Baroque Music

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lecture on baroque music

Transcript of Baroque Music

  • THE BAROQUE ERA

    1600-1750

  • LIFE IN THE BAROQUE ERA

    Absolute monarchs

    Social hierarchy

    Elaborate codes of dress and manners

    International peace/economic expansion

    Rulers supported the arts

  • PHILOSOPHICAL/SCIENTIFIC THINKING

    Measurement/Mathematical Analysis

    Sir Isaac Newton: gravity, calculus, light spectrum

    Comparable principles applied to human thought/society

    Order and organization valued above all else in society & arts

  • ART

    Emotion could be objectively classified: specific emotions can be aroused (grief, joy, passion, despair)

    Painting: dramatic contrasts between light and dark

    Illusion: false depth

  • BERNINI: APOLLO & DAPHNE (1625)

  • REMBRANDT: SELF PORTRAIT

  • POZZO: TROMPE-L'OEIL DOME

    AT SANT'IGNAZIO (1685)

  • ARCHITECTURE

    Symmetry

    Grandeur

    Geometrically organized landscaping

    Elegant pools and gardens

  • LOUIS XIV: VERSAILLES

  • HALL OF MIRRORS

  • GARDENS

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF BAROQUE MUSIC

    Composers wanted to portray specific emotions

    Contrast and Illusion through dynamics and timbres

    Examples of contrast: 1) Concerto form

    2) Echo effect (f-p)

  • Only lasted 150 years (shorter than Middle Ages and Renaissance)

    Only the last 50 years of the era is represented in most orchestras

    Early Baroque: experimentation

    Late Baroque: organization and control, forms become standardized

    Forms: Opera, Cantata, Concerto, Sonata, Dance Suite, Chorale, Oratorio, Passion

    Technique: basso continuo

  • EARLY BAROQUE (1600-1700)

    Argument over Renaissance-style polyphony vs. ignoring rules in favor of expressing text

    Monody: solo voice + basso continuo

    Imitates natural speech pattern

    Example: Francesca Caccini: Maria, dolce Maria

  • CLAUDIO MONTEVERDI

  • CLAUDIO MONTEVERDI

    The first great opera composer

    Also wrote pieces in Renaissance style

    Orfeo (1607) first great opera, based on ancient Greek myth of Orpheus and Euridice

    Recitative: closely imitates freedom and expressiveness of speechone singer, basso continuo provides punctuation

    Recitative ideal for setting dialogue and quick interchanges between people in the drama

    Aria is lyrical, usually full orchestra accompaniment, ABA form

  • EXCERPT FROM ORFEO

    0:00-2:11 Orfeos recitative: O Rose of Heaven

    2:12-3:16 Euridices recitative: I shall not say how much

    3:17-3:48 Chorus of nymphs and shepherds: Leave the hills

    3:49-4:10 Instrumental ritornello with dancing

  • ENGLAND

    Music in England was fragmented because of unstable political condition and Civil War (1642-1649)

    Charles I beheaded, Puritan Commonwealth took over

    Music positions abolished and opera houses closed

    Charles II returned (The Restoration), rebirth of English music life

  • HENRY PURCELL

  • HENRY PURCELL

    1659-1695 (only lived to be 36)

    Most talented English composer of late 17th century

    Organist at Westminster Abbey in London

    Composed large amount of vocal and instrumental music: sacred music for Anglican church, secular songs and cantatas, chamber music

    for instrumental combos and solo harpsichord music

    Best-known work was opera Dido and Aeneas (1689)

  • DIDO AND AENEAS

    Based on part of the great epic poem by Virgil, Aeneid Love affair between Dido, Queen of Carthage and Aeneas, a Trojan warrior

    Three acts with arias, recitatives, choruses, dances and instrumental interludes

    Only four main singers required + small orchestra of strings and harpsichord

    About an hour long

  • DIDO AND AENEAS EXCERPT

    Aria: Didos lament Dido abandoned by Aeneas and has decided to kill herself

    Thy hand, Belinda, darkness shades me, On thy bosom let me rest

    More I would, but Death invades me:

    Death is now a welcome guest.

    When I am laid in earth,

    May my wrongs create

    No trouble in thy breast.

    Remember me, but ah! Forget my fate.

  • THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC

    Violin family most important (Stradvari and Guarneri)

    Genres:

    1) Sonata

    a. Solo Sonata (solo instrument w/ b.c.)

    b. Trio sonata (two instruments w/ b.c.)

    Contrasting movements: sonata da camera (chamber sonata) based on dance

    rhythms and sonata da chiesa (church sonata), more serious in nature.

