb, it is more likely that she was Jesus’ wife, which is a persistent myth that keeps arising down through history.The Lost Tomb of Jesus is a well-researched DVD by Simcha Jacobovici.
Do we need myths and miracles in order to believe in the efficacy of justice, compassion, and truth? Whenpeople speak of Jesus rising from the dead, do they mean his physical body is floating in space, or are they talkingabout his spiritual being as available to comfort us and continue to heal us? The tombsite in the Talpiot section ofJerusalem may have held the bones of Jesus son of Joseph, Maria, Maria Magdala, James brother of Jesus, Judas sonof Jesus (Could this be Judas, student of Jesus?) and others. The front of the tomb is marked with a circle containedin a larger triangle, which is called the Talpiot Tomb symbol.
The Newberry, Michigan, tablet was made of unfired clay, so it didn’t last long when exposed to the elements.It was found buried in the ground by two hunters who were chasing an animal down its burrow. After being displayedin outdoor locations, it disintegrated, but its writing was carefully recorded (Figure 8.6). Some Chinese scripts can becompared with stones found in the Catskills and the Newberry tablet. Maya glyphs are read top to bottom in Shangfashion while Newberry is read up-down and side to side.
The Lachish Ostracon is from the 7th century BCE, the times of the biblical Jeremiah and Zedekiah. Ostraconmeans a clay tablet. The message is to the military governor of the City of Lachish. It establishes a piece of thehistory of the Jewish people. Another Jewish historical document was found at Tel Dan which is at the northernborder of Israel. It confirms the presence of the House of David in Israel over 2900 years ago. Tel Dan also has agated archway, long before the Romans displayed their ‘Roman arch’. Where did all this writing begin? Ugarit is anancient Canaanite seaport famous for its use of an alphabet that simplified record keeping for ship users.
Jake agrees with developments in writing that use dates after 4000BCE such as at the ancient city of Uruk. It isbelieved that clay tokens and tablets were used about 3500BCE; pictographic symbols, circa 3500BCE; ideographicsymbols, circa 3100BCE; hieroglyphics, 3000BCE; hieratic script, 2500BCE; and the Phoenician alphabet, circa900BCE. Semetic writing on metal plates was a popular way for kings to record their history. When Phelicia citespicture writing, she visualizes the fancy writing of RongoRongo descending from Sanskrit about 13,000 years ago.
Berbers, Tauregs, and Amazons have an Atlas/Atlanta/Atlantean connection. The Atlas Mountains are in northwestAfrica. The Libyan Amazons were located in that part of Africa where the Berber peoples lived and still live. TheBerbers are the aboriginal people, and they call themselves Amazigh in their language. The words tell and talo comefrom the Finnish Talossa and from the Balearic Island Talayotic. In Morocco the people are Amazigh and the languageis Tamazight. With the Hopewell of pre-Columban Ohio, the people were known as the Alligewi and the culture orlanguage was Tallegewi. The Hopewell referred to themselves as Tallegewi. In these instances the letter ‘T’ is addedin front of the people’s name in the same manner as we add the article ‘the’ before a noun. Berber and Hokanlanguages are related. The Hohokum culture, the Hokan language, and the Hokanish people are in California and theeast and west coasts of Mexico and the coast of Yucatan and Honduras. Women are held in a pre-eminent position inBerber society, though it depends on what extent the Berbers were absorbed by the Arabs. Arabs tend to separatewomen and men. For about 1300 years the Berber peoples were threatened, conquered, and finally absorbed byArab invaders. There was a significant historical event at the first Arab invasion about 700AD. It was a femaleBerber leader named Kahina, who put up a fierce resistance to the Arab conquerors and even succeeded in drivingthem back, though in the end she was killed. There are amazing parallels between the Berbers and the tradition of theAmazons. There are fascinating Berber fortresses which have a strong resemblance to the architecture of theThemiskyra fortress on a Greek vase. The conformity of tower battlements on both fortresses is very remarkable.Even in the social life of the Berbers there persists elements of their unique culture. For the most part only the Berber
women are literate and only they know how to write a special alphabet, the Tifinagh, which is based on ancientLibyan writing. Literature and poetry are handed down by the Berber women. Ancient Libya was closely allied withEgypt. An ostrich feather in the hair signifies a Libyan. Also, a feather might signify a tribe of Native Americans.The Tuaregs of the African Sahara are the best example of genuine Berber culture. This people lived in the Saharadesert and because of its seclusion could preserve their unique customs.
We can relate early Jewish script or Seafarer script to the Hittite script or the Titicaca script as Arthur Posanskythinks Hittite, Easter Island, and Lake Titicaca have similar early writing. Another similarity among Bosnia (orformer Hittite territory), Costa Rica, Easter Island, Peru, and Mexico is that they have large round polished stonesmade of granodiorite, one of which weighs four tons. The name, Hittite = H+titi. The Hittite people were metallur-gists, (titi may have to do with mining). They crafted iron chariots. The Titicacans had all kinds of metals to trade,as well as metallurgical knowledge. We can speculate on a mysterious relationship between early Bosnians (orHittites) and Native Americans boating to Turkey from Peru or Costa Rica. Was Noah one such navigator?
8.1Algonquian Syllabary: Bronze Age America, Barry Fell, p.148.
AH: soundsas infather
E: soundsas in get
I: soundsas in eator Indian
O: soundsas in openor moon
Figure 8.2: Where the Nemahaand the Missouri join, USA.
photo by C.E.C.
Fig.8.3 Cree Indian Writing,Milk River, Alberta, Canada
Barry Fell, Bronze Age America
Figure 8.4 Davenport Slate, IowaPhoto by C.E.C. taken in Davenport Museum
Fig. 8.5 Writing from Crespi Collection,Museum, Cuenca, Ecuador
America’s Ancient Stone Relics, Dexter & Martin, p.175.