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    JeremiahLamentationsEzekielDaniel > The term major refers to their length, not their importance.




    NahumHabakkukZephaniahHaggaiZechariahMalachi > The term minor refers to the books lengths, not their importance.

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    Ezekiel is commemorated as a saint in the liturgical calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church

    and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite on July 21 (for those

    churches which use the traditional Julian Calendar , July 21 falls on August 3 of the

    modern Gregorian Calendar ). This date was chosen because it is the day after the feast day of the

    Prophet Elias . Ezekiel is commemorated on August 28 on the Calendar of Saints of

    the Armenian Apostolic Church .

    Certain Lutheran churches also celebrate his commemoration on July 21.The Church

    Fathers interpret Ezekiel's vision of the human likeness upon the sapphire throne (Ezekiel 1:26 )

    as a prophecy of the Incarnation of the Logos from

    the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), who in many ancient church hymns is called the "living Throne of


    Ezekiel's statement about the "closed gate" (Ezekiel 44:2 3) is understood as another prophesy

    of the Incarnation: the "gate" signifying the Virgin Mary and the "prince" referring to Jesus. This

    is one of the readings at Vespers on Great Feasts of the Theotokos in the Eastern

    Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches citation needed This imagery is also found in the

    traditional Catholic Christmas hymn "Gaudete ."

    Since 1830 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has identified the Book of

    Mormon as the "record of the stick of Ephraim "[11] (Ezekiel 37:16 ) while the stick of Judah is

    identified with the Bible . According to Matthew Henry a Bible commentator who flourished in

    the 17th century, Ezekiel is also believed to have been known as Nazaratus Assyrius, a teacher

    toPythagorus . However, James Ussher , in his writings of the Ussher chronology , republished as

    "The Annals of the World" claims that this is a mistake, basing his opinion on the writings

    of Clemens Alexandrinus . However, Sir William Smith , in his "Bible Dictionary ," points out

    that John Selden , among others, consider it a possibility. In the book " Pythagoras : Greek

    philosopher" it states; "Nazaratus, the Assyrian, one of Pythagoras' masters, was supposed to be
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    the prophet Ezekiel, and Thomas Stanley 's Life of Pythagoras says that Ezekiel and Pythagoras

    flourished together.

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    Although Isaiah is not mentioned by name in the Qur'an or in the authenticated sayings of

    Prophet Muhammed, Muslim sources have accepted him as a prophet .[10] Some Muslim scholars,

    such as Ibn Kathir and Kisa'i , reproduced Jewish traditions, transmitted through early Jewish

    converts to Islam, regarding Isaiah. Such Old Testament stories, which are not confirmed by the

    Quran or prophetic hadeeth, are referred to as Isra'iliyyah, and are not considered strong enough

    to be used as evidence in Islamic law. Isaiah is mentioned as a prophet in Ibn kathir's Stories of

    the Prophets and the modern writers Muhammad Asad and Abdullah Yusuf Ali [11] accepted

    Isaiah as a true Hebrew prophet , who preached to the Israelites following the death of

    King David . Isaiah is well known in Muslim exegesis and literature , notably for his predictions

    of the coming of Jesus and Muhammad .[12] Isaiah's narrative in Muslim literature can roughly be

    divided into three sections. The first part establishes Isaiah as a prophet of Israel during the reign

    of Hezekiah ; the second part focuses on Isaiah's actions during the siege

    of Jerusalem by Sennacherib ; and the third part is primarily focused upon Isaiah warning the

    people of coming doom .[13]

    Muslim exegesis preserves a tradition, which parallels that of the Hebrew Bible , which states

    that Hezekiah was the king that ruled over Jerusalem during Isaiah's time. Hezekiah obeyed and

    gave an ear to what Isaiah advised him but, nonetheless, this was a turbulent time

    for Israel .[14] Tradition, however, maintains that Hezekiah was a righteous man and that the

    turbulence increased after Hezekiah's death. After the death of the king, Isaiah told the people to

    not forsake God and he warned Israel that the people must cease from their persistent sin and

    acts of disobedience. Muslim tradition maintains that the unrighteous people of Israel were

    angered and sought to kill Isaiah .[14] In a death which resembles that attributed to Isaiah in Lives

    of the Prophets , Muslim exegesis recounts that Isaiah was martyred by Israelites by being sawed

    in half. [
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    Joel:As to the time and place, when and where he exercised his prophetic office, we are not left indoubt. He prophesied not like Hosea among the ten tribes, but he was a prophet of Judah. Theentire prophecy bears witness to it; this fact has never been disputed. It is different with the dateof Joel. Destructive criticism has assigned to Joel a post-exilic date, with some very puerilearguments. For instance the claim that the mention of the walls of Jerusalem (chapter 2:7, 9),point to a date after Ezra and Nehemiah. Such an argument is not an argument of a scholar but of school-boy. Critics also object to an early date because the Greeks are mentioned in chapter 3:6.But the Greeks are also mentioned in an inscription of Sargon (about 710 B.C.), and long beforethat in the Armana letters a Greek is also mentioned, as stated in "Higher Criticism and theMonuments" by Professor Sayce.


