Workflow Map

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Trying to improve your UX teamwork? Dump the org chart and create a workflow map. This deck will show you how.

Transcript of Workflow Map

  • 1. Workflow MapAbandoning the Org Chart to better visualize process.TomElliottdesign

2. The Limits of Org ChartsWhen communicating process to teams, UX Leadership often employ org charts showing rank and role,but offering little understanding of process and by extension culture.1. Org charts dont show workflow2. Org charts dont show communication3. Org charts dont show deliverables4. Org charts assume oversightUX LeadershipFED Manager UX Manager UX ManagerFEDs UXAs UXDsIs there a better way to visualize a team? 3. Components of ProcessGood process makes productive teamwork possible. Whatever the team, process consists of...1. Roles - Who does what2. Workflow - How people spend their day3. Communication - How people talk to each other4. Oversight - How others are supervised5. Deliverables - When are things do and to whom 4. 1. RolesThere are many roles, some defined by rank, others by discipline, but all well defined roles consists of:Role = responsibility + authority + expertiseexample: plumberLets define the role of a plumber.responsibility - What the plumber is supposed to do. Fix the sink.authority - The right of the plumber to fix the sink as he wishes.expertise - Is the plumber qualified to fix the sink? 5. 1. Roles - Common ProblemsMany process problems result from unclear roles, typically slowing decisions. Common examples include:Role = responsibility + authority + expertisemicromanager - A supervisor role who delegates responsibility, but not authority.stakeholder - A role with authority, that lacks responsibility for the outcome.rookie - A role with responsibility, who lacks experience with the subject.principal - A role with experience , but lacking authority and/or responsibility.lackey - A role with responsibility, but no authority. 6. 2. WorkflowEvery role has a workflow that executes its responsibility over time. If what happens every day defines anorganizations culture, then workflow largely determines culture.UX Leadership Run dept. & UX visionUXMsOversight UXUXAs Design UXDEV Build UXtime 7. 2. Workflow - Common ProblemsRelated workflows should be logically adjacent with clear distinctions of responsibility. When they are not,two things can result.Innovation StrategyUX Management Art DirectionImplementationTacticsirrelevancy - The loss of a responsibility.Here the strategy team (denied knowledge andaccess to tactical reality) produces unusabletheory. Tactics take over. 8. 3. CommunicationCommunication simply means different rolls talking to each other and how often. Communicationexchanges information and grants broader insight about a department to individuals.UX Leadership Run dept. & UX visionUXMsOversight UXUXAs Design UXDEV Build UX 9. 3. Communication - Common problemsCommunication problems result from either too much or too little communication between workflows.UXMs Oversight UXUXAs Design UXDEV Build UXWasteAll meetings, nothing gets done.Responsibilities threatened.SiloingNeither role knowswhat the other is doing.Authority unclear. 10. 4. OversightOversight grants control of one role over another, verifying their efforts. Unlike communication which isbidirectional and informal, oversight flows in one direction and is more structured.UX Leadership Run dept. & UX visionUXMsOversight UXUXAs Design UXDEV Build UX 11. 4. Oversight - Common ProblemsOverly controlled processes become bureaucratic. Under-control leads to chaos. Both are a battle fora roles authority.UXMs Oversight UXUXAs Design UXDEV Build UXBureaucracyDesign role frustrated and slowedby constant supervision.ChaosDesign & Oversightroles cannot predictwhat DEV will do. 12. 5. DeliverablesDeliverables make different roles beholden to another. Thus, they also serve as touchpoints between rolestypically presented up or down. Ironically, an overly tactical culture can result from either too few or toomany deliverables.UX Leadership Run dept. & UX visionUXMsOversight UXUXAs Design UXDEV Build UX 13. 5. Deliverables - Common ProblemsSiloing can occur when different roles deliverables dont align or some roles dont deliver to each other.Below we see a dept. leadership role with authority but without responsibilities.Dept. Leadership OperationsDEV Leadership DEV OversightDEV Build UXManaging UpIt is common for management notto provide deliverables to juniorteam members. This silos leader-shipfrom its own team. 14. 5. Deliverables - Common ProblemsWhat really is a team?UXMs UX OversightUXAs UX DesignDEV Build UXMisalignmentNotice how the roles deliverables occur at differ-enttimes and rates - seemingly unrelated. Is thisa team with 3 roles or 3 teams? 