The Axial Skeleton & Appendicular Skeleton

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The Axial Skeleton & The Appendicular Skeleton

The Axial Skeleton & The Appendicular SkeletonSouth University Online

Anatomy & Physiology Class By Linda Langevoort

Clip Art Images

1INTRODUCTIONThe Skeletal System consists of the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The Axial skeleton comprises the skull, the auditory ossicles and hyoid bone, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage. The Appendicular skeleton comprises the upper and lower limbs, the pectoral and pelvic girdles. This set of amazing skeletal frameworks support our weight and limbs. Protects our bodys organs. Provides attachment for muscles and participates in our respiration.

Let the EXPLORATION begin!

(Martini, Nath 2009) writtenClip Art Images


In this power point I hope to show the bones and the assembly of the Axial Skeleton. I will show you how some of the bones and regions function to make up this portion of the skeleton. I hope to point out the importance of these parts for your better understanding and your learning enjoyment. Are you ready? Come on!Image The Axial Skeleton (Certificate Biology New Mastering Basic Concepts)3The Skull

There are 8 Cranium Bones: 1 Occipital bone2 Parietal bones1 Frontal bone2 Temporal bones1 Sphenoid bone1 Ethmoid bone

There are 14 Facial Bones:2 Maxillary bones2 Palatine bones2 Nasal bones2 Inferior nasal conchae2 Zygomatic bones2 Lacrimal bones1 Vomer1 Mandible

There are 7 Associated Bones: 6 are auditory ossicles and 1 is the Hyoid bone(Martini, Nath 2009) writtenImage the Skull (Azad 2010) 4

The Cranial BonesThe 22 bones of the cranium function to protect the brain and entrance to the digestive and respiratory systems.

The 14 facial bones provide for muscle attachment; facial expressions; eating of food; help to separate nasal and oral cavities, house the sinuses and to protect the entrances to the digestive and respiratory systems.

The 1 hyoid bone, functions to support the larynx and provides attachment for our tongue to deliver our ability for speech.

The 6 auditory ossicles are located in a cavity within the temporal bone.

.Earlier skulls of human ancestors, for instance, have been shown to have markedly smaller cranial capacities, as well as more powerful jaws, than do theHomo sapiensspecies which exist today.

Did you know?(Martini, Nath 2009) written; Did You Know Fact, ("Yahoo education -," )Clip Art Image


The Hyoid Bone

The Hyoid bone supports the larynx and is the attachment point for the tongue and muscles of the larynx and pharynx. The Hyoid bone plays an important part in our speech. The greater horns support the larynx and is the part attached to the tongue. The lesser horns are attached to the stylohyoid ligaments.

Image - (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011) , Clip Art enhancement(Martini, Nath 2009) written

6The Auditory OssiclesThe middle ear contains three tiny ear bones called the Auditory Ossicles. The Malleus (also called the Hammer). The Incus (also called the Anvil).The Stapes (also called the Stirrup).

Remember they are on each side, thus 6 total.

Image Auditory Ossicles -(Ear Sculpting, 2010), Ear Diagram -(, 2011) , Clip Art enhancement(Martini, Nath 2009) written7The articulations and joints where the bones come together are called sutures. Sutures are held together by connective tissue. Each suture comes with a names, but for now lets refer to the 4 major sutures.The Lambdoid suture. This separates the occipital bone from the two parietal bones.The Coronal suture. This suture attaches the frontal bone to the two parietal bones.The Sagittal suture. Found a the midline it runs parallel between the two parietal bones.The Squamous suture. This suture forms a boundary between the temporal bone and parietal bones on each side of the cranium.

The Sutures of the Skull

Lamboid sutureCoronal sutureSagittal sutureNote: The Squamous suture is between the Temporal and Parietal bones.Cannot be seen on this diagram.Image - (Schelling)(Martini, Nath 2009) written

8The Orbital ComplexThe orbital complex is the area that surrounds each eye and the nasal complex, which surrounds the nasal cavities. The Frontal bone forms the roofThe Maxilla provides an orbital floorThe Lacrimal bone forms the inner wall of each orbit.

The Nasal ComplexThe nasal complex encloses the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses connected to the nasal cavities.

The Frontal bone, sphenoid and ethmoid bones form the superior wall of the nasal cavities, while the lateral walls are formed by the maxillae, the lacrimal bones, the ethmoid, and the inferior nasal conchae.

Much of the nasal cavity is formed by soft tissues of the nose. The bridge of the nose is formed from the maxillae and nasal bones.

