A Sailwing Windmill Rotor

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Transcript of A Sailwing Windmill Rotor

A project of Volunteers. . otlmxzation

in Asia

and CharacteristicsRotor

of a Sailwing

Findmill

by:

M.D. Maughmer Reeds

Published by: Research Applied to Nalionai National Science Foundation DC 20550 USA Washington, Ask for Paper copies are $8.00 PB-259 898 when ordering. Available from: National Technical Information Springfield, VA 22151 USA

accession

number

Service

Reproduction of this microfiche document form is subject to the same restrictions of the original document.

in any as those

.S. DEPART ational TechnicalInformation Service PB-259 898

Princeton Univ, N i

Dept of Aerospace and

edmid

knees

Prepored for

ational Science Foundation, eedsMar 76

ashington, D C Research Applied to National

MEET ,. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date

lptimization and Characteristics of a Sailwing Windmill IFinal Report, February 1, 'l975-January 31, 1976)r. Author(s)

Rotor 6.

March 1976

I.D.

MaughmerOrganization Name and Address 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. No.

1. Performing

'rinceton University Department of Aerospace and Mechanical 'rinceton, New Jersey 0854012.

Science

11. Contract/Grant

GI 4189113. Type of Report 61 Period

.

sponsoringOrganization Name and Address Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) ilational Science Foundation Jashfngton, D.C. 2055015. Supplementary Notes

Corered Final Report, 2/l/75 - l/31/7614.

l

I 1

16. AbscracrsWithin this fourth and final quarter progress report are comprehensively dis:ussed all of the research efforts undertaken by the Princeton windmill group over the This includes a detailed accounting of the development and operational techlast year. iiques of the Princeton moving-vehicle windmill testing facility. Also presented is a :omplete documentation of the performance build-up (DPmax = .06 to Cpmax = .4u) of a 12 This report further includes an examination of Ft. diameter, two-bladed Sailwing rotor. In exploratory research effort directed toward using a small, first-stage, co-axial Finally considered are the results and conclurotor to augment windmill performance. sions of an extensive wind-tunnel test program aimed at a quantitative determination of the aerodynamic penalt.ies associated with numerous simplifications of the basic doublenembraned Sailwing cross-section.

17. Key Words and Locumcnt

Analysis.

176. Descriprws

dind Power Generation dindmills Rotors Performance Evaluat ion Rotary Wings

\

17b. Identifiers/Open-Ended

Terms

REPRODUCED BY

Sailwing

Windmill

Rotor

NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATlON SERVICEu s DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE . SPRINGFIElD, VA. 22161

17~. COSATI 18. Availability

Field

Group 19. Security Class Report) UNr-I.ASm 20. S_curicy Class (This (ThislJdCOM-DC02es-p74

Statement

21. No. of Pages

NTISFORM NTIS35 IREV. IO-,I)

IENDORSED BY ANSI AND UNESCO. THIS

Page

UNCLASEIFIEDBE P.EPRODUCED

FORM MAY

OPTIMIZATION AM! CHARACTERISTICS OF A SAILWING 'JINIMI'LL ROTOR

Mark D. Maughmer March, AMS Report 1976 No. 1297

Prepared with the Support of the National Science Foundation Research Applied to National Needs Washington, D. C. 20550 NSF Grant GI-41891

Optimization

and Characteristics by Mark D. Maughmer Princeton Princeton, 08540 March, Final 1976 Report February University New Jersey

of a Sailwing

Windmill

kotor

Covering

the period Approved by:

1, 1975 to January

31, 1976

Thomas E. Sweeney nirector, Flight Concepts Laboratory

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Report :

expressed necessarily

NSF/RANN/GI-4189l/FR/75/4

Within hensively Princeton accounting moving-vehicle documentation of a 12 ft. includes toward

this

fourth all group

and final

quarter efforis

progress

report

are compreby the a detailed

discussed windmill

of the research over

undertaken This includes of

the past year. and operational facility. build-up Sailwing

of the development windmill testing

techniques Also (Cp,, rotor. research rotor presented

the Princeton

is a complete

of the performance diameter, two-bladed

= .05 KO Cpmax = .40) This effort report further

an examination using a small, Finally wind-tunnel

of an exploratory first-stage, considered test co-axial

directed

to augment winamLl1 and conclusions of a3

performance. extensive

are the results

program

aimad at a quantitative with numerous

determination

of the aerodynamic of the basic

penalties

associated Sailwing

simplifications

double-membrantd

cross-section.

