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Biblical Hebrew (Tiro) keyboard manualאר

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need to register the driver on your system, and second you need to acti-vate the keyboard in your text services settings.

Note that you do not need to do anything with the driver file itself. To register the driver on your system, double-click on the BHebTiro(�.�).msi install file. Windows will install the driver and register it on your system (this may take up to a minute depending on the speed of your computer). Once the driver is installed and registered Windows will re-port that the keyboard has been successfully installed.

Now you need to set up your text services to use the keyboard. Go to the Control Panel via Settings in your Start Menu and select ‘Regional and Language Options’. [Note that these instructions record the install process for Windows XP; the names of some settings windows may vary slightly in Windows 2000, but the process is the same.] This will open a new window with three tabbed panels. Select the ‘Languages’ tab, and then click the ‘Details...’ button. This will open the ‘Text Services and Input Languages’ window.

© John Hudson, 2004, 2005. For keyboard driver version .2See page 6 for upgrade instructions

IntroductionThis manual and keyboard charts are designed to help you make use of Tiro Typework’s Biblical Hebrew keyboard driver (v.2). This keyboard driver has been developed to facilitate typing of Biblical texts including teamin (accents/cantillation marks) and nikud (vowel points). The driver nikud (vowel points). The driver nikudworks with the Windows 2000 and Windows XP operating systems, and is being made available for download from the Society of Biblical Litera-ture website (www.sbl-site.org) as a service to scholars using the new SBL Hebrew font. The keyboard layout was developed by John Hudson, the designer of the SBL Hebrew typeface.

InstallationThe keyboard driver can only be installed on Windows 2000 and Win-dows XP. Because the keyboard driver, like the SBL Hebrew font, relies on Unicode character encoding, it cannot be installed on older operat-ing systems and will not work with non-Unicode applications that rely on 8-bit character sets.

The keyboard deliverable ships with an install file, BHebTiro(�.�).msi, and the driver itself, a dynamically linked library, BHebTiro.dll. These are delivered as a self-extracting zipped archive: BHebTiro(v�.�).exe. Unzip the install file and driver by double-clicking on the self-ex-tracting archive file. The files will be unzipped to a directory structure in the same location as the archive:

/BHebTiro(�.�)

/i���

BHebTiro.dll

BHebTiro(�.�).msi

Uninstaller.msi

Installing the keyboard on your system is a two-stage process: first you

222

Important Important Be sure that the ‘Install files for complex script and right-Be sure that the ‘Install files for complex script and right-to-left languages’ option in the lower part of this window is checked. You will need these files in order to be able to input Hebrew text.

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This window displays the languages and keyboards that are installed on your system. The window contents will depend on which languages and keyboards you currently have installed, and may not look exactly like the illustration above. To add a new keyboard, click the ‘Add...’ button to open the ‘Add Input Language’ window shown opposite. Select ‘Hebrew’ in the ‘Input Language’ field, and then select the Biblical Hebrew (Tiro) keyboard from the dropdown list of ‘Keyboard layout/IME’ options.

Note that when you first open the dropdown list the ‘Hebrew’ keyboard will automatically be selected. This is the modern Israeli keyboard, notthe Biblical Hebrew keyboard. You will need to scroll up to find the correct keyboard as shown above. Once you have selected the correct

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keyboard from the list you can close the ‘Add Input Language’ window. If you have successfully installed the keyboard in your text services, the ‘Text Services and Input Languages’ window will now look like this:

Note that it is possible to have more that one keyboard installed for a single language. For instance, you might have both the Biblical Hebrew and modern Israeli keyboard installed for Hebrew. In this case the ‘Text

Services and Input Languages’ window will list all keyboards associated with the Hebrew language.

It is strongly recommended that you set preferences to display the language bar on your desktop. This will place a small language/keyboard icon in the taskbar, which you can use to quickly and easily switch be-tween different keyboard drivers. To set this preference, click the ‘Lan-guage Bar...’ button in the ‘Text Services and Input Languages’ window to open the preferences dialogue, which should be set to look like this:

You can now close both the ‘Language Bar Settings’ dialogue and the ‘Text Services and Input Languages’ window. Your Biblical Hebrew key-board is installed and ready to use.

