Axial Skeleton Skull

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Axial Skeleton - Visual presentation of the Skull

Transcript of Axial Skeleton Skull

  • Skull F i l bCranium

    Thoracic cage(ribs and

    Facial bonesClavicleScapulaSternum(ribs and

    sternum)

    Vertebralcolumn

    SternumRibHumerusVertebraRadiusUlSacrum

    column UlnaCarpals

    PhalangesPhalangesMetacarpalsFemurPatellaTibiaFibula

    Tarsals

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.1a

    (a) Anterior view MetatarsalsPhalanges

    AXIAL SKELETON- consists of 80 bones

    Consists of 3 MAJOR REGIONS

    SKULL (29)8 cranial bones + 14 facial bones + 6 auditory ossicles + 1 hyoid

    VERTEBRAL COLUMN (26)7 cervical + 12 thoracic + 5 lumbar vertebrae + 1 sacrum + 1 coccyx

    THORACIC CAGE (25)1 sternum + 24 ribs

    Upper Limb

    Lower Limb

  • Bones of cranium (cranial vault)

    Coronal

    Squamoust

    Coronalsuture

    suture

    Lambdoid Facialsuture bones

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Cranial and facial divisions of the skull

    - framework of the face- CAVITIES for special sense organs for sight, taste, and smell- OPENINGS for air and food passage- SITES of ATTACHMENT for teeth and muscles of facial expression

    FACIAL BONES

    CRANIAL BONES

    - Enclose BRAIN in CRANIAL CAVITY(Cranial vault = calvaria)(Cranial base = anterior,middle, and posteriorcranial fossae)

    - Provides SITES ofATTACHMENT forhead and neck muscles

  • Anterior cranialfossa

    Middle cranialMiddle cranialfossa

    Posterior cranialPosterior cranialfossa

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Superior view of the cranial fossae

    FRONTAL BONE Anterior portion of craniumForms most of ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSAForms superior wall of ORBITSContains air-filled FRONTAL SINUS

  • Cranial Bones

    Frontal bone

    Parietal bones (2)

    O i it l b Occipital bone

    Temporal bones (2)p ( )

    Sphenoid bone

    Ethmoid bone

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Frontal boneGlabella

    Parietal bone

    Squamous part

    GlabellaFrontonasal sutureSupraorbital foramen(notch)of frontal bone

    Nasal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)

    (notch)Supraorbital marginSuperior orbitalfissure(greater wing)

    Temporal boneEthmoid boneLacrimal bone

    Inferior orbitalfissureMiddle nasal

    Optic canal

    Zygomatic bone

    MaxillaInfraorbital foramen

    Middle nasalconcha

    Perpendicularplate

    Ethmoidbone

    Mandible

    Mentalforamen

    Inferior nasal conchaVomer

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a

    foramen(a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis

  • Coronal suture Frontal boneS h id bSphenoid bone(greater wing)Ethmoid boneLacrimal bone

    Parietal bone

    Temporal bone

    Lacrimal fossa

    Nasal bone

    Lambdoidsuture

    Squamoussuture Nasal bone

    Zygomaticbone Maxilla

    sutureOccipitalbone

    Occipitomastoid

    Zygomaticprocess

    Alveolarmargins

    sutureExternal acousticmeatusMastoid processStyloid process

    MandibleMental foramen

    Mandibular condyleMandibular notchMandibular ramus

    Mandibular angle Coronoid process

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

    (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skullMandibular angle Coronoid process

    Figure 7.5a

    Cranial

    Facial

  • Parietal Bones and Major Associated SuturesSutures Superior and lateral aspects of cranial vault Four sutures mark the articulations of parietal

    bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones:1 C l t b t i t l b d f t l1. Coronal suturebetween parietal bones and frontal

    bone

    2 Sagittal suture between right and left parietal bones2. Sagittal suturebetween right and left parietal bones

    3. Lambdoid suturebetween parietal bones and occipital boneoccipital bone

    4. Squamous (squamosal) suturesbetween parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

    and temporal bones on each side of skull

  • Sagittal suture

    Sutural

    Parietalbone

    Lambdoidsuture

    Suturalbone

    suture

    Occipita l bone

    Superior nuchal line

    Externaloccipital Mastoidoccipitalprotuberance

    Occipitomastoidsuture OccipitalExternal

    Inferiornuchalli

    Mastoidprocess

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4b

    suture(b) Posterior view

    condyleoccipitalcrest

    line

    Occipital Bone- Forms most of skull's POSTERIOR WALL and POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA- Articulates with 1st VERTEBRA (ATLAS)- SITES of ATTACHMENT for the LIGAMENTUM NUCHAE and many neck and back muscles

  • Incisive fossaIntermaxillary suture

    Maxilla(palatine process)H d Median palatine suture

    y

    Infraorbital foramenMaxillaSphenoid bone

    (p p )Hardpalate

    Zygomatic bone

    Palat ine bone(horizontal plate)

