World cities Dominance and dependence Changing role of regional centres Demise of the small town

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Transcript of World cities Dominance and dependence Changing role of regional centres Demise of the small town

  • Slide 1
  • World cities Dominance and dependence Changing role of regional centres Demise of the small town
  • Slide 2
  • Dominance and dependence The relationship of dominance and dependence could be said to belong to the interaction between world cities and the other urban centres in proximity to them. The relationship of dominance and dependence could be said to belong to the interaction between world cities and the other urban centres in proximity to them. World cities, whether they be characterised as dominant, major or secondary, are sites of world accumulation. World cities, whether they be characterised as dominant, major or secondary, are sites of world accumulation.
  • Slide 3
  • Dominance and dependence Technological dominance and innovation Technological dominance and innovation Financial dominance in the production and distribution of goods and services on a global scale. Financial dominance in the production and distribution of goods and services on a global scale. The cultural influence that arises from world cities is widespread, as is the level of strategic decision making. The cultural influence that arises from world cities is widespread, as is the level of strategic decision making.
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  • Slide 5
  • Dominance and dependence Urban centres on the other hand, have functions that show dependence on the world cities. Urban centres on the other hand, have functions that show dependence on the world cities. Accumulation and the production and distribution is only on the national scale Accumulation and the production and distribution is only on the national scale Technology is often adopted, as there is a relatively lower degree of research and development. Technology is often adopted, as there is a relatively lower degree of research and development. A limited cultural influence with some political control. A limited cultural influence with some political control. Eg Perths financial system is dependent on Sydney Head Offices. Eg Perths financial system is dependent on Sydney Head Offices.
  • Slide 6
  • Dominance and dependence The hierarchy of world cities indicates that there is a level of dominance emulating from New York, London, Paris and Tokyo over the other world cities. The hierarchy of world cities indicates that there is a level of dominance emulating from New York, London, Paris and Tokyo over the other world cities. They have a disproportionate concentration of top-level headquarters of the financial, industrial, commercial and producer service sectors. They have a disproportionate concentration of top-level headquarters of the financial, industrial, commercial and producer service sectors. Many of the large industrial TNCs that account for nearly 70% of the international trade are headquartered in these cities. Many of the large industrial TNCs that account for nearly 70% of the international trade are headquartered in these cities.
  • Slide 7
  • Dominance and dependence The massive expansion of the global financial industry over the last 20 years has greatly increased the global significance of London, New York and Tokyo. The massive expansion of the global financial industry over the last 20 years has greatly increased the global significance of London, New York and Tokyo. The main financial transactions in shares, bonds, loans and foreign currency are dominated by these three cities. The main financial transactions in shares, bonds, loans and foreign currency are dominated by these three cities. Together with Los Angeles, Frankfurt and Hong Kong they provide a 24-hours-a-day global coverage of financial transactions. Together with Los Angeles, Frankfurt and Hong Kong they provide a 24-hours-a-day global coverage of financial transactions.
  • Slide 8
  • Dominance and dependence Dominance and dependence also exists between world cities and other urban centres. Dominance and dependence also exists between world cities and other urban centres. An example of this is Sydneys role in contrast to the other Australian cities. An example of this is Sydneys role in contrast to the other Australian cities. Sydney, as a major world city has 27 head office locations for Australias 50 largest corporations. Sydney, as a major world city has 27 head office locations for Australias 50 largest corporations.
  • Slide 9
  • Dominance and dependence Melbourne comprises 16 of these, while Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide have less than three in their respective cities. Melbourne comprises 16 of these, while Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide have less than three in their respective cities. Sydney is the principal centre for smaller, Australian- controlled businesses. Sydney is the principal centre for smaller, Australian- controlled businesses. Nearly half of these have grown through national mergers and takeovers. Nearly half of these have grown through national mergers and takeovers.
  • Slide 10
  • Dominance and dependence Sydney is the principal financial centre as countries like Japan prefer to locate trading, marketing and financial companies there. Sydney is the principal financial centre as countries like Japan prefer to locate trading, marketing and financial companies there. Although Melbourne dominates in the areas of manufacturing and mining, Sydney is the dominant link to the global economy as it represents a more recent period of capital accumulation associated with economic globalisation, especially in the financial sector. Although Melbourne dominates in the areas of manufacturing and mining, Sydney is the dominant link to the global economy as it represents a more recent period of capital accumulation associated with economic globalisation, especially in the financial sector.
  • Slide 11
  • Dominance and dependence The other urban centres that are also state capitals only play minor roles in national production let alone global accumulation. The other urban centres that are also state capitals only play minor roles in national production let alone global accumulation. Cities like Brisbane, Darwin, Adelaide, Hobart, and Perth have functions that have been largely absorbed into Sydney and to a lesser extent Melbourne through corporate takeovers. Cities like Brisbane, Darwin, Adelaide, Hobart, and Perth have functions that have been largely absorbed into Sydney and to a lesser extent Melbourne through corporate takeovers. These urban centres operate at an intrastate level of networking within Australias federal administrative structure. These urban centres operate at an intrastate level of networking within Australias federal administrative structure. Further dominance would be exerted from Sydney over nearby urban centres like Newcastle and Wollongong. Further dominance would be exerted from Sydney over nearby urban centres like Newcastle and Wollongong. These relationships of dominance and dependence occur on a global scale and these roles are even more pronounced when the country has a greater number of urban centres and world cities that surround a dominant world city. These relationships of dominance and dependence occur on a global scale and these roles are even more pronounced when the country has a greater number of urban centres and world cities that surround a dominant world city.
  • Slide 12
  • Dominance and dependence The United States presents clear trends of dominance and dependence whereby New York, with a group of world cities dependent on it, especially for financial transactions. The United States presents clear trends of dominance and dependence whereby New York, with a group of world cities dependent on it, especially for financial transactions. Major world cities include Chicago, San Francisco, Miami, Boston and Los Angeles. Clustered around these world cities are the urban centres that have dependent relationships with their nearby world cities. Major world cities include Chicago, San Francisco, Miami, Boston and Los Angeles. Clustered around these world cities are the urban centres that have dependent relationships with their nearby world cities. In the case of Chicago, dependent urban places in close proximity include Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, St. Louis and Kansas City. In the case of Chicago, dependent urban places in close proximity include Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, St. Louis and Kansas City.
  • Slide 13
  • Dominance and dependence The United Kingdom: London acts as a centre of dependence for other major cities across the nation especially for financial transactions. The United Kingdom: London acts as a centre of dependence for other major cities across the nation especially for financial transactions. Cities such as Birmingham, Newcastle and Manchester rely on London for a variety of needs and allow them to subsequently be linked into the global network. Cities such as Birmingham, Newcastle and Manchester rely on London for a variety of needs and allow them to subsequently be linked into the global network. Clustered around these major cities are the urban centers that have dependent relationship with their closest major city. Eg Manchester - dependent urban places in close proximity include Liverpool, Chester, Preston and Stockport. Clustered around these major cities are the urban centers that have dependent relationship with their closest major city. Eg Manchester - dependent urban places in close proximity include Liverpool, Chester, Preston and Stockport.
  • Slide 14
  • Rural trends There have been changes in the relative significance of settlements in rural areas at a regional and local level. There have been changes in the relative significance o