Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

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  • Buffalo State College

    Mechanical Engineering Technology

    Senior Design Project Proposal

    Spring 2015

    Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

    Tip-to-Shroud Measurement System

    Sponsor: FS-Elliott Co. LLC

    Date Presented: March 10, 2015

    Design Team:

    Morgan Allis _________________________

    Chuck Mantell _________________________

    Bradley Brooks _________________________

    Jeff Villont _________________________

  • FS-Elliot Design Proposal Buffalo State College

    Page 2 Mechanical Engineering Technology

    ABSTRACT

    This project will introduce sensor technology to measure impeller-tip-to-shroud clearance

    into FS-Elliotts Polaris+ centrifugal air compressor model P300. FS-Elliott Co., LLC, is a

    leading centrifugal air compressor manufacturer with manufacturing locations around the world.

    FS-Elliott is seeking solutions to maximize efficiency of their compressors by controlling and

    monitoring distances between impeller blade tip and compressor shroud; the first step to this is

    installing a sensor to measure impeller tip clearance. This project will explore different sensing

    options to measure blade tip to shroud clearance. FS-Elliott will receive a package including

    optimal sensing recommendations, product installation into their P300 compressor, and cost

    analysis.

  • FS-Elliot Design Proposal Buffalo State College

    Page 3 Mechanical Engineering Technology

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section Title Page Number

    LIST OF FIGURES 1.0 4

    LIST OF TABLES 2.0 5

    INTRODUCTION 3.0 6

    P300 COMPRESSOR 4.0 8

    GUIDELINES 5.0 12

    SENSOR TECHNOLOGY 6.0 13

    CAPACITIVE 6.1 13

    INDUCTIVE 6.2 15

    LASER DOPPLER 6.3 16

    EDDY-CURRENT 6.4 18

    FIBER OPTICAL 6.5 20

    VARIABLE RELUCTANCE SENSOR (VR) AND HALL EFFECT 6.6 22

    Variable Reluctance 22

    Hall Effect 23

    PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR 6.7 25

    MICROWAVE DISTANCE SENSOR 6.8 27

    RESTRICTIONS 7.0 28

    CHOSEN DESIGN 8.0 28

    CAUSE AND EFFECT MATRIX 8.1 29

    PROJECT MANAGEMENT 9.0 30

    APPENDIX 10.0 31

    REFERENCES 11.0 32

  • FS-Elliot Design Proposal Buffalo State College

    Page 4 Mechanical Engineering Technology

    LIST OF FIGURES 1.0

    FIGURE 3.1. A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR IN THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS 6

    FIGURE 3.2. AN INTERNAL VIEW OF A COMPRESSOR BEING ASSEMBLED AT FS-ELLIOTTS MANUFACTURING

    FACILITY 7

    FIGURE 4.1. FS-ELLIOLTTS P300 COMPRESSOR SHOWING OUTBOARD (A.) AND INBOARD (B.) VIEWS 8

    FIGURE 4.2. A LOOK AT INTERNAL COMPONENTS OF FS-ELLIOTTS P300 COMPRESSOR 9

    FIGURE 4.3. TYPICAL OPERATION FLOW-DIAGRAM OF FSES P300 COMPRESSOR 10

    FIGURE 5.1. SENSOR PROBE INSTALLATION ANGLE 12

    FIGURE 6.1.1. POSSIBLE CAPACITIVE SENSOR PROBES 14

    FIGURE 6.2.1. INDUCTIVE SENSOR PROBE 15

    FIGURE 6.3.1. FIBER OPTIC LASER DOPPLER SYSTEM 17

    FIGURE 6.4.1. TWO BODY STYLE EDDY-CURRENT PROBES 19

    FIGURE 6.5.1. PHOTO OF MONARCH OPTICAL SENSOR 21

    FIGURE 6.6.1. IN A VR SENSOR, THE RESULTING ANALOG SIGNAL MUST BE FILTERED AND

    THRESHOLDED TO YIELD A USEFUL PULSE OUTPUT 22

    FIGURE 6.6.2. IN A HALL-EFFECT SENSOR, ALL LOW-LEVEL SIGNAL PROCESSING IS PERFORMED ON

    THE SILICON CHIP HOLDING THE TRANSDUCER 23

    FIGURE 6.6.3. WAYS THAT SENSORS TAKE THEIR READING FROM ROTATING OBJECT 24

    FIGURE 6.7.1 PHOTO OF PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR 26

    FIGURE 6.8.1 MICROWAVE SENSOR DIAGRAM 27

    FIGURE 8.1. SIMPLIFIED SCHEMATIC OF HB-01 30

  • FS-Elliot Design Proposal Buffalo State College

    Page 5 Mechanical Engineering Technology

    LIST OF TABLES 2.0

    Table 8.1 Cause and Effect Matrix 29

    Table 9.1. Gantt chart for project management section of our design 31

  • FS-Elliot Design Proposal Buffalo State College

    Page 6 Mechanical Engineering Technology

    INTRODUCTION 3.0

    FS-Elliott Co., LLC is a leading manufacturer of oil-free centrifugal air and gas

    compressors with sales, service, and manufacturing locations around the world. They

    manufacture a variety of air compressors that range from 450 HP (335 kW) to 2500 HP (1864

    kW) and 2090 CFM (987 l/sec) to 11500 CFM (5430 l/sec), As shown in FS-Elliott Co., LLC

    Polaris+ (2014). Markets and industries they serve include air separation,

    chemical/petrochemical, electronics, general industry, medical, mining, oil and gas,

    pharmaceutical, and refining.