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    Before becoming a prophet , Amos was a sheep herder and a sycamore fig farmer .[1] Amos' prior

    professions and his claim "I am not a prophet nor a son of a prophet" (7:14 ) indicate that Amos

    was not from the school of prophets, which Amos claims makes him a true prophet (7:15 ).

    His prophetic career began in 750 BC out of the town of Tekoa , in Judah , south of Jerusalem .[1]

    Despite being from the southern kingdom of Judah Amos' prophetic message was aimed at the

    Northern Kingdom of Israel , particularly the cities of Samaria and Bethel .[2]

    The apocryphal work The Lives of the Prophets records that Amos was killed by the son

    of Amaziah , priest of Bethel . It further states that before he died, Amos made his way back to his

    homeland and was buried there .[3]

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    Date of activity

    Zephaniah is the only one of the few prophets whose chronology is fixed by a precise

    date in the introductory verse of the book. Under the two preceding

    kings, Amon and Manasseh , idolatry had been introduced in the most shameful forms

    (especially the cult of Baal and Astarte ) into the Holy City ,[1][2] and with this foreign cult

    came a foreign culture and a great corruption of morals. Josiah, a dedicated

    reformer ,[3] wished to put an end to the horrible devastation in the holy places. One of

    the most zealous champions and advisers of this reform was Zephaniah, and his writing

    remains one of the most important documents for the understanding of the era of


    The prophet spoke boldly against the religious and moral corruption, when, in view of

    the idolatry which had penetrated even into the sanctuary, he threatened to "destroy out

    of this place the remnant of Baal, and the names of the ... priests" (Zeph 1:4), and

    pleaded for a return to the simplicity of their fathers instead of the luxurious foreign

    clothing which was worn especially in aristocratic circles (1:8).

    The age of Zephaniah was also a key historical period, because the lands of Anterior

    Asia were overrun by foreigners due to the migration of the Scythians in the last

    decades of the seventh century, and because Jerusalem was only a few decades

    before its downfall in 586 .[4] In light of these events, a message of impending judgment

    is the primary burden of this figure's preaching (1:7).

    He is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of

    the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31. On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar , his feast day is December 3.
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    According to the Talmud , Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism from Edom ,[3] a

    descendant of Eliphaz , the friend of Job . He is identified with the Obadiah who was the servant

    of Ahab, and it is said that he was chosen to prophesy against Edom because he was himself an

    Edomite. Moreover, having lived with two such godless persons as Ahab and Jezebel without

    learning to act as they did, he seemed the most suitable person to prophesy against Esau (Edom),

    who, having been brought up by two pious persons, Isaac and Rebekah , had not learned to

    imitate their good deeds.Obadiah is supposed to have received the gift of prophecy for having

    hidden the "hundred prophets" [ from the persecution of Jezebel .[3] He hid the prophets in two

    caves, so that if those in one case should be discovered those in the other might yet escape

    (1 Kings 18:3-4 ).Obadiah was very rich, but all his wealth was expended in feeding the poor

    prophets, until, in order to be able to continue to support them, finally he had to borrow money at

    interest from Ahab's son Jehoram . Obadiah's fear of God was one degree higher than that

    of Abraham ; and if the house of Ahab had been capable of being blessed, it would have been

    blessed for Obadiah's sake.

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    One of the early writing prophets, Hosea used his own experience as a symbolic representation

    of God and Israel: God the husband, Israel the wife. Hosea's wife left him to go with other men;

    Israel left the Lord to go with other gods. Hosea searched for his wife, found her and brought her

    back; God would not abandon Israel and brought them back even though they had forsaken him.

    The book of Hosea was a severe warning to the northern kingdom against the growing idolatry

    being practiced there; the book was a dramatic call to repentance. Christians extend the analogy

    of Hosea to Christ and the church: Christ the husband, his church the bride. Christians see in this

    book a comparable call to the church not to forsake the Lord Jesus Christ. Christians also take

    the buying back of Gomer as the redemptive qualities of Jesus Christ's sacrifice on the cross.

    Other preachers, like Charles Spurgeon, saw Hosea as a striking presentation of the mercy of

    God in his sermon on Hosea 1:7 titled The LORD's Own Salvation. But I will have mercy upon

    the house of Judah, and will save them by the Lord their God, and will not save them by bow,

    nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen. -Hosea 1:7 in his sermon NO. 2057,

    December 16TH, 1888.