The paranasal sinuses are made up of the paired palatine, paranasal, maxillary and sinus bones. They lighten the skull bones and provide an area for mucous secretions. They also filter out particulate matter such as dust and microorganisms.

Clip Art Image(Martini, Nath 2009) written

9The Infant Skull

Skulls of infant and adults differ in their size and shape and cranial elements.In an infant the most important growth occurs before age 5. At birth, the connective tissues of the skull on an infant can be distorted without damage. These changes to the skull, ease passage of the infant through the birth canal. The anterior fontanelle, also referred to as the soft spot can be easily seen. The occipital, sphenoidal, and mastoid fontanelles disappear with a month or two after birth. The fibrous connections remain.

Photo: The top photo shows the sutures of the infant skull.

The bottom photo the Anterior Fontanelle, a diamond-shaped soft spot.Image - (NIH National Institute for Health, 1997) (Martini, Nath 2009) written10The Spine, Ribs, Sternum, Sacrum and CoccyxThe vertebral column Consists of:24 vertebrae1 Sacrum1 Coccyx

The Vertebral column is made up of four spinal curves. 1. The Cervical curve which balances the weight of our head on our neck.2. The Thoracic curve which accommodate the thoracic organs.3. The Lumbar curve which balances the weight of our trunk over our lower limbs and assists in our standing.4. The Sacral curve which accommodates the abdominopelvic organs.The Thoracic cageConsists of:1 Sternum24 Ribs

The Vertebral regions are:1. The Cervical (C1-C7) consisting of the Atlas (C1) and the Axis(C2) which constitutes the neck and attaches to the Thoracic vertebrae.2. The Thoracic (T1-T12) consisting of the ribs and costal and transverse costal facets.3. The Lumbar (L1-L5) which articulates with the sacrum which articulates with the coccyx.

Clip Art Image(Martini, Nath 2009) written


Photo:The Vertebral Regions

Cervical (C1-C7)Thoracic (T1-T12)Lumbar (L1-L5)SacrumCoccyxCervical CurveThoracic CurveLumbar CurveSacral CurvePhoto: The 4 Spinal CurvesImage Vertebrae (Mr. T, 2008 2009)12

The RibsThe 24 Ribs originate between the thoracic vertebrae and end in the wall of the thoracic cavity. Ribs 1-7 are called true ribs. Ribs 8-12 are called false ribs, since they do not attach directly to the sternum. The last two pairs of ribs 11-12 are called floating ribs, because they have no connection with the sternum or vertebral ribs.

The sternum is the boney breast bone in the center of the ribs. Its movements are important in respiration.

The thoracic cage and ribs protect the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures. It serves as attachment for muscles involved in respiration, position of the vertebral column and movements of the pectoral girdle & upper limbs.Image - ("Rib cage by," 2005)(Martini, Nath 2009) written13Spinal Disorders

Spondylolithesis is when one vertebra slips forward in front of another vertebrae. The result is pain in the low back, thighs and or legs. Muscle spasms, weakness and tight ham strings may accompany it. Symptoms can become worse with exercise. This disorder can result from improper lifting of heavy items, weightlifting or high impact sports. Treatment with physical therapy, spinal injection or surgery are usually prescribed. Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. It is most common in adolescent females. It is a genetic condition that frequently runs in families. Some signs of it are: one hip being higher than the other; one shoulder blade appearing more prominent; small curves in the back and deformity (usually in the upper back). Treatment with back braces to try to restrain the curves during growth years may help somewhat. In some cases, surgery to straighten the spine and create a fusion is performed.Image Spondylolithesis and Scoliosis (The North Shore Institute, 2011) (The North Shore Institute, 2011) written

14Lets see what you learned about the Axial Skeleton. Try this short quiz.1. The Axial Skeleton is comprised of:a. the skull, limbs, vertebral column, the ribs & the hyoid bone.b. the skull, auditory ossicles & hyoid bone, vertebral column and the thoracic cage.c. The skull, the hyoid bone, the vertebral column and the pectoral girdle.

2. In this power point presentation there are ___ number of facial bones listed.a. 10b. 14c. 8

3. The Malleus of the ear, is also called the _______.a. stirrupb. anvilc. hammer

4. The paranasal sinuses are part of the ____ complex and they function to ________.a. orbital; provide an orbital floor.b. nasal; filter out particulate matter.c. paranormal; to do ghost busting.just a few more ---turn the page

Quiz by Linda Langevoort15Check your answers are at the end of this power point! Good Luck!5. An