  • 2) Concerto

    a. Concerto grosso orchestra w/ small group of soloists

    b. Solo concerto solo instrument with orchestra - virtuosic

  • ARCANGELO CORELLI

  • ARCANGELO CORELLI

    (1653-1713)

    Brought Italian violin music to international prominence

    Expanded technique of violin playing

    Repeated notes, fast scales and double stops

    He wanted to Show off the violin

    Only wrote sonatas and concertos

    Famous exclusively for instrumental music

  • EXAMPLE

    Trio Sonata, Op. 3, No. 7, for two violins and basso continuo I. Grave (slow and serious)

    II. Allegro (fast)

    III. Adagio (slow)

    IV. Allegro (fast)

  • FRANCE

    Louis XIV Reigned 1643-1715

    Avid supporter of the arts He loved to dance!

    French dance influenced all instrumental music

    French opera contained ballet and elaborate scenery and constumes

  • FRENCH DANCES

    Allemande 2/4, 4/4 Moderate Continuous motion

    Bourre 2/4, 4/4 Moderate to fast Short, distinct phrases

    Courante Moderate to fast Motion running in scales

    Gavotte 2/4, 4/4 Moderate to fast Bouncy

    Gigue 6/8 Fast Lively, imitative

    Minuet Moderate Elegant

    Sarabande Slow Stately, 2nd beat accented

  • JEAN-BAPTISTE LULLY

  • JEAN-BAPTISTE LULLY

    Louis XIVs music director

    Ballet scenes from operas were so popular that they were played independently

    Died from gangrene caused by smashing foot with conducting staff

    Example: Marche pour la Ceremonie Turcs

  • LATE BAROQUE (1700-1750)

    Fixed musical forms flourished in hands of masters: Vivaldi, Bach and Handel

    Opera continues to grow in popularity: Italian opera seria was the favorite style. Arias were the main reason to go now

    Solo concerto became more popular

    Flute, oboe, trumpet and keyboard instruments had concertos

  • ANTONIO VIVALDI

  • ANTONIO VIVALDI

    1678-1741

    Trained for the priesthood, known as Red Priest b/c of hair

    Appointed director of Ospedale della Pieta in Venice

    600 concertos

    Girls in orphanage gave frequent concerts

  • VIVALDIS CONCERTO FORM

    Three movements: I. Fast

    II. Slow and expressive, like an opera aria

    III. Even faster than the first movement

    First and third movements use ritornello form: orchestra comes in with same or similar theme in between solo episodes, usually in

    related keys

  • EXCERPT FROM THE FOUR SEASONS

    Published in 1725 (Vivaldi was 47)

    Most popular set of concertos

    For solo violin

    Programmatic designed to tell a story

    Poem written for each movement with lines written in the score

  • 1S T MOVEMENT FROM LA PRIMAVERA (SPRING)

    Spring has arrived, and full of joy

    The birds greet it with their happy song.

    The streams, swept by gentle breezes,

    Flow along with a sweet murmur.

    Covering the sky with a black cloak,

    Thunder and lightning come to announce the season.

    When all is quiet again, the little birds

    Return to their lovely song.

  • EXCERPT FROM GLORIA

    Christmas Cantata

    Mvmt. I: Gloria in excelsis Deo

  • JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH

  • JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH

    1685-1750

    One of the most influential composers of all time

    His death marked the end of the Baroque Era

    Never considered himself a genius, only a hard-working craftsman

    Never wrote an opera

    Had two wives and over 20 children (11 died during childhood, 4 became famous Early Classical musicians)

  • Hired in 1723 as music director for St. Thomas Church in Leipzig

    Required to compose, rehearse and direct a new cantata for every Sunday and feast day of the year

    Head of music school attached to church: taught Latin, composition, maintained instruments, played organ and prepared

    choirs for the other three churches in town

  • ST. THOMAS CHURCH, LEIPZIG

  • BACHS MUSIC

    Toccata and Fugue in D Minor

    Little Fugue in G Minor

    Prelude in C Major from The Well Tempered Clavier

    Brandenburg Concerto No. 3, 1st Movement

    Chorale from St. Matthews Passion

    Prelude from Unaccompanied Cello Suite in G Major

  • GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL

  • GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL

    1685-1759

    Life overlapped Bachs, but led a much different existence

    Travelled extensively, international celebrity

    Wrote nearly 40 operas

    Born/grew up in Halle, studied opera in Italy, eventually ended up in London, England (buried in Westminster Abbey w/ Eliz