Centrifugal Compressor

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Transcript of Centrifugal Compressor

Contentsy Purpose y Overview y Compressor y Components y Auxiliaries y Job Requirements y Key Points y API 617 Essentials

Purposey To compress gas from a lower pressure to a higher

pressure y Used in many applications:y Fertilizers

Ammonia Syn Gas, Urea Synthesis y Ethylene Charge Gas, Refrigeration Gas y Refineries Recycle, Cracked Gas y Natural Gas LNG (propane, refrigerant), Gas Lift, Gas Reinjection

Overview - Compressory Dynamic compressor y Basic principles y Centrifugal action

Overview Compressory Energy ConversionP4,V4,T4 P3,V1,T3 P5,V1,T5

P5,V1,T5 P2,V4,T2 P1,V1,T1

P3,V1,T3

Overview Compressory Application Parameters y Gases - All Types of Gases y Speed - 3,500 to 26,500 RPM y Pressure Up to 1,000 bar y Flow Range 1,000 to 300,000 m3/hr y Number of Stages - 1 to 10 Impellers y Natural gas pressure ratio up to 2 per stage

Overview Compressory Type of compressor y Single stagey

Booster application

Overview Compressory Multistagey y

Axially (Horizontally) split Radially (Vertically) split

Radially Split

Axially Split

Overview - Compressory Horizontal split or vertically split y Horizontal < 60 barg y Per API 617, radially split if partial pressure of Hydrogen at MAWP >1380 kpag or 200 psig.

Overview - Compressory Multistage types: y In-line y Back-to-back

Overview - Compressory Multistage types (continued): y Compound / Side-stream y Double flow

Overview - Components

Overview - Components

Overview Inlet Volute

Overview - Impeller

Overview - Impeller

Overview - Diaphragm

Overview Stage and Diffuser

Overview Discharge Volute

Overview Rotor

Overview Rotor

Overview Stator

Overview Assembly

Overview Assembly

Job requirementy Process data y Inlet pressure, temperature y Gas compositions (each stage) y Discharge pressure y Flow (mass or volume) y Driver compatibility y Variable speed (GT, ST, VFD) y Fixed Speed (EM)

Job requirementy Scope of supply incl. equipment & test reqmt y Major equipment y Auxiliaries y Spares y Tests y Installation & Commissioning y Layout, footprint and weight y Materials

Job requirementy Compressor selection / flexibility y Operating range y Sparing/operation philosophy y Re-bundling option y Rotordynamics y Avoid unwanted incidence high vibration, short lifecycle y Vendor s standard

Job requirementy Compliance to specs & int l standards y Project spec y API 617, 614, 616, 612, 670, 613 y Cost y Base price y Optional

Key points to considery Multiple process conditions y Power / Efficiency y Stages y Turndown capabilities y Utility consumption (dry gas seal, lube oil, utility) y Scope of supply y Auxiliaries y Test requirement y Specifications & Standards

Key points to considery Tests y Performed tests at planty y y

Hydrostatic test on casing Impeller overspeed test Mechanical run test continuous running Helium leak test Performance test meet contract requirement (PTC 10) String test

y Optionaly y y

API 617 Essentialsy API-617 7TH.pdf y Performance map (pg 92) y Rated point operating condition @ 100% speed,

highest capacity y Normal point optimum efficiency expected, certified point y MAWP RV setting or 1.25 x max discharge pressure y Std vs Normal volume 15C@atm vs 0C@atm y MCOS 105% for variable speed or 100% for motor