15. Putting the Components TogetherBelow we see the connective tissue of a teams process. Roles whos workflows are only lightlyconnected to others are silos. Over-connection produces micromanaging. Which roles below looksiloed or micromanaged?UX Leadership Run dept. & UX visionUXMsOversight UXUXAs Design UXDEV Build UX 16. ExamplesMapping roles, workflows, communication, oversight, & deliverablesto real life UX teams 17. Example 1: The Sears UX Waterfall (circa 2010)DEV buildProject M completionProduct MUXA & UXDsUXMsLeadershipDIG TeamsuccessUXUX OversightInterface with senior managementUX innovation & strategy 18. Observation 1 - SchismRather than show a UX department working with other departments, the diagram below reveals twounrelated UX teams. One tactical, reporting to Product Management, the other strategic and irrelevant.DEV buildProject M completionProduct MUXA & UXDsUXMsLeadershipDIG TeamsuccessUXUX OversightReal UX team - Reporting to ProductInterface with senior managementUX innovation & strategyUX Leadership - Reporting to Senior ManagementNotice how all UX deliverables flowto the Product role and how heavilyProduct oversights UX.By comparison UX Leadershipbarely communicates or oversightsUX managers.Product also oversights the DEVteam, thus through them UX hasaccess to DEV.To compensate, UX Leadership at-temptsto oversight UXAs andUXDs directly, but doesnt show upnearly enough.Leadership is focused on managingup to Senior Management notdown to its own team. 19. Observation 2 - No StrategyDespite a large, dedicated innovation and strategy team, the UX departments output is entirely tactical.UXA & UXDsUXMsLeadershipDIG TeamUXUX OversightInterface with senior managementUX innovation & strategyFirewallThe lack of communication, over-sight,and deliverables betweenLeadership and UXMs isolated theDIG team from other UXAs.Some UX team members have neverheard of the DIG team. None of theProduct Managers have.UXAs didnt know the strategy andthe DIG teams strategy did notreflect Sears daily UX reality.The DIG teams audiencewasnt the user, it was Searssenior management. 20. Observation 3 - Servant of 2 MastersDue to the fracturing of UX, UXAs had a lot of responsibility and were under pressure to obey the authorityof both Product Managers and UX Leadership, two roles battling for control over UX.Product MUXA & UXDsUXMssuccessUXUX OversightLeadership Interface with senior managementConflictThe UXAs and UXDs roles were ground zerofor the power struggle between ProductManagement and UX Leadership. The result,high UXA turnover. 21. Example 2: The Grainger Sprint (circa 2014)Sprint TeamDEVPMsUXAsUXMsLeadershipUXMsUXDsbuildsuccess & completionUXUX Oversightrun department & visionDEV control of UXUX 22. Observation 1 - UX not on AgileThe sprint teams didnt really exist. While some teams were exceptions (mobile, business management),DEV was largely a black box working in its own way with deliverables unrelated to Product and UX.Sprint TeamDEVPMsUXAsbuildsuccess & completionUXOversightPMs only oversightUXAs and talked toDEV sporadically.AgileOnly DEV producedbiweekly deliverables.InsightMost UXAs ignorantof DEV matters. 23. Observation 2 - Ineffective UX OversightWhile UXMs communicated often with their teams, they oversighted little, typically in response toLeadership oversight.UXAsUXMsUXUXLeadership run department & visionLeadership OversightOccasionally leadership attemptedto steer UXAs directly forcing UXMsto step in and fight for control.UXM OversightFor long periods, UXMs providedno oversight, which wasproblematic for junior UXAs. 24. Observation 3 - Nobody Beholden to UXAsUXMs have few deliverables and none to their teams.UXAsUXMsUXUXLeadership run department & visionGuidanceJunior UXAs needed moreformal guidance (articulated asdeliverables) and less talk.Particularly in response to leader-shipco-oversight. Co-oversightoften confused inexperiencedteam members. 25. Observation 4 - Unpredictable LeadershipLeadership was a silo from its own department - the lack of communication outward meant the teamdidnt know the expectations or what was coming. Similarly, leadership didnt feel informed about projects.UXAsUXMsUXUXLeadership run department & visionVisionLeadership has nodeliverables to shareits vision.InvolvementLeaderships involve-mentin sprint teams isunpredictable.CommunicationLeadership provideslittle insight or directionto UXMs.ControlAt times, leadershipsecond-guesses itsown managers. 26. Observation 5 - Visual Design, the other UX TeamVisual design reported to Front End Development which was part of UX Leadership. As such, visual designwas not on the sprint teams and had no connection to Product Management or UX Architecture.UXAsUXMsLeadershipUXMsUXDsUXUXrun department & visionDEV control of UXUXUX Team 1Architects working withProduct Managers.UX Team 1Designers reporting toFront end Development. 27. ProposalHow do you prevent bureaucracy, impose control, and improve teamwork? 28. Proposed Team StructureSprint teamDEVTPMUXA & VDUXMUX PlanningLeadershipUX OversightUX strategy & planningsuccessbuildUXOperations & Vision 29. Advantage 1 - Embrace the SprintFor the sprint team to be real