    Turbo machinery is widely used with countless applications. Efficient aerodynamics

    makes centrifugal compression ideal for many industrial applications. Centrifugal compressors

    produce pressure by transferring energy from a rotating impeller to the air. Centrifugal

    compressors are efficient, low maintenance with minimum wearing parts, low vibration, and

    have excellent reliability over extended periods of time. FS-Elliott Co., LLC Polaris+ (2014).

    Figure 3.1. A centrifugal compressor in the manufacturing

    process

    at FS-Elliotts manufacturing facility in Export,

    PA

    This project will specifically deal with FS-

    Elliotts Polaris+ P300 centrifugal compressor. This

    compressor is a medium to small multi stage compressor with three stages of compression. P300

  • FS-Elliot Design Proposal Buffalo State College

    Page 7 Mechanical Engineering Technology

    compressors range from 250-450 hp (186-335 kW) and flow rates of 900-2090 CFM (424-986

    l/sec), and a discharge pressure of 45-150 psi (310-1034 kPa). FS-Elliott Co., LLC Polaris+

    (2014).

    This project involves introduction of a sensor that will measure impeller tip-to-shroud

    clearance on FS-Elliotts P300 centrifugal compressor. Numerous sensing technologies will be

    analyzed based on characteristics including cost, size, resolution, temperature rating, surface

    area, installation, electronics, durability, life expectancy, sensitivity to contamination, and need

    for calibration. FS-Elliott will receive design recommendations based on six-sigma matrix, 3D

    model of design, and project management analysis for the project. Successful introduction of

    sensor technology into FS-Elliotts centrifugal compressors could lead to further control of

    impeller tip-to-shroud distances by means of actuation.

    Figure 3.2. An Internal view of a compressor being assembled at FS-

    Elliotts manufacturing facility

    1. Driving bull gear for centrifugal

    compressor

    2. Driven pinion gear in which compressor impeller will be mounted

    P300 COMPRESSOR 4.0

  • FS-Elliot Design Proposal Buffalo State College

    Page 8 Mechanical Engineering Technology

    FS-Elliotts P300 compressor is a medium to small size, oil free, multi stage compressor,

    with three stages of compression. The P300 is the smallest centrifugal compressor that FS-Elliott

    manufactures and also has the highest rotational impeller speed as shown in FS-Elliott Co., LLC

    P-300 (2008).

    Rotational impeller speeds range from 51,310 rpm at low speed and 68,414 rpm at high

    speed. The P300 compressor has 15 full and 15 splitter blades in its 1st stage of compression, and

    17 blades in its 2nd and 3rd stages of compression. It operates at or below a temperature of 350F

    (177C). FS-Elliott Co., LLC P-300 (2008).

    Figure 4.1. FS-Ellioltts P300 compressor showing Outboard (a.) and Inboard (b.) views, as shown by Smith, D.,

    Tursky, M., Wellek, R. (2013).

  • FS-Elliot Design Proposal Buffalo State College

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    Figure 4.2. A look at internal components of FS-Elliotts P300 compressor, as shown, in Smith, D., Tursky, M.,

    Wellek, R. (2013).

    1. Pinion (driven gear), attached to the impeller.

    2. Bull gear (driving gear), connected to engine output, and drives impeller pinion.

    3. Impeller, consisting of 15 or 17 blades, moves air in a rotational direction to

    diffuser plates.

    4. Diffuser plates, causing a decrease in velocity allowing for pressure to increase.

    5. Shroud of compressor, component concerned with impeller tip clearance.

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    Page 10 Mechanical Engineering Technology

    Operation of the P300 compressor consists of ambient air entering an inlet control into its

    first stage of compression. A centrifugal impeller accelerates air and then velocity is slowed and

    pressure in increased, by means of a diffuser. Air then enters a bundle tube heat exchanger for

    cooling. The following diagram shown in (FSE P300 brochure), demonstrates the typical

    operation of FS-Elliotts P300.

    Figure 4.3. Typical operation

    flow-diagram of FSEs P300 compressor,

    as shown in FS-Elliott Co., LLC P-300

    (2008).

    1. Ambient air entering inlet control

    2. Air accelerated by first impeller. Temperature and velocity rise, before a radial

    diffuser plate slows velocity and creates pressure.

    3. Hot air enters first stage of intercooling. Air passes over water filled tubes with fins.

    4. Air makes two 90-degree turns begins to flow upward, allowing separation of

    condensed moisture from cooled air.

    5. Air exiting heat exchanger and flowing through second inlet control device for

    second stage of compression.

  • FS-Elliot Design Propo