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A.J. Hart | 1 The Ph.D. Research Process University of Michigan ME599009 |Winter 2012 John Hart [email protected] h>p://www.umich.edu/~ajohnh 00: Introduc<on January 6, 2012

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A.J.  Hart  |  1  

The  Ph.D.  Research  Process  University  of  Michigan  ME599-­‐009  |Winter  2012                                            

             John  Hart  [email protected]  h>p://www.umich.edu/~ajohnh    

00:  Introduc<on  January  6,  2012  

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10,000  hours!  § 5  years  of  40h/week  doing  research  (esNmate)  § May  not  include  §  Classes  §  RecreaNon  §  DistracNons…    

h>p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outliers_(book)  

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A.J.  Hart  |  4  “but  there  is  no  instrucNon  manual”  h>p://jobmob.co.il/blog/funny-­‐ikea-­‐job-­‐interview-­‐cartoon/  

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A.J.  Hart  |  5  phdcomics.com  

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Ph.D.  program  milestones  

RESEARCH  

RFE  (Y2-­‐Fall)  

=“prelim”  

Candidacy  (RFE  +  18  credits    

at  UM)  

Thesis  defense!  

=4-­‐5  years  COURSES  

(GCCs)  

1   2   3   4  

DissertaNon  proposal  exam  (w/commi>ee,  Nming  flexible)  

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The  RFE  § Research    §  Fundamentals  § Exam  

§  “15  minute  presentaNon  +  30  minute  Q+A”  à   a  45  minute  discussion    

§ Abstract  submi>ed  ahead  of  Nme  § Used  to  select  the  examiners  …they  may  read  it  before  the  exam  

   

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RFE  –  evalua<on  criteria  (as  of  F10)  §  Synthesis  of  Course  Material  in  Research  Problem  Context:  The  student  is  able  to  connect  his/her  research  problem  to  undergrad  material  from  engineering,  math,  physics,  chemistry,  biology,  etc.  

§  Input  to  Research  Project:  Student  has  read  and  understands  the  state  of  the  art,  has  idenNfied  a  need  for  original  knowledge  development,  and  understands  what  technical  subjects  need  to  be  learned.      

§  Research  Conduct  and  Methodology:  Student  has  presented  a  valid  research  objecNve,  can  apply  a  rigorous  research  process,  and  can  draw  appropriate  inferences  from  analysis  or  data  collecNon.  The  student  shows  indicaNons  of  appropriate  problem  solving  and  technical  skills  applicable  to  the  research  problem  presented.    The  work  must  clearly  be  that  of  the  student  and  not  the  work  of  others  from  the  research  group.  

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RFE  –  evalua<on  criteria  (as  of  F10)  §  Research  Outcomes:    The  student  is  able  to  draw  conclusions  from  the  work  where  appropriate;  the  student  understands  the  limitaNons  of  what  s/he  has  done  so  far;  and  the  student  provides  evidence  of  being  able  to  think  about  the  next  steps  that  should  be  taken  (independent  of  where  student  is  in  the  research  process).  

§  Communica<on:  Student  is  an  effecNve  oral  and  wri>en  communicator  of  research  concepts.  

 

à  These  criteria  are  weighted  equally,  and  scored  by  each  examiner.  

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ME  Ph.D.  program  milestones  

RESEARCH  

RFE  (Y2-­‐Fall)  

=“prelim”  

Candidacy  (RFE  +  18  non-­‐research    

credits  at  UM)  

Thesis  defense!  

=4-­‐5  years  COURSES  

(GCCs)  

1   2   3   4  

DissertaNon  proposal  exam  (w/commi>ee,  Nming  flexible)  

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Themes  § Defining  research  and  idenNfying  your  interests  §  Searching  literature  and  choosing  a  research  topic  § Planning  and  doing  research  § CommunicaNng  research  (wri>en,  visual,  and  verbal)  § Beyond  the  Ph.D.  program      How  will  we  learn?  à   Readings  and  assignments  (step-­‐by-­‐step)  à   Open  dialogue  and  peer  review  à   PracNcing  and  refining  our  thought  process  

   Everyone  has  different  interests,  background,  perspecNve  à  your  individual  Ph.D.  program  

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What  is  research?  