    Sphenoid bone(greater wing)Foramen ovaleForamen spinosum

    Temporal bone(zygomatic process)

    VomerForamen lacerumCarotid canalExternal acoustic meatusStylomastoid

    MandibularfossaStyloid process Stylomastoid

    foramenJugular foramen

    Occipital condyle

    Mastoid processTemporal bone(petrous part)Pharyngeal tubercle

    Inferior nuchal lineSuperior nuchal line

    External occipital crestE t l i it l

    Pharyngeal tubercleof basilar region ofthe occipital boneParietal bone

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a

    Foramen magnumExternal occipitalprotuberance(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)

  • SquamousExternalacoustic

    t

    Squamousregion

    Mastoidregion

    meatus

    Z ti

    Mastoidprocess Tympanic region

    Mandibular fossaZygomatic process

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.8

    process Styloid process

    y p g

    Temporal Bones (2)

    Articular tubercle

    - Forms inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of CRANIAL FLOOR

    - 4 MAJOR REGIONS:- SQUAMOUS- TYMPANIC- MASTOID- PETROUS

    PETROUS region

  • Incisive fossaIntermaxillary suture

    Maxilla(palatine process)H d Median palatine suture

    y

    Infraorbital foramenMaxillaSphenoid bone

    (p p )Hardpalate

    Zygomatic bone

    Palat ine bone(horizontal plate)

    Sphenoid bone(greater wing)Foramen ovaleForamen spinosum

    Temporal bone(zygomatic process)

    VomerForamen lacerumCarotid canalExternal acoustic meatusStylomastoid

    MandibularfossaStyloid process Stylomastoid

    foramenJugular foramen

    Occipital condyle

    Mastoid processTemporal bone(petrous part)Pharyngeal tubercle

    Inferior nuchal lineSuperior nuchal line

    External occipital crestE t l i it l

    Pharyngeal tubercleof basilar region ofthe occipital boneParietal bone

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a

    Foramen magnumExternal occipitalprotuberance(a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)

  • Frontal boneCribriform plateEthmoidb Crista galli Olfactory foramina

    Optic canal

    bone Crista galli

    Sphenoid

    Anterior cranial fossa

    Lesser wing

    Hypophyseal fossaof sella turcica

    Foramen rotundumForamen ovaleForamen spinosum

    Sphenoid Lesser wingGreater wing

    of sella turcicaMiddle cranialfossaTemporal bone

    Foramen lacerumInternal acousticmeatus Temporal bone

    (petrous part)

    Posterior Foramen magnum

    Jugular foramenHypoglossal canal

    cranial fossaParietal bone

    Occipita l bone

    View

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.7a

    Occipita l bone(a) Superior view of the skull, calvaria removed

  • SuperiorOptic canalLesser wing

    Greater Foramenrotundum

    Superiororbital fissure

    p

    wingHypophysealfossa of

    rotundumForamenovaleForamensella turcica ForamenspinosumBody of sphenoid

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.9a

    (a) Superior view

    SPHENOID BONE- Complex, bat-shaped bone- KEYSTONE BONE: articulates with all other cranial bones

    3 pairs of processes:- GREATER WINGS- LESSER WINGS- PTERYGOID PROCESSES

  • Body of sphenoid Lesserwing

    Greaterwing

    Superiororbital

    wing

    gfissurePterygoidprocess

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.9b

    (b) Posterior view

  • CribriformOlfactoryforaminaCrista galli

    Cribriformplateforamina

    Orbitalplate Left lateral massplate

    Ethmoidalair cells

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.10

    Perpendicularplate Middle nasal concha

    ETHMOID BONE- Deepest skull bone- Superior part of NASAL SEPTUM- Roof of NASAL CAVITIES- Contributes to MEDIAL WALL of ORBITS

  • Frontal boneGlabella

    Parietal bone

    Squamous part

    GlabellaFrontonasal sutureSupraorbital foramen(notch)of frontal bone

    Nasal boneSphenoid bone(greater wing)

    (notch)Supraorbital marginSuperior orbitalfissure(greater wing)

    Temporal boneEthmoid boneLacrimal bone

    Inferior orbitalfissureMiddle nasal

    Optic canal

    Zygomatic bone

    MaxillaInfraorbital foramen

    Middle nasalconcha

    Perpendicularplate

    Ethmoidbone

    Mandible

    Mentalforamen

    Inferior nasal conchaVomer

    Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a

    foramen(a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis

  • Frontal boneCribriform plateEthmoidb Crista galli Olfactory foramina

    Optic canal

    bone Crista galli

    Sphenoid

    Anterior cranial fossa

    Lesser wing

    Hypophyseal fossaof sella turcica

    Foramen rotundumForamen ovaleForamen spinosum

    Sphenoid Lesser wingGreater wing

    of sella turcicaMiddle cranialfossaTemporal bone

    Foramen lacerumInternal acousticmeatus Temporal bone

    (petrous part)

    Po