1 I TEE PRINCETON JEEP WINDMILL TESTING FACILITY A) Description of Test Facility - B) Data Co:lection - - - - - - - C) Reductton of Data - - - - - - 9 10 14 16 17 18 19 19 20 21 23 26 28 29 ~w~~I"""""""""""""-""""""""""""~" APPElqI)MII.

t

PERFORMANCE BUILD-UP OF THE PRINCETON 12 FT. DIAMETER, IJJO-BLADED SAIL~NGWI~LL--------------m--m--A) Data Presentation and Discussion - - - - - - - - - - B) Conclusions - - - - - - - - - . - - - - - - - - - - MULTI-STAGE WINlXILL TO OBTAIN CENTER-BODYFAIRING BENEFITS - - A) Data Presentation ar,d Summary - - - - - - - - - - - z;\ Conclusions - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - WIND TDXNEL INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS SAILWING AND SAILVANE CRGSS-SECTIONAL PROFILES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A) Model Descriptions - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8) Test Conditiom and Data Reduction - - - - - C) Characteristics of the Sailwing - - - - - - D) Presentation and Discussion of Test Results E) Conclusions - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - -

CONCLuI>mG SuMMARy - m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

30 31

--------------------------

FIGURES

ii

LIST OF SYMBOLS bCv -

Wing span Wing or blade section chord thickness ratio ratio (+fV2)h/C

chord

length

EA h h/c t P A

Mean aerodynamic Maximum section Sectional Sectional Dynamic Rotor

thickness thickness pressure area ratio

. Y

disk

v

AR CD CL

Wing aspect

Drag coefficient Lift coefficient

(D/qS) (L/qS) (M/qcS)

L

CM cP L;D S V Qt P & pr

Pitching

moment coefficient (Power/qVA)

Power coefficient Lift-to-drag Wing area Free-stream Wing angle Blade Blade Blade Blade pitchroot

ratio

wind velocity of attack angle pitch pitch angle ratio relative angle angle (tip to the plane of rotation of rotation of rotation

relative relative relative

to the plane to the plane to root)

tip twist

L .

e Ai' P 01

Tip-speed Air Rotor density

(tip-speed/V)

solidity

ratio

(Blade iii

Area/Disk

Area)

INTRODUCTION With this finalized windmill and comprehensive research group for report, so ends the efforts From all of wind a strong in the benefits of the of the has been for will it is

of the Princeton3

the past year. family

available machines proponent, performance of simpler Princeton Sailwing

information, for which

in the case of the smaller-;ized the Princeton rotor group has been, continues

and remains, competitive

&he Sailwing with its

to be highly

rigid-bladed and lower with reasonable further rotor,

counterparts costs. It

and yet enjoys is now the feeling

construction group windmill that

performance pursuance

and understanding which

in hand,

of our goal, in diminishing test

to optimize the effort. continue doubted build-up up until

the Sailwing While

would result

returns facility rotors,

most certainly in testing

the moving-vehicle and comparing different

to be active whether technique now. Thus, there that

is much more to be gained

from the systematic windmill group

has been employed by the Princeton refinement appears

the aerodynamic Although efficiencies it

of the Sailwing as though it might

windmill be the points

is now nearly possible great

complete. rotor

to achieve of effort

of nearly those last

85% (Cp = .50), few percentage in other if

deal

required

to obtain be spent it would

of improvement the problem. that

can probably In particular,

more effectively be most satisfying

areas of

the results

have been obtained is that

up until

now were "put to proceed

to good use" and the toward the practical

feeling

the time is now right

1

Y

utilization of individual

of the smaller components into

family

of wind

generators.

The development where they are ready as a goals has

has progressed integrated

to a point

to be assembledY

a veil

system and demonstrated Thus, to direct it is toward the expertise research. these it

practical that

means of power generation. group would five like

the Princeton over

developed

the last