Using the language barThe language bar displays, in minimised mode, as a two-letter language icon in your taskbar. If your default input language is English, you will see a small blue square with the letters EN: If you left-click once on this icon a list of all text services supported languages will pop up. To use your Biblical Hebrew keyboard, select the Hebrew language (HE) from the pop-up list. [Note that this keyboard selection will only apply to the application you are using when you switch to the Hebrew key-board; other applications will continue to use your default keyboard or whichever one you have been using in them. If you want to use the He-

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brew keyboard in more than one application, you will need to activate it for each application.] If the Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard is the only keyboard you have associated with the Hebrew language, you are now ready to start typing Biblical Hebrew.

If you have more than one keyboard associated with the Hebrew lan-guage, the language bar should display a small keyboard icon next to the HE language icon when Hebrew is selected: If you hover your mouse pointer over the keyboard icon, it will display the name of the keyboard currently selected. If it is not the keyboard you want, click on the keyboard icon and select the preferred keyboard from the pop-up list. [Note that due to a display problem the keyboard icon might not appear immediately when you select the Hebrew language icon. To cor-rect this, right-click on the Hebrew language icon and select ‘Restore the Language Bar’ from the pop-up menu. This will display the full language bar on your desktop. Click the small minimise button in the top right of the language bar to return it to the taskbar: the keyboard icon should now be displayed next to the Hebrew language icon.]

Known input issuesThe Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard has been tested with a variety of ap-plications on Windows XP. The keyboard functions correctly in all test situations, inputting Unicode character values as specified in the charts on the following pages. However, a number of bugs have been identified in test applications. Most seriously, some shift-state keys on the Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard trigger an unwanted font change that breaks correct text rendering in Microsoft Office Xp, including Word 2002 (this bug has been fixed in Word 2003). Also, some applications, including Word, use the AltGr state of some keys as shortcuts to application func-tions, and these may override character entry from the Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard. Plain text applications such as Notepad do not have these problem, so it is possible to work around the bug by typing text in a plain text editor and then pasting it into Word 2002, Wordpad or another application.

Using the keyboard• Normal state. The Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard matches the posi-tioning of consonants in the modern Israeli standard keyboard. Un-like some Hebrew keyboard, this standard does not phonetically relate Hebrew letters to English equivalents (e.g. Y), but instead maps=י ,Q=קHebrew letters in a manner most convenient for efficient touch-typ-ing. This means that it may take some time and practice to familiarise yourself with the layout, but in the longer term you should be able to achieve decent typing speeds. Only the consonants and European num-bers strictly follow the layout of the Israeli standard keyboard: many modern punctuation characters that are not found in Biblical texts have been relocated from the normal and Shift states to the less commonly accessed Shift+AltGr state.• Shift state. This state is of the Tiro keyboard is completely given over to combining marks. These are arranged by type and by their default po-sition relative to a consonant. For example, cantillation marks such as telisha gedola that are positioned above and at the right of a consonant are grouped in the top right corner of the keyboard. Similarly, all cantil-lation marks that are positioned below a consonant are grouped in the bottom row of the keyboard. The vowel points—with the exception of holum, which is grouped with the above marks in the top row—are all arranged for most convenient access on the ‘home’ row of keys where the fingers rest.• AltGr state. Some keyboard hardware makes a distinction between the left and right Alt keys, identifying the latter as AltGr. Even if your keyboard does not have the right Alt key labelled as AltGr, some applica-tions will treat it as distinct. This means that, alone and in combination with the Shift key, two additional states can be utilised for text input. If you find that holding down the right Alt key does not provide access to this state, you can press a combination of Ctrl+Alt instead. The most important keys in the AltGr state of the Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard are the con-trol characters in the number row at the top of the keyboard. The use of these characters to affect rendering is detailed in the SBL Hebrew font

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manual. Note that this state contains three double-consonant char-acters that are included in the Microsoft standard Hebrew keyboard; these are Yiddish digraphs and should not be used in encoding Hebrew text.• Shift+AltGr state. This state contains modern punctuation characters not found in Biblical texts, remapped from their positions in the Shift state of the Microsoft standard Hebrew keyboard.

The keyboard chartsThe charts on the following four pages show the layout of the different states of the Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard. Each key is represented by a diagram containing an image of the character, a key identifier, a mne-monic name and the character’s Unicode value. There are three types of keys:

Base character keyThe large black glyph shows the character. The red letter or other character in the top left corner indicates the English keyboard identifier (e.g. the alef is located on the T key). The alef is located on the T key). The alefgrey text below the glyph names the character and gives its Unicode value.

Combining character keyThe black glyph shows the default positioning of the mark on a consonant, represented by a grey dotted circle. The other information is the same as on the base character key.