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    Jonah is also the central character in the Book of Jonah. Ordered by God to go to the cityof Nineveh to prophesy against it "for their great wickedness is come up before me, Jonahseeks instead to flee from "the presence of the Lord" by going to Jaffa and sailing to Tarshish ,

    which, geographically, is in the opposite direction. A huge storm arises and the sailors, realizingthis is no ordinary storm, cast lots and learn that Jonah is to blame. Jonah admits this and statesthat if he is thrown overboard the storm will cease. The sailors try to dump as much cargo aspossible before giving up, but feel forced to throw him overboard, at which point the sea calms.The inspired sailors then offer sacrifices to God. Jonah is miraculously saved by being swallowedby a large fish specially prepared by God where he spends three days and three nights. Inchapter two, while in the great fish, Jonah prays to God in his affliction and commits tothanksgiving and to paying what he has vowed. God commands the fish to spew Jonah out. Godagain orders Jonah to visit Nineveh and to prophesy to its inhabitants. This time he goes and

    enters the city crying, "In forty days Nineveh shall be overthrown." After Jonah has walked for aday across Nineveh, the people of Nineveh begin to believe his word and proclaim a fast. Theking of Nineveh puts on sackcloth and sits in ashes, making a proclamation to decree fasting,sackcloth, prayer, and repentance. God sees their works and spares the city at that time. Theentire city is humbled and broken with the people (and even the animals) in sackcloth andashes. Animals, plants, warmth and even fish are all seen under the sovereign hand of God.Even the king comes off his throne to repent. Displeased by this, Jonah refers to his earlier flightto Tarshish while asserting that, since God is merciful, it was inevitable that God would turnfrom the threatened calamities. He then leaves the city and makes himself a shelter, waiting to

    see whether or not the city will be destroyed.

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    After the Persian conquest of Babylon, Daniel is depicted as one of three senior administrators of

    the empire in the reign of Darius the Mede . When the king decides to set Daniel over the whole

    kingdom, the other officials plot his downfall. Unable to uncover any corruption, they use

    Daniel's religious devotion to defeat him. The officials trick the king into issuing an irrevocable

    decree that no god is to be worshiped for a thirty day period. When Daniel continues to pray
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    three times a day towards Jerusalem, he is thrown into a lions den, much to the distress of

    Darius. After an angel shuts the lions' mouths, Daniel is delivered and the corrupt officials and

    their wives and children thrown into the den where they are eaten instantly.


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    Meaning who is like Jah", was a prophet who prophesied from approximately 737-690 BC

    in Judah and is the author of the Book of Micah . He was a contemporary of the prophets

    Isaiah, Amos and Hosea and is considered one of the twelve minor prophets of the Tanakh

    (Old Testament ). Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during

    the reigns of kings Jotham , Ahaz , and Hezekiah of Judah. Micahs m essages were directed

    chiefly toward Jerusalem . He prophesied the future destruction of Jerusalem and Samaria, the

    destruction and then future restoration of the Judean state, and he rebuked the people of Judah

    for dishonesty and idolatry. His prophecy that the Messiah would be born in the town of

    Bethlehem is recalled in the Book of Matthew . Micah was from Moresheth a small town in

    southwest Judah.

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    Nahum's writings could be taken as prophecy or as history. One account suggests that his

    writings are a prophecy written in about 615 BC, just before the downfall of Assyria, while

    another account suggests that he wrote this passage as liturgy just after its downfall in 612 Scathe

    book was introduced in Calvin's Commentary as a complete and finished poem:

    No one of the minor Prophets seems to equal the sublimity, the vehemence and the boldness of

    Nahum: besides, his Prophecy is a complete and finished poem; his exordium is magnificent, and

    indeed majestic; the preparation for the destruction of Nineveh, and the description of its ruin,

    and its greatness, are expressed in most vivid colors, and possess admirable perspicuity and

    fullness. Rev. John Owen, translator, Calvin's Commentary on Jonah, Micah, Nahum

    Nahum, taking words from Moses himself, have shown in a general way what sort of "Being

    God is". The Reformation theologian Calvin argued, Nahum painted God by which his nature

    must be seen, and "it is from that most memorable vision, when God appeared to Moses after the

    breaking of the tables."


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    Almost nothing is known about Habakkuk, aside from what few facts are stated within the book

    of the Bible bearing his name, or those inferences that may be drawn from that book. His name

    appears in the Bible only in Habakkuk 1:1 and 3:1, with no biographical details provided other

    than his title "the prophet." Even the origin of his name is uncertain. For almost every other

    prophet, more information is given, such as the name of the prophet's hometown, his occupation,

    or information concerning his parentage or tribe. For Habakkuk, however, there is no reliable

    account of any of these. Although his home is not identified, scholars conclude that Habakkuk

    lived in Jerusalem at the time he wrote his prophecy. Further analysis has provided an

    approximate date for his prophecy and possibilities concerning his activities and background.

    Beyond the Bible, considerable conjecture has been put forward over the centuries in the form

    of Christian and Rabbinic tradition , but such accounts are dismissed by modern scholars as

    speculative and apocryphal.