Axial Skeleton

download Axial Skeleton

of 25

  • date post

    27-Nov-2014
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    298
  • download

    2

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Axial Skeleton

mp3

There is no Mpeg 4 file for the bones.

Human Anatomy and Physiology I LaboratoryThe Axial Skeleton

Practice Anatomy Lab (PAL) Available for The Skeletal System

This lab involves study of the laboratory exercise The Axial Skeleton, completing the Review Sheet for the exercise, and taking the relevant quiz. Click on the sound icon for the audio file (mp3 format) for each slide. There is also a There are no mp3 or mp4 video which can be played on an iPod. link to a dowloadable mpeg4 files for the bones. You will note that there are more bones and contours in the lab manual than are identified in this PDF. The PDF focuses on only the most important.

1

There is no audio file for this slide.

Frontal (coronal) suture Parietal bone Squamosal (temporal) suture Occipital (lamdoidal) suture Occipital bone Temporal bone

Sphenoid bone Frontal bone

Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible

2

There is no audio file for this slide.

Temporal Bone

External acoustic meatus

Zygomatic process (arch) Mastoid process Styloid process

3

There is no audio file for this slide.

Tempero-mandibular JointTMJ disorder inflammation which causes pain, stiffness.

TMJ disorder usually occurs in young people and disappears as the bones mature. In older adults it results mostly from teeth grinding and clenching and can be corrected with behavior adaptation or oral appliances.

4

There is no audio file for this slide.

Parietal bones Sagittal (longitudinal) suture Wormian (sutural) bones

Lambdoidal suture

Occipital bone

5

There is no audio file for this slide.

Frontal bone Nasal bones

Perpendicular plate of ethmoid

Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible

Nasal conchae

6

There is no audio file for this slide.

Ethmoid BoneCribriform plate Crista galli

Ethmoid sinuses Perpendicular plate

The cribriform plate allows the nerves for smell to pass from the olfactory receptors in the nasal mucosa to the olfactory bulb of the brain which lies directly above.

7

There is no audio file for this slide.

Cribriform plate

Crista galli Frontal bone

Sphenoid bone Temporal bone

Sella turcica

Occipital bone

Note the upper part of the ethmoid bone in the floor of the cranial cavity. The sella turcica houses the pituitary gland.

8

There is no audio file for this slide.

Medial View of Nasal CavityEthmoid bone Sella turcica Sphenoid sinus Nasal cartilage Palatine process Maxilla Nasal bone

Vomer bone Palatine bone

The ethmoid bone forms the top portion of the nasal septum, with the vomer forming the lower portion. Most of the septum is hyaline cartilage. The floor of the nasal cavity is composed of the palatine process of the maxilla and the palatine bone. The soft palate is a fleshy portion extending behind the palatine bone.

9

There is no audio file for this slide.

Lateral Wall of Nasal CavityEthmoid bone Sella turcica Sphenoid sinus Nasal conchae Nasal bone

Palatine bone

Maxilla

The nasal conchae (konk-ee) increase the surface area for the air to pass across the mucosa and be warmed and moistened. They also produce turbulence which causes fine particles to settle out of the air and adhere to the mucus lining the nasal cavity, so that it can be removed.

10

There is no audio file for this slide.

Sphenoid Bone

Sella turcica contains the pituitary gland

11

There is no audio file for this slide.

Sella turcica

Sphenoid sinus

12

There is no audio file for this slide.

Paranasal SinusesFrontal sinus Ethmoid air cells Sphenoid sinusMaxillary sinus

13

There is no audio file for this slide.

Sphenoid sinus

Frontal sinus

Ethmoid air cells

Maxillary sinus

Sinuses must drain from one to another and into the nasal cavity to maintain open passages for equilibration of pressure. When the mucosa swells and pressure is unable to equilibrate sinus pain ensues.

14

There is no audio file for this slide.

Foramen magnum

Occipital condyles

15

There is no audio file for this slide.

The Atlas (C1)Articulation of occipital condyles

The occipital condyles sit atop the articular surfaces of the atlas producing a condylar joint which allows flexion and extension of the head.

16

There is no audio file for this slide.

The Axis (C2)Dens (odontoid process)

Spinous process (spine)

The atlas and head rotates around the odontoid process of the axis.

17

There is no audio file for this slide.

Cervical vertebrae = Cervical vertebrae = C1-C7 C1-C7 Thoracic = T1-T12 Thoracic = T1-T12 Lumbar = Lumbar = L1-L5. L1-L5. Sacrum = Sacrum = fused fused Coccyx = Coccyx = fused fused 5 5 3 to 5 3 to 5

Exaggerated Exaggerated thoracic curvature = thoracic curvature = kyphosis kyphosis Exaggerated lumbar Exaggerated lumbar curvature = lordosis curvature = lordosis Exaggerated lateral Exaggerated lateral curvature = scoliosis curvature = scoliosis

18

There is no audio file for this slide.

Severe scoliosis of the vertebral column.

All of the disorders of the vertebral column including kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis put abnormal stress on the vertebrae, limbs, and muscles, and can result in severe pain and reduced mobility.

19

There is no audio file for this slide.

Thoracic VertebraThe lamina is sometimes removed in a process called a laminectomy to reduce pressure on nerve roots caused by a herniated disk.

20

There is no audio file for this slide.

The ligamentum flavum is one of the few elastic ligaments in the body. Most ligaments are inelastic. Each intervertebral disk consists on an inner soft nucleus pulposus which absorbs shock, and an outer fibrous ring, the annulus fibrosus.

21

There is no audio file for this slide.

When a disc ruptures or herniates, the nucleus pulposus is squeezed through the annulus fibrosus to put pressure on the nearby nerve roots. Removal of a portion of the lamina (laminectomy) is sometimes done to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves .

22

There is no audio file for this slide.

The Sacrum (dorsal view)Location of sacroiliac joint

23

There is no audio file for this slide.

24

There is no audio file for this slide.

Lab Protocol1. After studying the lab exercise and this PDF, complete the Review Sheet which accompanies the lab exercise. 2. Use ADAM to study the bones and contours as per directions in the lab manual.

3. Take the quiz on the skeleton.

ADAM Interactive Anatomy - Find the following: 1. Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on head, Layer Indicator 48. Adjust the layer indicator to 49 for internal nose. 2. Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Lateral View, Window centered on head, Layer Indicator 187 3. Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Posterior View, Window centered on head, Layer Indicator 186 4. Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Lateral View, Window centered on head, Layer Indicator 209 5. Atlas Anatomy, System, Skeletal, Skull (Lat) 1 6. Atlas Anatomy, System, Skeletal, Skull (Inf)

25