Control character keyControl characters are not normally displayed in text, and have no advance width, so they are represented in the key charts by a grey identifier in a dotted square. The other infor-mation is the same as on the base character key.

T

אalef

05D0

R

◌qar. para

059F

5I

zero width joiner200D

Note that the names on the key diagrams are meant only as an aid to identification. In some cases they have been abbreviated to fit on the key diagram, and not all names correspond directly to Unicode Standard character names or any other nomenclature. The Hebrew cantillation marks have different names in different traditions (the Sephardic and Ashkenazic traditions even use the same names for different marks) so users should be guided by the appearance of the glyph and the Unicode value rather than the name.

UpgradingVersion .2 of the Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard supports new charac-ters added in version 4. of the Unicode Standard. Inclusion of these characters in intuitive positions has required slight adjustments to the layout, so please refer to the keyboard charts.

If you have a previous version of the keyboard installed on your sys-tem, and wish to upgrade, you will need to uninstall the old one before you can install the new one. To do this, first remove the installed key-board from the list of ‘Installed services’ in the ‘Text Services and Input Languages’ panel (see page 4 for illustration, select keyboard from list and click ‘Remove’). Then run the Uninstaller.msi file that comes with the new keyboard install files, select the ‘Remove Biblical Hebrew (Tiro)’ option and then click ‘Finish’. Note that this uninstaller will work for either version of the keyboard driver. Once the old driver is uninstalled, run the BHebTiro(�.�).msi installer file and follow the instructions on the preceding pages.

See page for further instructions about uninstalling either version of the keyboard driver.

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`

׃sof pasuq

05C3

1

1one

0031

2

2two0032

3

3three0033

4

4four0034

5

5five

0035

6

6six

0036

7

7seven0037

8

8eight0038

9

9nine0039

0

0zero0030

-

־maqaf05BE

=

=equal003D

Backspace

Tab Q

◌masora dot

0307

W

׳geresh p.

05F3

E

קqof

05E7

R

רresh05E8

T

אalef

05D0

Y

טtet

05D8

U

וvav

05D5

I

ןfinal nun

05DF

O

םfinal mem

05DD

P

פpe

05E4

[

[bracket†

005D

]

]bracket†

005B

Caps Lock A

שshin05E9

S

דdalet05D3

D

גgimel05D2

F

כkaf

05DB

G

עayin05E2

H

יyod

05D9

J

חhet

05D7

K

לlamed05DC

L

ךfinal kaf

05DA

;

ףfinal pe

05E3

◌yetiv059A

Enter

Shift Z

זzayin05D6

X

סsamekh

05E1

C

בbet

05D1

V

הhe

05D4

B

נnun05E0

N

מmem05DE

M

צtsadi05E6

,

תtav

05EA

.

ץfinal tsadi

05E5

/

◌dehi05AD

Shift

Ctrl Alt Space

word space0020

\

׀paseq05C0

Alt (AltGr) Ctrl

Biblical Hebrew (Tiro) – US Standard layout State : Normal

Consonant positions are based on Israeli standard keyboard.

Most of the modern punctuation, not used in Bible texts, has been relocated to the AltGr+Shift state.

Note presence of combining marks yetiv and dehi and the double number dot for thousands in this state; these would not fit on the shift state with the other combining marks.

* Character not included in first release of SBL Hebrew font.

† Mirrored character: some applications may reverse display, e.g. )(

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Biblical Hebrew (Tiro) – US Standard layout State : SHIFT`

◌zinor05AE

1

◌tel. qetana

05A9

2

◌pashta

0599

3

◌segolta

0592

4

◌masora c.

05AF

5

RESERVED

6

◌holam05B9

7

◌rafe05BF

8

◌sin dot

05C2

9

◌shin dot

05C1

0

◌g. muqdam

059D

-

◌tel. gedola

05A0

=

◌dagesh

05BC

Backspace

Tab W

◌iluy05AC

E

◌ole

05AB

R

◌qar. para

059F

T

◌shalshelet

0593

Y

◌gershayim

059E

U

◌geresh059C

I

◌pazer05A1

O

◌zaq. gadol

0595

P

◌zaq. qatan

0594

[

◌revia0597

]

