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Transcript of Ch2 Quality Management

ASQ Certified Quality Engineer.

Ch 2. Quality Management.

Edited by Seung Hyun Lee (Ph.D., CRE/CQE) E-mail :, bb Homepage :

Quality Definition.[CQE Primer p 3]

Definitions. Fitness of use. (Joseph M. Juran) Conformance to requirements. (Philip Crosby)

The total composite product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacturing and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectations of the customer. (Armand V. Feigenbaum) The totality of features and characteristics of a product that bear on its ability to satisfy a given need. (The American Society for Quality : ASQ)

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Quality Definition.[CQE Primer p 3]

Some of the Determinants of Quality.ProductPerformance. Features. Reliability. Conformance. Durability. Serviceability. Aesthetics. Perceived Quality.

ServiceReliability. Responsiveness. Competence. Access/Courtesy. Communication. Credibility. Security/Safety. Knowing the Customer.

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Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Philip B. Croshy (1928 - 2001) Quality is conformance to requirements. Four absolutes of quality1. Quality means conformance to requirements. 2. Quality come from prevention. 3. Quality performance standard is zero defects. 4. Quality measurement is the price of nonconformance.

14 step approach to quality improvement.1. Management Commitment. 2. Quality Improvement Team. 3. Measurement. 4. Cost of Quality. 5. Quality Awareness. 6. Corrective Action. and Zero Defect Day. 8. Employee Education. 10. Goal Setting.- 4 -

11. Error Cause Removal. 13. Quality Councils. 14. Do it All Over Again.

7, 9. Zero Defects Planning 12. Recognition.

Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. W. Edward Deming (1900 - 1993) The PDCA cycle and the concept of 85% management (system) versus 15% operator controllable improvement approach. Deming's Chain Reaction.Improve quality Decrease costs (less rework, fewer delays) Productivity Improves Capture the market with better quality and price Stay in business Provide jobs.

Deming's philosophy is one which focuses on individuals as fellow members of a system, and treats people as partners, as customers, as neighbors, and as friends. While the Deming philosophy benefits the individuals in a firm, the company itself should be able to reap benefits from this new philosophy.- 5 -

Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Armand V. Feigenbaum (1920 - ) Statement on Total Quality Control (TQC). Principles for the success of TQC.- TQC is a company wide process, all functions are involved. - Quality is what the customer says it is. - Quality and production costs are in partnership . . . higher quality will equate with lower costs. - Both individual and team zeal are required. - Quality is a way of managing, providing a continuous and relentless emphasis on quality through leadership. - Quality and innovation can be work together in product development. - As an ethic, all of management must be involved in quality, not just the specialist. - Requires continuous improvement, the use of new and existing technologies. - Is the most cost-effective, least capital intensive route to productivity and is implemented with both customers and suppliers.- 6 -

Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa (1915 - 1989) Company wide quality control(CWQC), the quality circle and fishbone diagram. Main characteristics of CWQC.1. More education and training in quality control. 2. Quality circle are really only 20% of the activities for CWQC. 3. Participation by all members of the company. 4. Having QC audits. 5. Using the seven tools and advanced statistical method. 6. Nationalwide quality control promotion activities.

The concept of internal customer : "Next operation as customer".

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Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Joseph M. Juran (1904 - ) Juran Trilogy. Juran's basics of quality success.- Top management must commit the time and resources for success. CEOs must serve on the quality council. - Specific quality improvement goals must be in the business plan and include : The means to measure quality results against goals. : A review of result against goals. : A reward for superior quality performance. - The responsibility for improvements must be assigned to individuals. - People must be trained for quality management and implement. - Workforce must be empowered to participate in the improvement process.

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Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Joseph M. Juran (1904 - ) Juran Trilogy.Quality Planning. Quality planning is used to create the process that will enable one to meet the desired goals. Quality Control. Quality control is used to monitor and adjust the process. Chronic losses are normal in a controlled state, while the sporadic spike will cause investigations. Quality Improvement. Quality improvement will reduce the chronic losses and move the process to a better and improved state of control and that's the "last word".

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Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Joseph M. Juran (1904 - )

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Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Walter A. Shewhart (1891 - 1967) Control chart. Shewhart framed the problem in terms of "assignable-cause" and "chance-cause" variation and introduced the "control chart" as tool for distinguishing between the two. Shewhart's charts were adopted by the American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM) in 1933. The charts were used to improve production during World War ll in the form of American War Standards Z1.1, Z1.2 and Z1.3

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Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Walter A. Shewhart (1891 - 1967) The Shewhart chart. The Shewhart cycle (PDCA) or Deming (PDSA) is a very helpful procedure to follow for improvement at any stage. This procedure can be used with or without a special cause being indicated by use of any statistical tool. This design cycle was adapted as a general problem solving technique by the Japanese. Deming in turn, modified the Japanese approach to a continual improvement spiral called PDSA.

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Quality Philosophies.[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Genichi Taguchi (1924 - ) Quality is the financial loss to society after the article is shipped. The evaluation of quality.Use the loss function and signal-to-noise ratio as ways to evaluate the cost of not meeting the target value.

Improvement of quality and cost factors.Use statistical methods for system design, parameter design, and tolerance design of the product. The methods could include quality function deployment, signal to noise characteristics, and design of experiments

Monitoring and maintaining quality.Reduce the variability of the production line. Insist on consistency from the floor.- 13 -

Professional Quality Skill and Conduct.[CQE Primer pp23 - pp26]

Roles of Quality Engineers. Quality managers and engineers make their greatest contributions in the liaison arena, by making and maintaining good relations with personnel outside their chain of command.

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Professional Quality Skill and Conduct.[CQE Primer pp23 - pp26]

Required Professional Quality Skills. Motivating subordinates. Development and maintaining peer relationships. Establishing networks for the dissemination of information. Carrying out negotiations. Resolving conflicts. Securing and allocating resources. Making decisions. Making effective use of time.

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Professional Quality Skill and Conduct.[CQE Primer pp23 - pp26]

Required Professional Quality Conduct. Be sensitive to changes in the attitudes and performance of employees. Be willing to delegate authority and to make assignments that are commensurate with worker abilities, plant facilities, and employee training. Take every possible opportunity to make fair, attainable, and challenging assignments to all employees. Accept responsibility for personal mistakes and subordinates in taking corrective action when they make mistakes. Set an example for employees and be consistent in daily activities. Keep subordinates informed about relevant policies and issues. Review subordinates regularly and keep them apprised of performance and ratings. Exhibit a positive outlook and seek value in achievement. Be responsive to the needs of subordinates.- 16 -

Quality Management Systems.[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Vision and Mission Statement. Having a team solve a specific process problem (little Q item) Having teams throughout the company solve problems. (big Q item) To be link-pin for the organization in the area of quality activities.

Quality Departmental Mission Statement : Examples. We will reduce the response time of our departmental laboratory testing from 5 days to 1 day through better communication, improved equipment, change of operating shifts and procedures. On quality improvement projects, the quality department will provide "draft" documents to stakeholders within 48 hours of the request.

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Quality Management Systems.[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Management System Focus. Quality mangers or engineers focus on organizational wide problems as much as 80% of their activities, such as- Process operations quality requirements. - Customer specifications from marketing. - Purchasing and supplier quality requirements. - Team building issues. - Quality cost data. - Quality information systems. - Quality planing.

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Quality Management Systems.[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Strategic Planning. Strategic planning is the process of consideri