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“Research  is  fundamentally  a  state  of  mind  involving  conNnual  reexaminaNon  of  doctrines  and  axioms  upon  which  current  thought  and  acNon  are  based.    It  is,  therefore,  criNcal  of  exisNng  pracNces”  

       -­‐Theobald  Smith  (1859-­‐1934)  [considered  to  be  America’s  first  world-­‐renowned  medical  research  scienNst]  

 

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How  do  you  think  and  learn?  

h>p://www.roblambert.com/wp-­‐content/uploads/2007/10/leq-­‐brain-­‐right-­‐brain.jpg  

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John’s  approach  to  Digital  Literature  Management  (DLM)  

Journalhttp://www.sciencemag.org

Published articles (in print)

“Express” articles (online only; advance of print)

Reference managementhttp://www.myendnoteweb.com

Literature databasehttp://apps.isiknowledge.com/

Your document(e.g., Word, LaTeX)

Search resultsau = smalley and ts = fuller*

RSS aggregatorhttp://www.google.com/reader

Your groups

Shared groups (you or others)

Feed 1, 2, 3…

Starred items, shared items

Saved searchesEmail, share

Email alert

Email alert

Email

Export

Email alert

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A.J.  Hart  |  19  Alon,  Molecular  Cell  35,  2009.  

Choosing  a  problem  

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A.J.  Hart  |  20  Loehle,  “A  guide  to  increased  creaNvity  in  research  –  inspiraNon  or  perspiraNon?”  

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Research  output  vs.  Nme?  Research  freedom  vs.  Nme?  

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A.J.  Hart  |  22  http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/wp-content/uploads/bark-up-the-wrong-tree.jpg

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Time  management  

David  Allen,  Geung  Things  Done  

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“It’s  a  waste  of  Nme  and  energy  to  keep  thinking  about  something  that  you  make  no  progress  on”  

-­‐David  Allen  

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Advisor-­‐student  rela<ons,  teamwork  

“OpNmally  interacNng  minds”  by  Behrami  et  al.,  Science  329,  2010;  perspecNve  by  Ernst.  

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A.J.  Hart  |  26  h>p://ori.hhs.gov/documents/rcrintro.pdf  

Responsible  conduct  of  research?  

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Structuring  a  proposal  (just  like  choosing  a  research  problem)  

§  Feasibility:  “whether  a  problem  is  hard  or  easy,  in  units  such  as  the  expected  Nme  to  complete  a  project”.  [Alon]  

 

§  Importance:  how  important  is  the  topic  within  the  research  community  and  beyond?  

§  Interest:  both  internal  and  external…  § Competence:  why  are  you  qualified?    Do  you  have  an  advantage  (secret  weapon)?      

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Dividing  the  big  idea:  objec<ves/aims  

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A.J.  Hart  |  29  Randy  Olson,  Don’t  Be  Such  a  ScienNst  

Presenta<ons:  communica<ng  what  you  did  § Planning  the  presentaNon  § Building  the  content  (slides)  § Preparing  the  narraNve  and  pracNcing  § Delivering  the  presentaNon  

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Visuals  

Wong.    Nature  Methods  8(1):1,  2011.  

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Research  administra<on  and  commercializa<on  

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ME  department  only  

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A.J.  Hart  |  33  h>p://www.nsf.gov/staNsNcs/indicators/  

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What  is  the  goal  of  a  Ph.D.  program?  

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What  do  you  want  to  gain  from  your  Ph.D.?  

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“Success  is  peace  of  mind  which  is  a  direct  result  of  self-­‐saNsfacNon  in  knowing  you  made  the  effort  to  become  the  best  of  which  you  are  capable.”      “Focus  on  running  the  race  rather  than  winning  it  …  Don’t  lose  sleep  worrying  about  the  compeNNon.    Let  the  compeNNon  lose  sleep  worrying  about  you.”  

           -­‐John  Wooden  (1910-­‐2010)  

[hall  of  fame  basketball  player  and  coach,  7  consecuNve  naNonal  championships  at  UCLA]  

 

 What  is  success?  

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 Focus!  

SerengeN  NaNonal  Park,  Tanzania,  August  2008  

you   goal  

observers    

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 and  balance,  relax…  

SerengeN  NaNonal  Park,  Tanzania,  August  2008  

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“It  is  not  so  much  the  talents  we  possess  so  much  as  the  use  we  make  of  them  that  counts  in  the  progress  of  the  world.”  

         -­‐Brailsford  Robinson  [?]  

 

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Homework  § Readings  for  lecture  1  (on  ctools)  Choose  2  of  3  §  Beveridge,  “ScienNsts”,  excerpt  from  The  Art  of  ScienNfic  InvesNgaNon  §  Desjardins,  “How  to  Succeed  in  Graduate  School:  A  Guide  for  Students  and  Advisors”  

§  Hamming,  “You  and  Your  Research”  

§ Research  words,  see  next  slide  –  due  2pm  Thu  Jan/12  §  Send  comments  on  course  content  to  [email protected]  

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Research  words  assignment