◌zarqa0598

Caps Lock A ◌meteg05BD

S ◌sheva05B0

D ◌qubuts

05BB

F ◌hiriq05B4

G ◌hat. segol

05B1

H ◌segol05B6

J ◌tsere05B5

K ◌hat. qamats

05B3

L ◌qamats

05B8

; ◌hat. patah

05B2

′ ◌patah05B7

Enter

Shift Z ◌punctum

05C5

X ◌mahapakh

05A4

C ◌yer. ben yomo

05AAyer. ben yomo

V ◌mer. kefula

05A6

B ◌merkha

05A5

N ◌darga05A7

M ◌tevir059B

, ◌atnah0591

. ◌tipeha0596

/ ◌munah

05A3

Shift

Ctrl Alt Space

word space0020

\

◌qadma

05A8

Alt (AltGr) Ctrl

Q

◌punctum

05C4

Combining marks are arranged by type and by normal position relative to a consonant.

Number row: above marks, incl. prepositional teamin, consonant modifiers, holam, textual marks, postpositional teamin.

Top row: dagesh, above centre teamin, upper punctum.

Middle row: below nikud.

Bottom row: below teamin, lower punctum.

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Biblical Hebrew (Tiro) – US Standard layout State : ALTGR (ALT+CTRL)`

;semicolon

003B

1 2 3 4

₪sheqel20AA

5I

zero width joiner200D

6H

zero width non joiner

200C

70

c. graph-eme joiner

034F

8J

left-to-right mark200E

9K

right-to-left mark200F

0 ◌generic

mark base25CC

-

-hyphen

002D

= Backspace

Tab W

״gersahyim p.

05F4

E

€euro*20AC

R T Y U

װdbl. vav

05F0

I O P [ ]

Caps Lock A S D F G H

ײdbl. yod

05F2

J

ױyod-vav

05F1

K L

◌qam. qatan

05C7

; ′ ,comma

002C

Enter

Shift Z X C ◌atn. hafukh

05A2

V B

׆n. hafukha

05C6

N M , . /

.period002E

Shift

Ctrl Alt Space

thin space2009

\

\backslash*

005C

Alt (AltGr) Ctrl

Q

◌thousands

0308

Note control characters in number row; these will not display and have no advance width, but can be used to affect rendering of specific character combinations. See SBL Hebrew font manual for more information.

The double consonant characters are Yiddish digraphs and should not be used for Hebrew text.

* Character not included in current release of SBL Hebrew font.

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Biblical Hebrew (Tiro) – US Standard layout State : ALTGR+SHIFT (ALT+CTRL+SHIFT )`

~asciitilde*

007E

1

!exclamation

0021

2

@at sign*

0040

3

#numbersign

0023

4

$dollar0024

5

%percent

0025

6

^asciicircum

005E

7

&ampersand*

0026

8

*asterisk

002A

9

(paren.†

0029

0

)paren.†

0028

-

_underscore

005F

=

+plus002B

Backspace

Tab W

'quote0027

E R T Y U I O P [

{brace*†

007D

]

}brace*†

007B

Caps Lock A S D F G H J K L ;

:colon003A

"dbl. quote

003B

Enter

Shift Z X C V B N M ,

<less003E

.

>greater

003C

/

?question

003F

Shift

Ctrl Alt Space

no-break space00A0

\

|bar*003B

Alt (AltGr) Ctrl

Q

/slash002F

This state is populated with punctuation characters that may be en-countered in modern Hebrew text, and which are mapped in the shift state of the Microsoft standard Hebrew keyboard.

* Character not included in first release of SBL Hebrew font.

† Mirrored character: some applications may reverse display, e.g. )(

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Uninstalling the keyboardIf you want to completely remove the Tiro Biblical Hebrew keyboard from your system, begin by opening the ‘Text Services and Input Lan-guages’ window as explained on pages 2–3. Select the ‘Biblical Hebrew (Tiro)’ keyboard from the list of installed services, and then click the ‘Remove’ button. Close the ‘Text Services and Input Languages’ window. Now locate the Uninstaller.msi file located in the same directory as the installer file. Double-click on the Uninstaller.msi file; you will be offered the option to remove or repair the keyboard. Ensure that the remove option is checked, and click okay. Windows will notify you when the keyboard has been successfully removed. Note that you must remove must remove mustthe keyboard from installed services before attempting to uninstall the driver using the Uninstaller.msi file. If you have not done this first step, the second will fail and the keyboard will not be removed.

If you have deleted the install and uninstall files, and need to remove the keyboard from your system, contact the distributor of the keyboard or revisit the download site and obtain a new copy of these files.