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  • 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis

2. Human Geography Chapter2 Roots & Meaningof Culture Insert figure 2.19b Photo credit: Getty RF 3. Components of Culture

  • Culture Traits
  • Culture Complex
  • Culture System
  • Culture Region
  • Culture Realm
  • Globalization

Human Geography11e Photo credit: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Barry Barker, photographer 4. Components of Culture

  • Culture Traits
    • Units of learned behavior
    • Tools
    • Languages
    • Objects
    • Techniques or beliefs
    • Elementary expressions of culture
  • Culture Complex
    • Traits that are functionally interrelated
    • The assemblage of traits

Human Geography11e 5. Components of Culture

  • Traits and complexes have areal extent and they can be plotted on maps
  • Culture System
    • A broader generalization than a cultural complex
    • Refers to the collection of interacting cultural traits and cultural complexes that are shared by a group within a particular territory

Human Geography11e 6. Components of Culture

  • Culture Region
    • A portion of the earths surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics
  • Culture Realm
    • A set of culture regions grouped whenever they show related cultural complexes and landscapes
  • Globalization
    • Homogenization of cultures as economies are integrated and uniform consumer demands are satisfied by standardized commodities

Human Geography11e 7. People and Environment

  • Environments as Controls
    • Environmental Determinism
      • The belief that the physical environment exclusively shapes humans, their actions, and thoughts
    • Possibilism
      • A reaction against environmental determinism; people are dynamic forces of development (the environment is not as dynamic like human beings)
  • Human Impacts
    • Cultural Landscape

Human Geography11e 8. Roots of Culture

  • Hunter-Gatherers
    • Pre-agricultural people dependent on the year-round availability of plant and animal foodstuffs they could secure
    • Rudimentary stone tools and weapons
    • Hunters and gatherers required considerable territory to support a relatively small number of individuals

Human Geography11e 9. Seeds of Change

  • Cultural Divergence
  • Carrying Capacity

Human Geography11e 10. Agricultural Origins and Spread

  • Domestication of Animals and Plants
    • Farming
    • Plant Domestication
      • Food crops cultivated
      • Raising crops
    • Animal Domestication
      • The successful breeding of species that are dependent on human beings

Human Geography11e 11. Neolithic Innovations

  • New Stone Age

Human Geography11e 12. Culture Hearth

  • The place of origin of any culture group whose developed systems of livelihood and life created a distinctive cultural landscape.

Human Geography11e 13.

  • Multilinear Evolution
    • The common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances
    • Environmental zones tend to induce common adaptive traits in the cultures of those who exploit these areas
    • Comparable events cannot always be explained in the basis of exporting techniques
      • Significant time and space differences

Human Geography11e 14.

  • Diffusionism
    • Cultural similarities are the product of spatial spread from common origin sites
  • Cultural Convergence
    • Differences between places are being reduced by improved communications leading to homogenization
    • Sharing of technologies so evident among widely separated societies in a modern world united by efficient communication systems

Human Geography11e 15. The Structure of Culture

  • Ideological Subsystem
    • Mentifacts
  • Technological Subsystem
    • Artifacts
  • Sociological Subsystem
    • Sociofacts
  • Cultural Integration

Human Geography11e 16. Culture Change

  • Innovation
    • Cultural Lag
      • Resistance to change
  • Diffusion
    • The process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space

Human Geography11e 17.

    • Expansion Diffusion
      • Contagious diffusion affects nearly uniformly all individuals and areas outward from the source region
      • Hierarchical Diffusion involves processes of transferring ideas first between larger places or prominent people, and later to smaller or less important points or people
      • During stimulus diffusion, a fundamental idea, not the trait itself, stimulates imitative behavior
        • Spread of the concept but not the specific system

Human Geography11e 18. Culture Change

    • Relocation Diffusion
      • The idea is physically carried to new areas by migrating individuals
    • Acculturation
      • A culture is modified
      • Adoption of traits of another dominant group
      • Immigrant populations take on the values, attitudes, customs, and speech of the receiving society, which itself undergoes change from absorption of the arriving group.

Human Geography11e 19. Contact between Regions

  • Diffusion Barriers
    • Any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus retard or prevent the acceptance of an innovation
  • Syncretism
    • The process of the fusion of the old and new is called syncretism and is a major feature of culture change

Human Geography11e